He did not say, We serve, but, serve You, that you might believe that He Himself is excepted from serving. So, then, since all things serve, and the Spirit does not serve, the Holy Spirit is certainly not included among all things. For since the Spirit is of God , and is the Spirit of His mouth, how can we say that the Holy Spirit is included among all things, seeing that God , Whose is the Spirit , is over all, possessing certainly fullness of perfection and perfect power.
But lest the objectors should think that the Apostle was in error , let them learn whom he followed as his authority for his belief.
For the witness Who is both faithful and true bears witness of the Father , than which witness nothing is more full for the expression of the Divine Majesty, nothing more clear as to the Unity of the Divine Power, since the Spirit has the same knowledge as the Son , Who is the witness and inseparable sharer of the Father's secrets. He excludes, then, the fellowship and number of creatures from the knowledge of God , but by not excluding the Holy Spirit , He shows that He is not of the fellowship of creatures.
So that the passage which is read in the Gospel : For no man has seen God at any time, save the Only-begotten Son Who is in the bosom of the Father He has declared Him, also pertains to the exclusion of the Holy Spirit. For how has He not seen God Who searches even the deep things of God? How has He not seen God Who knows the things which are of God?
How has He not seen God Who is of God? So, since it is laid down that no one has seen God at any time, whereas the Holy Spirit has seen Him, clearly the Holy Spirit is excepted. He, then, is above all Who is excluded from all. The words, All things were made by Him, are not a proof that the Holy Spirit is included among all things, since He was not made.
For otherwise it could be proved by other passages that the Son , and even the Father Himself, must be numbered among all things, which would be similar irreverence. This seems, gracious Emperor, to be a full account of our right feeling, but to the impious it does not seem so. Observe what they are striving after. For the heretics are wont to say that the Holy Spirit is to be reckoned among all things, because it is written of God the Son: All things were made by Him. How utterly confused is a course of argument which does not hold to the truth , and is involved in an inverted order of statements.
For this argument would be of value for the statement that the Holy Spirit is among all things, if they proved that He was made. For Scripture says that all things which were made were made by the Son; but since we are not taught that the Holy Spirit was made, He certainly cannot be proved to be among all things Who was neither made as all things are, nor created.
To me this testimony is of use for establishing each point; firstly, that He is proved to be above all things, because He was not made; and secondly, that because He is above all things, He is seen not to have been made, and is not to be numbered among those things which were made. But it is equal irreverence to detract from the dignity of the Father , or the Son , or the Holy Spirit. For he believes not in the Father who does not believe in the Son , nor does he believe in the Son of God who does not believe in the Spirit , nor can faith stand without the rule of truth.
For he who has begun to deny the oneness of power in the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit certainly cannot prove his divided faith in points where there is no division. So, then, since complete piety is to believe rightly, so complete impiety is to believe wrongly. Therefore they who think that the Holy Spirit ought to be numbered among all things, because they read that all things were made by the Son , must needs also think that the Son is to be numbered among all things, because they read: All things are of God. The statement of the Apostle, that all things are of the Father by the Son , does not separate the Spirit from Their company, since what is referred to one Person is also attributed to each.
So those baptized in the Name of Christ are held to be baptized in the Name of the Father and of the Holy Spirit , if, that is, there is belief in the Three Persons, otherwise the baptism will be null. This also applies to baptism in the Name of the Holy Spirit. If because of one passage the Holy Spirit is separated from the Father and the Son , it will necessarily follow from other passages that the Father will be subordinated to the Son. The Son is worshipped by angels , not by the Spirit , for the latter is His witness , not His servant.
Where the Son is spoken of as being before all, it is to be understood of creatures. The great dignity of the Holy Spirit is proved by the absence of forgiveness for the sin against Him. How it is that such sin cannot be forgiven, and how the Spirit is one. But if he persists in his perverse interpretation, in how many passages will he find the power of the Holy Spirit asserted, in which Scripture has stated nothing concerning either the Father or the Son , but has left it to be understood?
Where, then, the grace of the Spirit is asserted, is that of God the Father or of the Only-begotten Son denied? By no means; for as the Father is in the Son , and the Son in the Father , so, too, the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Spirit , Who has been given us. Then, too, the Ethiopian eunuch of Queen Candace, when baptized in Christ , obtained the fullness of the sacrament.
