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Actors, Processes and Critical Moments

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Dispatched from the UK in 1 business day When will my order arrive? Home Contact us Help Free delivery worldwide. Free delivery worldwide. Bestselling Series. Harry Potter. Popular Features. New Releases. Description An analysis of Russia's response to globalization. The positive consequences of this evolution is the birth of new financial assets, the creation of new jobs, while the negative consequences consist in the fact that the symbolical economy may evolve aberrantly, its crises triggering the occurrence of crises in the real economy as well;. The domination of the market by the great institutional investors mutual funds, retirement and insurance companies ;.

The increasingly volatile interest and exchange rates often lead to the increase of the financing cost;. There has been a shift from an economy of endebtment to a speculative economy, dominated by the primacy of the financing of speculative operations. The financial markets of different financial products are intricately interconnected, the specialists being faced with serious difficulties when it comes to understanding the multitude of connections presented among them and to evaluate the effects triggered;.

The IMF and the World Bank have contributed to deepening the dependency of the underdeveloped states of the world economy, and then to opening their economies to the corporatist colonization.

Globalisation once made the world go around. Is it about to grind to a halt?

The IMF country networks have failed. In the East, Poland has respected its contract, and now it is doing bad. The same has happened to the Romanians, mentioning that they were not consistent in respecting the stand-by agreements. The IMF prescription condemns the patients to crisis. It is the poor countries that have to bear the troubles see fig. Governments need the IMF for a good image on the international capital markets, but also in order to balance their budgetary deficit. The program claimed by the IMF pursues: privatization, liberalization of the capital markets, price liberalization and trade liberalization.

Using the conditions imposed by the World Bank to grant credits, governments rush to privatize the companies to the national disadvantage, but with personal advantages.


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Multinational corporations can buy local industries cheaply, benefiting of: fiscal facilities, free areas, small salaries, and end up by totally controlling certain economic branches. As far as the foreign capital is concerned, it is oriented towards estate and currency speculations, and at the appearance of the slightest sign of economic crisis it withdraws, affecting the global economy for example, the crisis in Mexico. Price liberalization means blowing up the prices for foods and public utilities.

In the case of trade liberalization, local producers are forced to compete, to their disadvantage, with international producers. In some countries, trade liberalization has triggered bankruptcy and unemployment. During the last more than two years, the world has gone through the most significant economic and financial crisis in its history.

The emerging countries will desire stronger positions in a new economic and political world order, positions able to correlate their wish to reality, increased access to global decisions with their economic and financial power accumulated during the last few years. Walking out from the crisis will require extremely high financial resources, and the solutions of the IMF or of other international financial institutions could become more efficient only if these organisms avail themselves of enough resources in the long run.

If the world were to realize a transition from the crumbling institutions of the Bretton Woods system towards a more stable international order, then the problems discussed as fundamental themes in the international political economy should obligatorily be solved Gilpin, They both need to improve their openness and transparency, and they both have to become more responsible towards the poor countries, which represent their main clients.

Although countries are obviously unequal in what concerns power, globalization has to bring benefits both to the poor countries and to the rich ones, and the international financial institutions will be despised and irrelevant if they do not become responsible in front of all their members Coyle, The WTO has gone too far encouraging the trade liberalization, which triggered the incapacity to get the labor and environmental norms to be respected, determining the countries to lift their protectionist barriers.

Through their agricultural policies, the rich countries block the access on their markets for the products coming from the poor countries. This represents a hindrance for the latter. For many poor countries, agriculture represents one of the few domains in which their enterprises are competitive Fellous, Lacking the possibility to export agricultural products on the European, American, Japanese markets, these poor countries have few chances of having recourse to the technology imports that are so necessary for their development.

The issue of agricultural protectionism has been aggravated by the agricultural excedents of the rich countries. The artificial European excedents put pressure on the international markets, contribute to the decrease of the prices of the agricultural products and consequently reduce the earnings of these developing countries.

