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Corpus Christi, Texas. Colorado Springs, Colorado. Columbus, Ohio. Dallas, Texas. Des Moines, Iowa. Denver, Colorado. Detroit, Michigan. Durham, North Carolina. El Paso, Texas. Fort Wayne, Indiana. Fort Worth, Texas. Fresno, California. Honolulu, Hawaii. Indianapolis, Indiana. Irvine, California. Jacksonville, Florida. Jersey City, New Jersey. Kansas City, Missouri. Lansing, Michigan. Las Vegas, Nevada. Lexington, Kentucky. Los Angeles,California. Lincoln, Nebraska. Little Rock, Arkansas. Long Beach, California. Louisville, Kentucky. Those who had engaged in the black market were also stigmatised as "war profiteers" profiteurs de guerre , and popularly called "BOF" Beurre Oeuf Fromage , or Butter Eggs Cheese, because of the products sold at outrageous prices during the Occupation.

Many convicted Collaborationists were then given amnesty under the Fourth Republic — In the police, some collaborators soon resumed official responsibilities; this continuity of the administration was pointed out, [ citation needed ] in particular concerning the events of the Paris massacre of , executed under the orders of head of the Parisian police Maurice Papon when Charles de Gaulle was head of state.

Papon was tried and convicted for crimes against humanity in Some of the more prominent officers were executed, while the rank-and-file were given prison terms; some of them were given the option of doing time in Indochina —54 with the Foreign Legion instead of prison. Among artists, singer Tino Rossi was detained in Fresnes prison , where, according to Combat newspaper, prison guards asked him for autographs. Pierre Benoit and Arletty were also detained.

This surprised de Gaulle, who estimated the number to be around 10,, which is also the figure accepted today by mainstream historians. Approximately 9, of these 10, refer to summary executions in the whole of the country, which occurred during battle. Some imply that France did too little to deal with collaborators at this stage, by selectively pointing out that in absolute value numbers , there were fewer legal executions in France than in its smaller neighbour Belgium, and fewer internments than in Norway or the Netherlands. The proportion of collaborators was also higher in Norway, and collaboration occurred on a larger scale in the Netherlands as in Flanders based partly on linguistic and cultural commonality with Germany; the internments in Norway and Netherlands, meanwhile, were highly temporary and were rather indiscriminate; there was a brief internment peak in these countries as internment was used partly for the purpose of separating Collaborationists from non-Collaborationists.

Bousquet and Leguay were both convicted for their responsibilities in the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup of July Among others, Nazi hunters Serge and Beate Klarsfeld spent part of their post-war effort trying to bring them before the courts. A fair number of collaborationists then joined the OAS terrorist movement during the Algerian War — Jacques de Bernonville escaped to Quebec, then Brazil. Maurice Papon was likewise convicted in , released three years later due to ill health, and died in Until Jacques Chirac 's presidency, the official point of view of the French government was that the Vichy regime was an illegal government distinct from the French Republic, established by traitors under foreign influence.

In later years, de Gaulle's position was reiterated by president Mitterrand. The Republic had nothing to do with this. I do not believe France is responsible," he said in September The July Vel' d'Hiv Roundup is a tragic example of how the French police did the Nazi work, going even further than what military orders demanded by sending children to Drancy internment camp, last stop before the extermination camps. President Macron's statement on 16 July was even more specific, stating clearly that the Vichy regime was certainly the French State during WW II, and played a role in the Holocaust.

Earlier that year, speeches made by Marine Le Pen had made the headlines by claiming that the Vichy Government was "not France. As historian Henry Rousso has put it in The Vichy Syndrome , Vichy and the state collaboration of France remains a "past that doesn't pass away". Historiographical debates are still, today, passionate, opposing conflictual views on the nature and legitimacy of Vichy's collaborationism with Germany in the implementation of the Holocaust.

Critics contend that this itinerary, shared by others although few had such public roles , demonstrates France's collective amnesia, while others point out that the perception of the war and of the state collaboration has evolved during these years. Papon's career was considered more scandalous as he had been responsible, during his function as prefect of police of Paris, for the Paris massacre of Algerians during the war, and was forced to resign from this position after the "disappearance", in Paris in , of the Moroccan anti-colonialist leader Mehdi Ben Barka.

While it is certain that the Vichy government and a large number of its high administration collaborated in the implementation of the Holocaust, the exact level of such co-operation is still debated. Compared with the Jewish communities established in other countries invaded by Germany, French Jews suffered proportionately lighter losses see Jewish death toll section above ; although, starting in , repression and deportations struck French Jews as well as foreign Jews. One of these rules, for example, stated that:. The contractors shall make the following statements: they are of French nationality, are not Jewish, nor married to Jewish in the sense of the laws and ordinances in force [under Vichy, ed.

Thus, even if the tenants or coowners had signed or otherwise agreed to these rules after , any such agreement would be null and void caduque under French law, as were the rules. Rewriting or eliminating the obsolete rules would have had to be done at the occupants' expense, including notary fees of to EUR per building. Munholland reports a widespread consensus among historians regarding the authoritarian character of the Vichy regime and its:. Although this claim is rejected by the rest of the French population and by the state itself, another myth remains more widespread than this one; this other myth refers to the alleged "protection" by Vichy of French Jews by "accepting" to collaborate in the deportation — and, ultimately, in the extermination — of foreign Jews.

However, this argument has been rejected by several historians who are specialists of the subject, among them US historian Robert Paxton , who is widely recognised, and historian of the French police Maurice Rajsfus.