And they who said that they knew not of any Holy Spirit , although they said that they had been baptized with John's baptism , were baptized afterwards, because John baptized for the remission of sins in the Name of the coming Jesus, not in his own. And so they knew not the Spirit , because in the form in which John baptized they had not received baptism in the Name of Christ. For John, though he did not baptize in the Spirit , nevertheless preached Christ and the Spirit.
And then, when he was questioned whether he were perchance himself the Christ , he answered: I baptize you with water, but a stronger than I shall come, Whose shoes I am not worthy to bear, He shall baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire. They therefore, because they had been baptized neither in the Name of Christ nor with faith in the Holy Spirit , could not receive the sacrament of baptism. So they were baptized in the Name of Jesus Christ , and baptism was not repeated in their case, but administered differently, for there is but one baptism.
But where there is not the complete sacrament of baptism , there is not considered to be a commencement nor any kind of baptism. But baptism is complete if one confess the Father , the Son , and the Holy Spirit. If you deny One you overthrow the whole. And just as if you mention in words One only, either the Father , or the Son , or the Holy Spirit , and in your belief do not deny either the Father , the Son , or the Holy Spirit , the mystery of the faith is complete, so, too, although you name the Father , Son, and Holy Spirit , and lessen the power of either the Father , the Son , or the Holy Spirit , the whole mystery is made empty.
And, lastly, they who had said: We have not heard if there be any Holy Spirit , were baptized afterwards in the Name of the Lord Jesus Christ. And this was an additional abundance of grace , for now through Paul's preaching they knew the Holy Spirit. Nor ought it to seem opposed to this, that although subsequently mention is not made of the Spirit , He is yet believed in, and what had not been mentioned in words is expressed in belief.
For when it is said, In the Name of our Lord Jesus Christ , the mystery is complete through the oneness of the Name, and the Spirit is not separated from the baptism of Christ , since John baptized unto repentance, Christ in the Spirit. Let us now consider whether as we read that the sacrament of baptism in the Name of Christ was complete, so, too, when the Holy Spirit alone is named, anything is wanting to the completeness of the mystery.
Let us follow out the argument that he who has named One has signified the Trinity. Wherefore that authority may also be joined to reason Scripture indicates that we can also be rightly baptized in the Spirit , when the Lord says: But you shall be baptized in the Holy Spirit. But God forbid, for the Father is not among all things, is not among a kind of crowd of His own creatures. The former serves, the latter rules; the former is subject, the latter reigns; the former is the work, the latter the author of the work; the former, without exception, worships, the latter is worshipped by all without exception.
Lastly, of the Son it is written: And let all the angels of God worship Him. And farther on: To which of the angels said He at any time, Sit on My right hand till I make your enemies the footstool of your feet? Are they not all, says he, ministering spirits who are sent to minister? Certainly not, because Angels and the other Powers are destined to serve in ministering and obedience to the Son of God. He who is a witness knows all things, as God the Father is a witness. For so you read in later passages, for our salvation was confirmed to us by God bearing witness by signs and wonders and by manifold powers and by distributions of the Holy Spirit.
If the Son is above all, through Whom our salvation received its commencement, so that it might be preached, certainly God the Father also, Who testifies and gives confirmation concerning our salvation by signs and wonders, is excepted from all. Concerning which power we shall speak more fully farther on.
In the meanwhile, since our intention is to prove in due order that the Spirit is not to be reckoned among all things, let us take the Apostle, whose words they call in question, as an authority for this position. For what all things would be, whether visible or invisible, he himself declared when he said: For in Him were all things created in the heavens and in earth. But that no one should be ignorant of this he added those of whom he was speaking: Whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers, all things were created by Him and in Him, and He is before all, and in Him all things consist.
Or when he says that the Son of God is before all things, is he to be supposed to have said that He is before the Father? Certainly not; for as here he says that all things were created by the Son , and that all things in the heavens consist in Him, so, too, it cannot be doubted that all things in the heavens have their strength in the Holy Spirit , since we read: By the word of the Lord were the heavens established and all the strength of them by the Spirit of His mouth. He, then, is above all, from Whom is all the strength of things in heaven and things on earth.
He, then, Who is above all things certainly does not serve; He Who serves not is free; He Who is free has the prerogative of lordship. If I were to say this at first it would be denied. But in the same manner as they deny the less that the greater may not be believed , so let us set forth lesser matters first that either they may show their perfidy in lesser matters, or, if they grant the lesser matters, we may infer greater from the lesser.