Russia's Encounter with Globalisation by Julie Wilhelmsen (ebook)

For the developing economies, the WTO has triggered nothing else but negative consequences. So far, the WTO has not attained the fundamental goals put down in its status, namely to increase prosperity for all its members and to realize full employment. On the contrary, in the North-South relations, WTO has favored the neocolonialist tendencies of its rich members, allowing for an unprecedented richness transfer from the poorest countries to the richest countries Negroponti-Delivanis Maria, The USA conceived and promoted the trade liberalization system, yet they had recourse to protectionism when their own interests were at stake.

While strong economies have recourse to protectionism for one product or the other depending on their specific interests, the developing economies are forced to open without conditions, bearing the consequences. The developing countries realize that they need to react together and are able to resist the decisions that are detrimental to their interests. Many of the provisions of the WTO agreements are presented as necessary to assure the efficient functioning of the competitive markets. However, the WTO did nothing to limit the capacity of the transnational corporations to use their economic power to eliminate their competitors using unjust means, forming strategic alliances with their rivals to share production facilities, technology and markets.

Extremely dangerous is the extension by means of the WTO of the right to international protection for patents, genetic materials, including seeds and natural medicines. The corporatist colonialism is by no means a consequence of some inescapable historical forces. It is the consequence of conscious options based on the pursuit of an elitist interest. This elitist interest has been closely allied to the corporatist one in the promotion of the economic deregulation and globalization Korten, Trade globalization has become possible due to the liberalization of the circulation of goods worldwide and to the rapid development in communications and informatics.

The development of the trading capacity needs to be supported by the rich countries using debt reduction and technology transfer policies. The trading rules should allow the developing and poor countries to protect certain sectors of their national economy. The developing countries need concrete national policies, giving them the opportunity to participate to the development of the external trade, access to credits and a favorable taxation system. After the Second World War, the successive rounds of certain economic negotiations from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT led to an important decrease of the tariff-related barriers and to the development of the world trade.

Later on, the balance between the forces of liberalization and those of the economic nationalism began to deteriorate; towards the middle of the s, the economic nationalism managed to lean the balance in the direction contrary to the trade liberalization and the growth slowed down Gilpin, In the s, the extension of protectionism affected more and more the nature of the trading system and the international location of the production worldwide. Its main goal is the liberalization of the international trade, by abolishing the tariff and non-tariff obstacles to trading.

Russia's Encounter with Globalisation : Actors, Processes and Critical Moments

These principles are:. The possibility to consolidate the bonds when the countries decide to open their markets for goods and services. Developing a fair competition based on a system of norms meant to acquire a free, fair competition, free of distorts misrepresentations. The power of negotiation of each of the WTO member states finally depends on their importance, and that is why the three biggest economic powers, USA, EU and Japan can impose their goals and their will.

The WTO agreements, which were negotiated and signed by most of the countries taking part in the world trade, constitute the WTO core. The WTO agreements are intense and complex because they refer to juridical texts that approach a large array of activities, such as:. Disagreements are solved in the WTO by means of an impartial procedure, based on a convened juridical ground. When a contestation concerning a local or national law is brought before the WTO, the parties to the dispute present the case during a secret hearing in front of a commission made up of three experts in the domain of trading generally jurists.

The burden of proof is placed upon the defendant. He has to show that the respective law does not constitute a trading restriction, according to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade WTO. If a commission decides that an internal law is a violation of the WTO rules, it can recommend that the accused country change its law or face financial penalties, trading sanctions or both. The states trying to provide a preferential treatment to local investors at the expense of the foreign ones or which do not protect the rights of intellectual property of the foreign companies can face charges.

National interests are no longer valid grounds for the national laws under the WTO regime. The interests of the international trade, which are first of all the interests of the transnational corporations, go to the forefront. The critics of CODEX have noticed that it is profoundly influenced by the industry and it tends to balance the standards by lowering them Korten, The solution to these problems does not have to do only with the allotment of more material and financial resources.