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Both were called on as experts during the Papon trial in the s. Robert Paxton thus declared, before the court, on 31 October , that "Vichy took initiatives The armistice allowed it a breathing space. After naming the alleged causes of the defeat "democracy, parliamentarism, cosmopolitanism, the left wing, foreigners, Jews, From then on, Jewish people were considered "second-zone citizens [] ". Internationally, France "believed the war to be finished".

Thus, by July , Vichy was eagerly negotiating with the German authorities in an attempt to gain a place for France in the Third Reich's "New Order", but "Hitler never forgot the defeat.

He always said no. It even, at first, opposed German plans. Their idea was not to make of France an antisemitic country. On the contrary, they wanted to send there the Jews that they expelled" from the Reich. The historic change came in —, with the pending German defeat on the Eastern Front ; the war then became "total", and in August , Hitler decided on the "global extermination of all European Jews".

This new policy was officially formulated during the January Wannsee Conference , and implemented in all European occupied countries by spring [ when? France, praising itself for having remained an independent state as opposed to other occupied countries "decided to cooperate; this is the second Vichy. They always complained about the lack of staff. Although the American historian recognised during the trial that the "civil behavior of certain individuals" had permitted many Jews to escape deportation, he stated that:.

The French state, itself, participated in the policy of extermination of the Jews How can one claim the reverse when such technical and administrative resources were made available to them? Pointing to the French police's registering of Jews, as well as Laval's decision, taken completely autonomously in August , to deport children along with their parents, Paxton added:.

Contrary to preconceived ideas, Vichy did not sacrifice foreign Jews in the hope of protecting French Jews. At the hierarchy summit, it knew, from the start, that the deportation of French Jews was unavoidable. Despite Paxton's assertion about Vichy knowledge "from the start", deportations from France did not start until summer , several months after mass deportation from other countries started.

Part of the population housed at the Dachau concentration camp , opened in , was Jewish, and major death camps in Poland and Germany were opened in and early Paxton then referred to the case of Italy, where deportation of Jewish people had started only after the German occupation. Italy surrendered to the Allies in mid but was then invaded by Germany.

Fighting continued there through In particular, in Nice, "Italians had protected the Jews, and the French authorities complained about it to the Germans. In fact, the rise of Benito Mussolini and Italian fascism had drastically curtailed Jewish immigration during the inter-war period, and Italy had passed drastic anti-Semitic laws in that stripped Jews of their citizenship. Ultimately, a similar proportion of Jews from Italy as from France were deported. More recent work by the historian Susan Zuccotti finds that, in general, the Vichy government facilitated the deportation of foreign Jews rather than French ones, until at least Vichy officials [had] hoped to deport foreign Jews throughout France in order to ease pressure on native Jews.

Pierre Laval himself expressed the official Vichy position In the early months of , the terror [Adam] Munz and [Alfred] Feldman described in German-occupied France was still experienced by foreign Jews like themselves, it is difficult to know exactly how many French Jews were arrested, usually for specific or alleged offences, but on 21 January , Helmut Knochen informed Eichmann in Berlin that there were 2, French citizens among the 3, prisoners at Drancy.

Many had been at Drancy for several months, they had not been deported because, until January , there had usually been enough foreigners and their children to fill the forty-three trains that had carried about 41, people to the east By January , however, foreign Jews were increasingly aware of the danger and difficult to find. Nazi pressure for the arrest of French Jews and the deportation of those already at Drancy increased accordingly.

Thus, when Knochen reported that there were 2, French citizens among the 3, prisoners at Drancy on 21 January , he also asked Eichmann for permission to deport them. Despite Vichy officials' past disapproval and Eichmann's own prior discouragement of such a step, permission for the deportation of the French Jews at Drancy, except for those in mixed marriages , was granted from Berlin on 25 January. More Jews lived in France at the end of the Vichy regime than had approximately ten years earlier.

The early days of the Third Republic were dominated by political disruptions caused by the Franco-Prussian War of —71, which the Republic continued to wage after the fall of Emperor Napoleon III in Harsh reparations exacted by the Prussians after the war resulted in the loss of the French regions of Alsace and Lorraine , social upheaval, the establishment of the Paris Commune ; the early governments of the Third Republic considered re-establishing the monarchy, but confusion as to the nature of that monarchy and who should be awarded the throne caused those talks to stall.

Thus, the Third Republic, intended as a provisional government, instead became the permanent government of France; the French Constitutional Laws of defined the composition of the Third Republic. It consisted of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate to form the legislative branch of government and a president to serve as head of state. Issues over the re-establishment of the monarchy dominated the tenures of the first two presidents, Adolphe Thiers and Patrice de MacMahon, but the growing support for the republican form of government in the French population and a series of republican presidents during the s quashed all plans for a monarchical restoration; the Third Republic established many French colonial possessions, including French Indochina , French Madagascar , French Polynesia , large territories in West Africa during the Scramble for Africa , all of them acquired during the last two decades of the 19th century.

The early years of the 20th century were dominated by the Democratic Republican Alliance , conceived as a centre-left political alliance, but over time became the main centre-right party; the period from the start of World War I to the late s featured polarized politics, between the Democratic Republican Alliance and the more Radicals. Adolphe Thiers called republicanism in the s "the form of government that divides France least". On the left stood Reformist France, heir to the French Revolution.

On the right stood conservative France, rooted in the peasantry, the Roman Catholic Church and the army. The deputies selected General Louis-Jules Trochu to serve as its president. After the French surrender in January , the provisional Government of National Defence disbanded, national elections were called with the aim of creating a new French government.