I think, most merciful Emperor, that they are most fully confuted who dare to reckon the Holy Spirit among all things. But that they may know that they are pressed not only by the testimony of the apostles , but also by that of our Lord; how can they dare to reckon the Holy Spirit among all things, since the Lord Himself said: He who shall blaspheme against the Son of Man , it shall be forgiven him; but he who shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost shall never be forgiven, either here or hereafter.
Or who will so blind himself as to think that if he have injured any creature he cannot be forgiven in any wise? For if the Jews because they worshipped the host of heaven were deprived of divine protection, while he who worships and confesses the Holy Spirit is accepted of God , but he who confesses Him not is convicted of sacrilege without forgiveness: certainly it follows from this that the Holy Spirit cannot be reckoned among all things, but that He is above all things, an offense against Whom is avenged by eternal punishment.
But observe carefully why the Lord said: He who shall blaspheme against the Son of Man it shall be forgiven him, but he who shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost shall never be forgiven, either here or hereafter. For as their dignity is one, and common to both, so too is the offense. But if any one, led astray by the visible human body, should think somewhat more remissly than is fitting concerning the Body of Christ for it ought not to appear of little worth to us, seeing it is the palace of chastity , and the fruit of the Virgin , he incurs guilt, but he is not shut out from pardon, which he may attain to by faith.
But if any one should deny the dignity, majesty, and eternal power of the Holy Spirit , and should think that devils are cast out not in the Spirit of God , but in Beelzebub , there can be no attaining of pardon there where is the fullness of sacrilege; for he who has denied the Spirit has denied also the Father and the Son , since the same is the Spirit of God Who is the Spirit of Christ. The Holy Spirit is one and the same Who spoke in the prophets and apostles , Who is the Spirit of God and of Christ; Whom, further, Scripture designates the Paraclete, and the Spirit of life and truth.
But no one will doubt that the Spirit is one, although very many have doubted whether God be one. He called Him also the Spirit of Christ , as you read: But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit , if so be that the Spirit of God dwells in you. The same is also the Spirit of Life, as the Apostle says: For the law of the Spirit of Life in Christ Jesus has delivered me from the law of sin and death.
How, then, do some think that the Son is visible in His Divine Nature, when the world cannot see even the Spirit? And the Lord Himself made clear that the same Who is the Spirit of the Father is the Holy Spirit , when according to Matthew He said that we ought not to take thought in persecution what we should say: For it is not you that speak, but the Spirit of your Father that speaks in you. Luke: Be not anxious how you shall answer or speak, for the Holy Spirit of God shall teach you in that hour what you ought to say.
The Holy Spirit , since He sanctifies creatures, is neither a creature nor subject to change. He is always good, since He is given by the Father and the Son ; neither is He to be numbered among such things as are said to fail. He must be acknowledged as the source of goodness. The Spirit of God 's mouth, the amender of evils , and Himself good.
Lastly, as He is said in Scripture to be good, and is joined to the Father and the Son in baptism , He cannot possibly be denied to be good. He is not, however, said to progress, but to be made perfect in goodness, which distinguishes Him from all creatures. The Holy Spirit is not, then, of the substance of things corporeal, for He sheds incorporeal grace on corporeal things; nor, again, is He of the substance of invisible creatures, for they receive His sanctification, and through Him are superior to the other works of the universe. Whether you speak of Angels, or Dominions, or Powers, every creature waits for the grace of the Holy Spirit.
Therefore, also, every creature itself shall be changed by the revelation of the grace of the Spirit , and shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the liberty of the glory of the children of God. Every creature, then, is subject to change, not only such as has been changed by some sin or condition of the outward elements, but also such as can be liable to corruption by a fault of nature, though by careful discipline it be not yet so; for, as we have shown in a former treatise, the nature of Angels evidently can be changed.
It is certainly fitting to judge that such as is the nature of one, such also is that of others. The nature of the rest, then, is capable of change, but the discipline is better. Every creature, therefore, is capable of change, but the Holy Spirit is good and not capable of change, nor can He be changed by any fault, Who does away the faults of all and pardons their sins. How, then, is He capable of change, Who by sanctifying works in others a change to grace , but is not changed Himself. How is He capable of change Who is always good?