The world economy has grown at unprecedented paces during the last 50 years, the global world product increasing seven times over, yet global poverty has not decreased and the gaps continue to grow even deeper. The main cause are the rules governing the market functioning, which have always generated and permanently generate social polarization — the accumulation of the richness in the hands of a minority and the perpetuation of the poverty for the largest part of the masses.

Ukraine-Russia conflict: has globalisation helped or hindered responses? (NATO Review)

This rule has functioned nationally even since the incipient stage of the primitive capital accumulation and has now extended on a planetary level, in the context of the globalization of the world economy. Remedies are necessary therefore to limit these effects of the market. An example of efficient measures has been given by the West European states, which have promoted, after the Second World War, the concept of social market economy and have realized the social European model.

The problem is the following: who should promote such remedies on the level of the world economy?! The UN and its specialized institutions have not availed themselves of such tools. These issues have also been debated during several world summits because they have become present preoccupations of the world community. In the spring of at the Monterey summit dedicated to the financing of the programs meant to fight against poverty, the French president Jacques Chirac launched the proposition of the creation of a UN Economic and Social Security Council to deal with such problems.

Supporting the essence of this proposal, but taking into account the difficulties related to its promotion, which would suppose the modification of the UN Charter, we have proposed the use of the existing institutions, namely the transformation of the ECOSOC Economic and social council , which is a consultative UN organ, into a coordinating organism, which together with the IMF, the World Bank, the World Trade Organization and the International Labor Organization, should constitute a Forum entrusted with the mission to elaborate a strategy promoting certain remedies for the functioning of the world market, introducing commercial and fiscal rules in favor of the developing countries and pursuing the goal of reducing in time the worldwide economic and social development gaps.

In the activity of the United Nations Organization, the economic issues have acquired a special importance, attaining proportions never foreseen by the Charter. The economic function of the UN concomitantly comprises debates, studies, the conceptualization and the determination of the main directions in the domain of the world economy. At the same time, the institutional framework meant for international economic collaboration has amplified and the decision-making methods have improved.

At the UN, as well, there is a tendency to promote the concept of globalism, which designates the need to approach the world economy problems using an overall vision, in a world of continued increase of the economic independence in which the realization of a collective economic security is becoming a must. The national sovereignty and the non-interference in the internal affairs of States are consecrated in the international law and in the international organization.

The international law and the international organization constitute an important part of the political reality because they influence the way in which States behave. States are interested in the international law for two reasons: anticipation and legitimacy Nye, Can globalization be implemented without the creation of supranational coordinating organisms? What mankind needs today is not just any globalization, but a globalization with a human face, namely one in which the benefits of globalization should be divided equitably among nations internationally and among people nationally. In order to set globalization on the values of equity and social justice, what is needed is reforms and new rules of conduct in the global governance organizations, IMF, WB and WTO.

The world economy is faced with the first recession of the globalization era. We have global governance, without having a global government. In exchange, for the last 50 years, we have had a system of institutions such as WB, IMF and WTO, which are responsible for different segments of the process, development, trade, financial stability. The governments accuse globalization for the loss of the national sovereignty triggered by the unrestrained growth of the force of the financial markets and of the multinational companies. The problem raised at present is related to the reform of the international organizations, so as to serve not only the rich and the developed industrialized countries, but also the poor and the less developed countries.

The IMF and the World Bank were at the center of the major economic problems of the last two decennia, which also include the financial crises and the transition of the former communist states to the market economy. In its relations to a particular country, the IMF was conceived so as to limit itself to the macroeconomic issues: state budget deficit, monetary policy, inflation, trade deficit, contract-related policy for credits coming from external sources.

The WTO needs to adopt decisions having for a goal the facilitation of the penetration on the international market of certain firms from the developing countries which have potential and prove that they have the capacity to align themselves to certain standards imposed by the international organizations for a determined period of time.


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