French territories occupied by Prussia at this time; the resulting conservative National Assembly elected Adolphe Thiers as head of a provisional government, nominally. Due to the revolutionary and left-wing political climate that prevailed in the Parisian population, the right-wing government chose the royal palace of Versailles as its headquarters; the new government negotiated a peace settlement with the newly proclaimed German Empire : the Treaty of Frankfurt signed on 10 May To prompt the Prussians to leave France , the government passed a variety of financial laws, such as the controversial Law of Maturities, to pay reparations.

In Paris, resentment against the government built and from late March — May , Paris workers and National Guards revolted and established the Paris Commune , which maintained a radical left-wing regime for two months until its bloody suppression by the Thiers government in May ; the following repression of the communards would have disastrous consequences for the labor movement. The French legislative election of , held in the aftermath of the collapse of the regime of Napoleon III , resulted in a monarchist majority in the French National Assembly , favourable to making a peace agreement with Prussia; the " Legitimists " in the National Assembly supported the candidacy of a descendant of King Charles X , the last monarch from the senior line of the Bourbon Dynasty , to assume the French throne: his grandson Henri, Comte de Chambord , alias " Henry V.

Flag of France The flag of France is a tricolour flag featuring three vertical bands coloured blue and red.

It is known to English speakers as the French Tricolour or the Tricolour; the Tricolour has become one of the most influential flags in history, with its three-colour scheme being copied by many other nations, both in Europe and the rest of the world. The royal government used many flags, the best known being a blue shield and gold fleur-de-lis on a white background, or state flag.

Early in the French Revolution , the Paris militia , which played a prominent role in the storming of the Bastille , wore a cockade of blue and red, the city's traditional colours. According to French general Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, white was the "ancient French colour" and was added to the militia cockade to create a tricolour, or national, cockade; this cockade became part of the uniform of the National Guard , which succeeded the militia and was commanded by Lafayette.

The colours and design of the cockade are the basis of the Tricolour flag, adopted in The only difference was. A modified design by Jacques-Louis David was adopted in ; the royal white flag was used during the Bourbon restoration from to Article 2 of the French constitution of states that "the national emblem is the tricolour flag, white, red". It is sometimes used on official State buildings. Town halls, public buildings and barracks, on the other hand, are adorned with the darker version of the flag; the flag is one and a half times wider than its height and, except in the French Navy , has stripes of equal width.

The three stripes of the flag were not wide, being in the proportions 30, 33 and Under Napoleon I , the proportions were changed to make the stripes' width equal, but by a regulation dated 17 May , the navy went back to using the proportions, which it now continues to use, as the flapping of the flag makes portions farther from the halyard seem smaller. Blue and red are the traditional colours of Paris, used on the city's coat of arms. Blue is identified with red with Saint Denis.

At the storming of the Bastille in , the Paris militia wore red cockades on their hats. White had long featured prominently on French flags and is described as the "ancient French colour" by Lafayette. White was added to the "revolutionary" colours of the militia cockade to " nationalise " the design, thus creating the tricolour cockade. Although Lafayette identified the white stripe with the nation, other accounts identify it with the monarchy. Blue, as the symbol of class, comes first and red, representing the nobility, comes last.

Both extreme colours are situated on each side of white referring to a superior order. Lafayette's tricolour cockade was adopted in a moment of national unity that soon faded. Royalists began wearing white cockades and flying white flags, while the Jacobins , the Socialists, flew the red flag; the tricolour , which combines royalist white with republican red, came to be seen as a symbol of moderation and of a nationalism that transcended factionalism. In the aftermath of the November Paris attacks , many famous landmarks and stadiums were illuminated in the flag colours to honour the victims.

During the early Middle Ages , the oriflamme, the flag of Saint Denis, was used—red, with two, three, or five spikes, it was the royal banner under the Capetians. It was stored in Saint-Denis abbey. French kings went forth into battle preceded either by Saint Martin's red cape, supposed to protect the monarch, or by the red banner of Saint Denis.

During the Middle Ages, these colours came to be associated with the reigning house of France. In , the coat-of-arms of the House of Valois was blue with gold fleurs-de-lis bordered in red. From this time on, the kings of France were represented in vignettes and manuscripts wearing a red gown under a blue coat decorated with gold fleurs-de-lis. During the Hundred Years' War , England was recognised by a red cross, Burgundy , a red saltire , France, a white cross; this cross could figure either on a red field.

The blue field became the common standard for French armies; the French regiments were assigned the white cross as standard, with their proper colours in the c. The law established the regime of Vichy France , it passed with votes with 20 abstentions. The ordonnance of 9 August was an ordonnance promulgated by the Provisional Government of the French Republic after D-Day asserting the nullity of the Constitutional Law of and other classes of law passed by Vichy. The Constution of was not annulled but rather declared void ab initio.

Derfler, Leslie; the Third French Republic, France : Van Nostrand. ISBN Paxton, Robert. Vichy France. United States : W. Paris Paris is the capital and most populous city of France , with an area of square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,, residents as of 1 January Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in ; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.

Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan , with million passengers in Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in , with Paris received 23 million visitors in , measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States , the UK, Germany and China. It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in , after Bangkok and London.

The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.

By , the Grand boulevards were lit. By the s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56, gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones , inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis , the first Bishop of Paris : according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum " Montmartre ", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.

Clovis the Frank , the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Free France Free France and its Free French Forces were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France. Set up in London in June , it supported the Resistance in occupied France.

On 27 October , the Empire Defense Council was constituted to organise the rule of the territories in central Africa and Oceania that had heeded the 18 June call, it was replaced on 24 September by the French National Committee. After the reconquest of North Africa , this was in turn formally merged with de Gaulle's rival general Henri Giraud's command in Algiers to form the French Committee of National Liberation.