For the Holy Spirit , through Whom the things that are good are ministered to us, is never evil. Whence two evangelists in one and the same place, in words in differing from each other, have made the same statement, for you read in Matthew: If you, being evil , know how to give good gifts to your children; how much more shall your Father, Who is in heaven, give good things to them that ask Him. If, then, the Holy Spirit is that which is good , how is He not good?
Nor does it escape our notice that some copies have likewise, according to St. Luke: How much more shall your heavenly Father give a good gift to them that ask Him. This good gift is the grace of the Spirit , which the Lord Jesus shed forth from heaven, after having been fixed to the gibbet of the cross , returning with the triumphal spoils of death deprived of its power, as you find it written: Ascending up on high He led captivity captive, and gave good gifts to men.
But why should I hesitate to say that the Holy Spirit also is given to us, since it is written: The love of God is shed forth in our hearts by the Holy Spirit , Who is given to us. And He said well led captivity captive. For the victory of Christ is the victory of liberty, which won grace for all, and inflicted wrong on none.
So in the setting free of all no one is captive. And because in the time of the Lord's passion wrong alone had no part, which had made captive all of whom it had gained possession, captivity itself turning back upon itself was made captive, not now attached to Belial but to Christ , to serve Whom is liberty.
For he who is called in the Lord as a servant is the Lord's freedman. But to return to the point. All, says He, have gone aside, all together have become unprofitable. There is none that does good, not even one. If they except the Holy Spirit , even they themselves confess that He is not among all; if they do not except Him, then they, too, acknowledge that He has gone aside among all. But let us consider whether He has goodness in Himself, since He is the Source and Principle of goodness.
For as the Father and the Son have, so too the Holy Spirit also has goodness. And the Apostle also taught this when he said: Now the fruit of the Spirit is peace, love , joy , patience, goodness. For a good tree brings forth good fruit. Can the infection of evil enter into the deep things of God?
And from this it is seen how foolish they are who deny that the Son of God is good , when they cannot deny that the Spirit of Christ is good , of Whom the Son of God says: Therefore said I that He shall receive of Mine. Or is the Spirit not good, Who of the worst makes good men, does away sin , destroys evil , shuts out crime, pours in good gifts, makes apostles of persecutors, and priests of sinners?
You were, it is said, sometime darkness, but now are you light in the Lord. But why do we put them off? And if they ask for statements since they do not deny facts, let them hear that the Holy Spirit is good , for David said: Let Your good Spirit lead me forth in the right way. For what is the Spirit but full of goodness? Who though because of His nature He cannot be attained to, yet because of His goodness can be received by us, filling all things His power, but only partaken of by the just, simple in substance, rich in virtues , present to each, dividing of His own to every one, and Himself whole everywhere.
Why, then, do some take it ill that He Whom the Lord disdained not in the sacrament of baptism , should be joined in our devotion with the Father and the Son?
On the Holy Spirit (Book I)
Good, then, is the Spirit , but good, not as though acquiring but as imparting goodness. For the Holy Spirit does not receive from creatures but is received; as also He is not sanctified but sanctifies; for the creature is sanctified, but the Holy Spirit sanctifies. In which matter, though the word is used in common, there is a difference in the nature. For both the man who receives and God Who gives sanctity are called holy , as we read: Be holy , for I am holy.
Since, then, the whole invisible creation whose substance some rightly believe to be reasonable and incorporeal , with the exception of the Trinity, does not impart but acquires the grace of the Spirit , and does not share in it but receives it, the whole commonalty of creation is to be separated from association with the Holy Spirit.
Let them then believe that the Holy Spirit is not a creature; or, if they think Him a creature, why do they associate Him with the Father? If they think Him a creature, why do they join Him with the Son of God? But if they do not think that He should be separated from the Father and the Son , they do not consider Him to be a creature, for where the sanctification is one the nature is one.
Although we are baptized with water and the Spirit , the latter is much superior to the former, and is not therefore to be separated from the Father and the Son. There are, however, many who, because we are baptized with water and the Spirit , think that there is no difference in the offices of water and the Spirit , and therefore think that they do not differ in nature.