Exile ended with the liberation of Paris by the 2nd Armoured Free French Division and Resistance forces on 25 August , ushering in the Provisional Government of the French Republic , it ruled France until the end of the war and afterwards to , when the Fourth Republic was established, thus ending the series of interim regimes that had succeeded the Third Republic after its fall in From colonial outposts in Africa and the Pacific, Free France took over more and more Vichy possessions, until after the Allied landings in North Africa in November Vichy only ruled over the zone libre in southern France and a few possessions in the West Indies.

By mid, the forces of this army numbered more than ,, they participated in the Normandy landings and the invasion of southern France leading the drive on Paris. Soon they were fighting in Alsace , the Alps and Brittany , by the end of the war in Europe , they were 1,, strong—the fourth-largest Allied army in Europe—and took part in the Allied advance through France and invasion of Germany ; the Free French government re-established a provisional republic after the liberation, preparing the ground for the Fourth Republic in An individual became "Free French" by enlisting in the military units organised by the CFN or by employment by the civilian arm of the Committee.

In many sources, Free French describes any French individual or unit that fought against Axis forces after the June armistice. Postwar, to settle disputes over the Free French heritage, the French government issued an official definition of the term. Under this "ministerial instruction of July ", only those who served with the Allies after the Franco-German armistice in and before 1 August may be called "Free French". The Dunkirk evacuation was only made possible by the resistance of these troops the French army divisions at Lille. Neither side viewed this as the end of the battle.

Contrary to what is assumed, French morale was higher in June than May and they repulsed an attack in the south by Fascist Italy. A defensive line was re-established along the Somme but much of the armour was lost in Northern France. Nazi Germany Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between and , when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party controlled the country through a dictatorship. Hindenburg died on 2 August and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and Presidency.

All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became the highest law. The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression , the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy.

Extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen ; the return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity. Racism antisemitism , was a central feature of the regime; the Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the master race, the purest branch of the Aryan race. Discrimination and persecution against Jews and Romani people began in earnest after the seizure of power; the first concentration camps were established in March Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, liberals and communists were killed, imprisoned, or exiled.

Christian churches and citizens that opposed Hitler's rule were oppressed, many leaders imprisoned. Education focused on racial biology, population policy, fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed. Recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, the Summer Olympics showcased Germany on the international stage. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, Hitler's hypnotic oratory to influence public opinion; the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others.

The Nazi regime dominated neighbours through military threats in the years leading up to war. Nazi Germany made aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if these were not met, it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in and By early , Germany controlled much of Europe. Reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas and a German administration was established in the remainder of Poland.

Germany exploited labour of both its occupied territories and its allies. In the Holocaust , millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, or shot. While the German invasion of the Soviet Union in was successful, the Soviet resurgence and entry of the US into the war meant the Wehrmacht lost the initiative on the Eastern Front in and by late had been pushed back to the pre border. Large-scale aerial bombing of Germany escalated in and the Axis powers were driven back in Eastern and Southern Europe.

After the Allied invasion of France , Germany was conquered by the Soviet Union from the east and the other Allies from the west, capitulated in May Hitler's refusal to admit defeat led to massive destruction of German infrastructure and additional war-related deaths in the closing months of the war; the victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials. Germany was known as the Weimar Republic during the years to , it was a republic with a semi-presidential system.

The Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation , political extremism, contentious relationships with the Allied victors of World War I , a series of failed attempts at coalition government by divided political parties. Severe setbacks to the German economy began after World War I ended because of reparations payments required under the Treaty of Versailles ; the government printed money to make the payments and to repay the country's war debt, but the resulting hyperinflation led to inflated prices for consumer goods, economic chaos, food riots.

When the government defaulted on their reparations payments in January , French troops occupied German industrial areas along the Ruhr and widespread civil unrest followed. Despite, the notion of "absolute monarchy" and the efforts by the kings to create a centralized state, the Kingdom of France retained its irregularities: authority overlapped and nobles struggled to retain autonomy. The need for centralization in this period was directly linked to the question of royal finances and the ability to wage war.

The internal conflicts and dynastic crises of the 16th and 17th centuries and the territorial expansion of France in the 17th century demanded great sums which needed to be raised through taxes, such as the land tax and the tax on salt and by contributions of men and service from the nobility. One key to this centralization was the replacing of personal patronage systems organized around the king and other nobles by institutional systems around the state; the creation of intendants—representatives of royal power in the provinces—did much to undermine local control by regional nobles.

The same was true of the greater reliance shown by the royal court on the noblesse de robe as judges and royal counselors; the creation of regional parlements had the same goal of facilitating the introduction of royal power into newly assimilated territories, but as the parlements gained in self-assurance, they began to be sources of disunity. The term in French means "old regime" or "former regime". It conjured up a society so encrusted with anachronisms that only a shock of great violence could free the living organism within. Institutionally torpid , economically immobile, culturally atrophied and stratified, this'old regime' was incapable of self-modernization.

It was fought on the European continent and the surrounding seas, in Ireland , North America , India , it was the first global war. Louis XIV had emerged from the Franco-Dutch War in as the most powerful monarch in Europe, an absolute ruler who had won numerous military victories. Using a combination of aggression and quasilegal means, Louis XIV set about extending his gains to stabilize and strengthen France's frontiers, culminating in the brief War of the Reunions.

The resulting Truce of Ratisbon guaranteed France's new borders for 20 years, but Louis XIV's subsequent actions — notably his revocation of the Edict of Nantes in — led to the deterioration of his military and political dominance. Louis XIV's decision to cross the Rhine in September was designed to extend his influence and pressure the Holy Roman Empire into accepting his territorial and dynastic claims, but when Leopold I and the German princes resolved to resist, when the States General and William III brought the Dutch and the English into the war against France, the French King at last faced a powerful coalition aimed at curtailing his ambitions; the main fighting took place around France's borders, in the Spanish Netherlands , the Rhineland , Duchy of Savoy , Catalonia.

The fighting favoured Louis XIV's armies, but by , his country was in the grip of an economic crisis. The Maritime Powers were financially exhausted, when Savoy defected from the alliance, all parties were keen for a negotiated settlement.

By the terms of the Treaty of Ryswick , Louis XIV retained the whole of Alsace , but he was forced to return Lorraine to its ruler and give up any gains on the right bank of the Rhine. Spain had a number of major assets, apart from its homeland itself, it controlled important territory in the New World. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Vichy disambiguation. French State, German military occupation zone.

Franceball

French protectorates. The gradual loss of all Vichy territory to Free France and the Allied powers. Client state of Germany — Puppet government of Germany — Government-in-exile — Vichy de facto Paris a de jure. Paris remained the formal capital of the French State, although the Vichy government never operated from there. Although the French Republic's institutions were officially maintained, the word "Republic" never occurred in any official document of the Vichy government. Part of a series on the. Early Middle Ages. Middle Ages. Direct Capetians — Valois — Early modern. Long 19th century.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Vichy French Air Force. Further information: Foreign relations of Vichy France. Main article: Free France. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. May Main article: Vel' d'Hiv Roundup. Further information: Round up of Marseille.

August See also: Sigmaringen enclave. Main article: Provisional Government of the French Republic. See also: Category:French collaborators with Nazi Germany. This " see also " section may contain an excessive number of suggestions. Please ensure that only the most relevant links are given, that they are not red links , and that any links are not already in this article. March Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Archived from the original on 16 July Retrieved 21 October Article 1: The form of the government of France is and remains the Republic. By law, it has not ceased to exist. Article 2: The following are therefore null and void: all legislative or regulatory acts as well as all actions of any description whatsoever taken to execute them, promulgated in Metropolitan France after 16 June and until the restoration of the Provisional Government of the French Republic.

This nullification is hereby expressly declared and must be noted. Article 3. The following acts are hereby expressly nullified and held invalid: The so-called "Constitutional Law of 10 July ; as well as any laws called 'Constitutional Law'; La vie musicale sous Vichy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. French Studies, University of Birmingham. Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 18 June Wartime administration, economy, and manpower resources — Oxford University Press. Nord Princeton U.

Le gouvernement de Vichy et la rafle du Vel d’Hiv

Archived from the original on 24 October Retrieved 1 July Payne Fascism: A Reader's Guide. Archived from the original on 27 September Stanford University Press. France: The Dark Years, — Archived from the original on 1 November Psychology Press. Archived from the original on 2 November It was indeed France that organized the roundup, the deportation, and thus, for almost all, death. A principal motivation and ideological foundation among collaborationnistes was anticommunism. Collaboration refers to those of the French who for whatever reason collaborated with the Germans whereas collaborationism refers to those, primarily from the fascist right, who embraced the goal of a German victory as their own.

Organizations such as La Cagoule opposed the Third Republic, particularly when the left-wing Popular Front was in power. Collaborationists may have influenced the Vichy government's policies, but ultra-collaborationists never comprised the majority of the government before Vichy authorities were strongly opposed to "modern" social trends and tried through "national regeneration" to restore behaviour more in line with traditional Catholicism.

Philip Manow argues that, "Vichy represents the authoritarian, antidemocratic solution that the French political right, in coalition with the national Church hierarchy, had sought repeatedly during the interwar period and almost put in place in Labor unions came under tight government control. There were no elections. The independence of women was reversed, with an emphasis put on motherhood. Government agencies had to fire married women employees.

Conservative Catholics became prominent. The media were tightly controlled and stressed virulent anti-Semitism, and, after June , anti-Bolshevism. Hans Petter Graver says Vichy "is notorious for its enactment of anti-Semitic laws and decrees, and these were all loyally enforced by the judiciary".

Vichy rhetoric exalted the skilled labourer and small businessman. In practice, however, the needs of artisans for raw materials were neglected in favour of large businesses. In the government took direct control of all production, which was synchronised with the demands of the Germans. It replaced free trade unions with compulsory state unions that dictated labour policy without regard to the voice or needs of the workers. The centralised, bureaucratic control of the French economy was not a success, as German demands grew heavier and more unrealistic, passive resistance and inefficiencies multiplied, and Allied bombers hit the rail yards; however, Vichy made the first comprehensive long-range plans for the French economy.

The government had never before attempted a comprehensive overview. De Gaulle's Provisional Government in —45 quietly used the Vichy plans as a base for its own reconstruction program. The Monnet Plan of was closely based on Vichy plans. They added compulsory and volunteer workers from occupied nations, especially in metal factories. The shortage of volunteers led the Vichy government to pass a law in September that effectively deported workers to Germany, where they constituted fifteen percent of the labour force by August The largest number worked in the giant Krupp steel works in Essen.

Low pay, long hours, frequent bombings, and crowded air raid shelters added to the unpleasantness of poor housing, inadequate heating, limited food, and poor medical care, all compounded by harsh Nazi discipline. They finally returned home in the summer of Civilians suffered shortages of all varieties of consumer goods. The Germans seized about twenty percent of the French food production, causing severe disruption to the French household economy.

The government answered by rationing, but German officials set the policies and hunger prevailed, especially affecting youth in urban areas. The queues lengthened in front of shops. Some people—including German soldiers—benefited from the black market , where food was sold without tickets at very high prices.

Farmers especially diverted meat to the black market, which meant that much less for the open market. Counterfeit food tickets were also in circulation. Direct buying from farmers in the countryside and barter against cigarettes became common.

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These activities were strictly forbidden, however, and thus carried the risk of confiscation and fines. Food shortages were most acute in the large cities. In the more remote country villages, clandestine slaughtering, vegetable gardens and the availability of milk products permitted better survival. The official ration provided starvation level diets of one thousand thirteen or fewer calories a day, supplemented by home gardens and, especially, black market purchases. The 2 million French soldiers held as POWs and forced labourers in Germany throughout the war were not at risk of death in combat but the anxieties of separation for their , wives were high.

The government provided a modest allowance, but one in ten became prostitutes to support their families. Meanwhile, the Vichy regime promoted a highly traditional model of female roles. It gave women a key symbolic role to carry out the national regeneration. It used propaganda, women's organisations, and legislation to promote maternity, patriotic duty, and female submission to marriage, home, and children's education.

It introduced family allowances and opposed birth control and abortion. Conditions were very difficult for housewives, as food was short as well as most necessities. Divorce laws were made much more stringent, and restrictions were placed on the employment of married women. Family allowances that had begun in the s were continued, and became a vital lifeline for many families; it was a monthly cash bonus for having more children.

In the birth rate started to rise, and by it was higher than it had been for a century. On the other side women of the Resistance, many of whom were associated with combat groups linked to the French Communist Party PCF , broke the gender barrier by fighting side by side with men. After the war, their services were ignored, but France did give women the vote in Hitler ordered Case Anton to occupy Corsica and then the rest of the unoccupied southern zone in immediate reaction to the landing of the Allies in North Africa Operation Torch on 8 November Following the conclusion of the operation on 12 November, Vichy's remaining military forces were disbanded.

Vichy continued to exercise its remaining jurisdiction over almost all of metropolitan France, with the residual power devolved into the hands of Laval, until the gradual collapse of the regime following the Allied invasion in June On 7 September , following the Allied invasion of France, the remainders of the Vichy government cabinet fled to Germany and established a puppet government in exile in the so-called Sigmaringen enclave.

That rump government finally fell when the city was taken by the Allied French army in April Part of the residual legitimacy of the Vichy regime resulted from the continued ambivalence of U. Darlan was neutralised within 15 hours by a strong French resistance force. De Gaulle had not even been informed of the landing in North Africa.

Before that, the first return of democracy to Metropolitan France since had occurred with the declaration of the Free Republic of Vercors on 3 July , at the behest of the Free French government —but that act of resistance was quashed by an overwhelming German attack by the end of July. Under Darnand and his sub-commanders, such as Paul Touvier and Jacques de Bernonville , the Milice was responsible for helping the German forces and police in the repression of the French Resistance and Maquis. There, Fernand de Brinon established a pseudo-government in exile at Sigmaringen.

The first action of that government was to re-establish republican legality throughout metropolitan France. The provisional government considered the Vichy government to have been unconstitutional and all its actions therefore without legitimate authority. All "constitutional acts, legislative or regulatory" taken by the Vichy government, as well as decrees taken to implement them, were declared null and void by the Order of 9 August Inasmuch as blanket rescission of all acts taken by Vichy i.

Many acts were explicitly repealed, including all acts that Vichy had called "constitutional acts", all acts that discriminated against Jews, all acts related to so-called "secret societies" e. The provisional government also took steps to replace local governments, including governments that had been suppressed by the Vichy regime, through new elections or by extending the terms of those who had been elected not later than After the liberation, France was swept for a short period with a wave of executions of Collaborationists.

Women who were suspected of having romantic liaisons with Germans, or more often of being prostitutes who had entertained German customers, were publicly humiliated by having their heads shaved. Those who had engaged in the black market were also stigmatised as "war profiteers" profiteurs de guerre , and popularly called "BOF" Beurre Oeuf Fromage , or Butter Eggs Cheese, because of the products sold at outrageous prices during the Occupation.

Many convicted Collaborationists were then given amnesty under the Fourth Republic — He was convicted and sentenced to death by firing squad, but Charles de Gaulle commuted the sentence to life imprisonment. In the police, some collaborators soon resumed official responsibilities. This continuity of the administration was pointed out, in particular concerning the events of the Paris massacre of , executed under the orders of head of the Parisian police Maurice Papon when Charles de Gaulle was head of state. Papon was tried and convicted for crimes against humanity in Some of the more prominent officers were executed, while the rank-and-file were given prison terms; some of them were given the option of doing time in Indochina —54 with the Foreign Legion instead of prison.

Among artists, singer Tino Rossi was detained in Fresnes prison , where, according to Combat newspaper, prison guards asked him for autographs. Pierre Benoit and Arletty were also detained. The writer and Jewish internee Robert Aron estimated the popular executions to a number of 40, in This surprised de Gaulle, who estimated the number to be around 10,, which is also the figure accepted today by mainstream historians. Approximately 9, of these 10, refer to summary executions in the whole of the country, which occurred during battle. Some imply that France did too little to deal with collaborators at this stage, by selectively pointing out that in absolute value numbers , there were fewer legal executions in France than in its smaller neighbour Belgium, and fewer internments than in Norway or the Netherlands.

However, the situation in Belgium was not comparable as it mixed collaboration with elements of a war of secession: The invasion prompted the Flemish population to generally side with the Germans in the hope of gaining national recognition, and relative to national population a much higher proportion of Belgians than French thus ended up collaborating with the Nazis or volunteering to fight alongside them; [] [] The Walloon population in turn led massive anti-Flemish retribution after the war, some of which, such as the execution of Irma Swertvaeger Laplasse , remained controversial.

The proportion of collaborators was also higher in Norway, and collaboration occurred on a larger scale in the Netherlands as in Flanders based partly on linguistic and cultural commonality with Germany. The internments in Norway and Netherlands, meanwhile, were highly temporary and were rather indiscriminate; there was a brief internment peak in these countries as internment was used partly for the purpose of separating Collaborationists from non-Collaborationists.

Bousquet and Leguay were both convicted for their responsibilities in the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup of July Among others, Nazi hunters Serge and Beate Klarsfeld spent part of their post-war effort trying to bring them before the courts. A fair number of collaborationists then joined the OAS terrorist movement during the Algerian War — Jacques de Bernonville escaped to Quebec, then Brazil. Maurice Papon was likewise convicted in , released three years later due to ill health, and died in Until Jacques Chirac 's presidency, the official point of view of the French government was that the Vichy regime was an illegal government distinct from the French Republic, established by traitors under foreign influence.

While the criminal behaviour of Vichy France was consistently acknowledged, this point of view denied any responsibility of the state of France, alleging that acts committed between and were unconstitutional acts devoid of legitimacy. In later years, de Gaulle's position was reiterated by president Mitterrand. The Republic had nothing to do with this. I do not believe France is responsible," he said in September The first President to accept responsibility for the arrest and deportation of Jews from France was Jacques Chirac, in a 16 July speech.

The July Vel' d'Hiv Roundup is a tragic example of how the French police did the Nazi work, going even further than what military orders demanded by sending children to Drancy internment camp, last stop before the extermination camps. President Macron's statement on 16 July was even more specific, stating clearly that the Vichy regime was certainly the French State during WW II, and played a role in the Holocaust. Earlier that year, speeches made by Marine Le Pen had made the headlines by claiming that the Vichy Government was "not France.

As historian Henry Rousso has put it in The Vichy Syndrome , Vichy and the state collaboration of France remains a "past that doesn't pass away". Historiographical debates are still, today, passionate, opposing conflictual views on the nature and legitimacy of Vichy's collaborationism with Germany in the implementation of the Holocaust. The trial of Papon did not only concern an individual itinerary, but the French administration's collective responsibility in the deportation of the Jews.

Critics contend that this itinerary, shared by others although few had such public roles , demonstrates France's collective amnesia, while others point out that the perception of the war and of the state collaboration has evolved during these years. Papon's career was considered more scandalous as he had been responsible, during his function as prefect of police of Paris, for the Paris massacre of Algerians during the war, and was forced to resign from this position after the "disappearance", in Paris in , of the Moroccan anti-colonialist leader Mehdi Ben Barka.

While it is certain that the Vichy government and a large number of its high administration collaborated in the implementation of the Holocaust, the exact level of such co-operation is still debated. Compared with the Jewish communities established in other countries invaded by Germany, French Jews suffered proportionately lighter losses see Jewish death toll section above ; although, starting in , repression and deportations struck French Jews as well as foreign Jews. One of these rules, for example, stated that:. The contractors shall make the following statements: they are of French nationality, are not Jewish, nor married to Jewish in the sense of the laws and ordinances in force [under Vichy, ed.

Thus, even if the tenants or coowners had signed or otherwise agreed to these rules after , any such agreement would be null and void caduque under French law, as were the rules. Rewriting or eliminating the obsolete rules would have had to be done at the occupants' expense, including notary fees of to EUR per building.

Munholland reports a widespread consensus among historians regarding the authoritarian character of the Vichy regime and its:. Although this claim is rejected by the rest of the French population and by the state itself, another myth remains more widespread than this one. This other myth refers to the alleged "protection" by Vichy of French Jews by "accepting" to collaborate in the deportation — and, ultimately, in the extermination — of foreign Jews.

However, this argument has been rejected by several historians who are specialists of the subject, among them US historian Robert Paxton , who is widely recognised, and historian of the French police Maurice Rajsfus. Both were called on as experts during the Papon trial in the s. Robert Paxton thus declared, before the court, on 31 October , that "Vichy took initiatives The armistice allowed it a breathing space. After naming the alleged causes of the defeat "democracy, parliamentarism, cosmopolitanism, the left wing, foreigners, Jews, From then on, Jewish people were considered "second-zone citizens [] ".

Internationally, France "believed the war to be finished". Thus, by July , Vichy was eagerly negotiating with the German authorities in an attempt to gain a place for France in the Third Reich's "New Order". But "Hitler never forgot the defeat. He always said no. It even, at first, opposed German plans.

Their idea was not to make of France an antisemitic country. On the contrary, they wanted to send there the Jews that they expelled" from the Reich. The historic change came in —, with the pending German defeat on the Eastern Front. The war then became "total", and in August , Hitler decided on the "global extermination of all European Jews". This new policy was officially formulated during the January Wannsee Conference , and implemented in all European occupied countries by spring France, praising itself for having remained an independent state as opposed to other occupied countries "decided to cooperate.

This is the second Vichy. They always complained about the lack of staff. Although the American historian recognised during the trial that the "civil behavior of certain individuals" had permitted many Jews to escape deportation, he stated that:. The French state, itself, participated in the policy of extermination of the Jews How can one claim the reverse when such technical and administrative resources were made available to them?

Pointing to the French police's registering of Jews, as well as Laval's decision, taken completely autonomously in August , to deport children along with their parents, Paxton added:. Contrary to preconceived ideas, Vichy did not sacrifice foreign Jews in the hope of protecting French Jews. At the hierarchy summit, it knew, from the start, that the deportation of French Jews was unavoidable.

Despite Paxton's assertion about Vichy knowledge "from the start", deportations from France did not start until summer , several months after mass deportation from other countries started. Part of the population housed at the Dachau concentration camp , opened in , was Jewish, and major death camps in Poland and Germany were opened in and early Paxton then referred to the case of Italy, where deportation of Jewish people had started only after the German occupation. Italy surrendered to the Allies in mid but was then invaded by Germany.

Fighting continued there through In particular, in Nice, "Italians had protected the Jews. And the French authorities complained about it to the Germans. In fact, the rise of Benito Mussolini and Italian fascism had drastically curtailed Jewish immigration during the inter-war period, and Italy had passed drastic anti-Semitic laws in that stripped Jews of their citizenship. Ultimately, a similar proportion of Jews from Italy as from France were deported. More recent work by the historian Susan Zuccotti finds that, in general, the Vichy government facilitated the deportation of foreign Jews rather than French ones, until at least Vichy officials [had] hoped to deport foreign Jews throughout France in order to ease pressure on native Jews.

Pierre Laval himself expressed the official Vichy position In the early months of , the terror [Adam] Munz and [Alfred] Feldman described in German-occupied France was still experienced by foreign Jews like themselves. It is difficult to know exactly how many French Jews were arrested, usually for specific or alleged offences, but on 21 January , Helmut Knochen informed Eichmann in Berlin that there were 2, French citizens among the 3, prisoners at Drancy.

Many had been at Drancy for several months. They had not been deported because, until January , there had usually been enough foreigners and their children to fill the forty-three trains that had carried about 41, people to the east By January , however, foreign Jews were increasingly aware of the danger and difficult to find. Nazi pressure for the arrest of French Jews and the deportation of those already at Drancy increased accordingly.

Thus, when Knochen reported that there were 2, French citizens among the 3, prisoners at Drancy on 21 January , he also asked Eichmann for permission to deport them. Despite Vichy officials' past disapproval and Eichmann's own prior discouragement of such a step, permission for the deportation of the French Jews at Drancy, except for those in mixed marriages , was granted from Berlin on 25 January. More Jews lived in France at the end of the Vichy regime than had approximately ten years earlier. It did not come into effect until after midnight on 25 June.

Signatories for Germany included senior military officers like Wilhelm Keitel, the commander-in-chief of the Wehrmacht the German armed forces , while those on the French side were more junior, such as General Charles Huntziger. Following the decisive German victory in the Battle of France 10 May—21 June , this armistice established a German occupation zone in Northern and Western France that encompassed all English Channel and Atlantic Ocean ports and left the remainder "free" to be governed by the French.

It was the only significant engagement in Central Africa during the war. The seizure of the island by the British was to deny Madagascar's ports to the Imperial Japanese Navy and to prevent the loss or impairment of the Allied shipping line. It began with Operation Ironclad, the seizure of the port of Diego-Suarez now Antsiranana near the northern tip of the island, on 5 May A subsequent campaign to secure the entire island, Operation Stream Line Jane, was opened on 10 September.

The Allies broke into the interior linking up with forces on the coast and secured the island by the end of October. Fighting ceased and an armistice was granted on 6 November. This was the first large scale operation by the Allies of World War II combining sea, land and air forces. The camp was closed on 4 August by SS officer Alois Brunner, then commander of Drancy concentration camp, under direct orders from Heinrich Himmler. It marked the end of the Vichy regime as a nominally-independent state and the disbandment of its army the severely-limited Armistice Army , but it continued its existence as a puppet government in Occupied France.

One of the last actions of its armed forces before their dissolution was the scuttling of the French fleet in Toulon to prevent it from falling into Axis hands. Negotiations with France shortly before World War II had shown that the French government was willing to make appropriate changes in the boundaries between Thailand and French Indochina, but only slightly. Following the Fall of France in , Major-General Plaek Pibulsonggram popularly known as "Phibun" , the prime minister of Thailand, decided that France's defeat gave the Thais an even better chance to regain the vassal state territories that were ceded to France during King Chulalongkorn's reign.

The German military occupation of a large part of France made France's hold on its overseas possessions, including Indochina, difficult. The colonial administration was now cut off from outside help and outside supplies. After the Japanese invasion of French Indochina in September , the French were forced to allow Japan to set up military bases. This seemingly subservient behaviour convinced the Phibun regime that France would not seriously resist a confrontation with Thailand.

Only one large-scale action took place there: the Battle of Dakar 23—25 September The region remained under the control of Vichy France after the fall of France 25 June and until the Allied invasion of North Africa 8—16 November Unlike in metropolitan France, the French Colonial Troops in West Africa were not reduced after the armistice and the region was little interfered with by the Axis powers, providing a valuable addition to the forces of Free France after it had been liberated.

Before this happened, there was some tension between the French and the neighbouring British colonies, particularly Sierra Leone, leading to the formation of the Freetown Defence Flight in June , but no military incidents took place. Marcel Peyrouton 2 July — 6 November was a French diplomat and politician.

He served as the French Ambassador to Argentina from to , and from to He served as the Governor-General of French Algeria in He was acquitted in