Nor do they observe that we are buried in the element of water that we may rise again renewed by the Spirit. For in the water is the representation of death, in the Spirit is the pledge of life, that the body of sin may die through the water, which encloses the body as it were in a kind of tomb, that we, by the power of the Spirit , may be renewed from the death of sin , being born again in God. And so these three witnesses are one, as John said: The water, the blood, and the Spirit. The water, then, is a witness of burial, the blood is a witness of death, the Spirit is a witness of life.
If, then, there be any grace in the water, it is not from the nature of water, but from the presence of the Holy Spirit. Do we live in the water or in the Spirit? Are we sealed in the water or in the Spirit. For in Him we live and He Himself is the earnest of our inheritance, as the Apostle says, writing to the Ephesians: In Whom believing you were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise, Who is an earnest of our inheritance. We were then sealed with the Spirit by God. For as we die in Christ , in order to be born again, so, too, we are sealed with the Spirit , that we may possess His brightness and image and grace , which is undoubtedly our spiritual seal.
For although we were visibly sealed in our bodies, we are in truth sealed in our hearts, that the Holy Spirit may portray in us the likeness of the heavenly image. Who, then, can dare to say that the Holy Spirit is separated from the Father and the Son , since through Him we attain to the image and likeness of God , and through Him, as the Apostle Peter says, are partakers of the divine nature? In which there is certainly not the inheritance of carnal succession, but the spiritual connection of the grace of adoption. And in order that we may know that this seal is rather on our hearts than on our bodies, the prophet says: The light of Your countenance has been impressed upon us, O Lord, You have put gladness in my heart.
The Holy Spirit is not a creature, seeing that He is infinite , and was shed upon the apostles dispersed through all countries, and moreover sanctifies the Angels also, to whom He makes us equal. Mary was full of the same likewise, so too, Christ the Lord, and so far all things high and low. And all benediction has its origin from His operation, as was signified in the moving of the water at Bethesda. Since then, every creature is confined within certain limits of its own nature, and inasmuch as those invisible operations, which cannot be circumscribed by place and bounds, yet are closed in by the property of their own substance; how can any one dare to call the Holy Spirit a creature, Who has not a limited and circumscribed power?
Because He is always in all things and everywhere, which assuredly is the property of Divinity and Lordship, for: The earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof. And so, when the Lord appointed His servants the apostles , that we might recognize that the creature was one thing and the grace of the Spirit another, He appointed them to different places, because all could not be everywhere at once.
But He gave the Holy Spirit to all, to shed upon the apostles though separated the gift of indivisible grace. The persons , then, were different, but the accomplishment of the working was in all one, because the Holy Spirit is one of Whom it is said: You shall receive power, even the Holy Spirit coming upon you, and you shall be witnesses to Me in Jerusalem and in all Judea and Samaria , and unto the ends of the earth. The Holy Spirit , then, is uncircumscribed and infinite , Who infused Himself into the minds of the disciples throughout the separate divisions of distant regions, and the remote bounds of the whole world, Whom nothing is able to escape or to deceive.
Of what Angel does the Scripture say this? Of what Dominion? Of what Power? Of what Angel do we find the power diffused over many? For Angels were sent to few, but the Holy Spirit was poured upon whole peoples. Who, then, can doubt that that is divine which is shed upon many at once and is not seen; but that that is corporeal which is seen and held by individuals? But in like manner as the Spirit sanctifying the apostles is not a partaker of human nature ; so, too, He sanctifying Angels, Dominions, and Powers, has no partnership with creatures.
But if any think that the holiness of the Angels is not spiritual, but some other kind of grace belonging to the property of their nature, they will forsooth judge Angels to be inferior to men.
For since themselves also confess that they would not dare to compare Angels to the Holy Spirit , and they cannot deny that the Holy Spirit is shed upon men; but the sanctification of the Spirit is a divine gift and favour, men who possess a better kind of sanctification will certainly be found to be preferred to the Angels. But since Angels come down to men to assist them, it must be understood that the nature of Angels is higher as it receives more of the grace of the Spirit , and that the favour awarded to us and to them comes from the same author.
But how great is that grace which makes even the lower nature of the lot of men equal to the gifts received by Angels, as the Lord Himself promised, saying: You shall be as the Angels in heaven. Nor is it difficult, for He Who made those Angels in the Spirit will by the same grace make men also equal to the Angels. But of what creature can it be said that it fills all things, as is written of the Holy Spirit : I will pour My Spirit upon all flesh.
For it is of the Lord to fill all things, Who says: I fill heaven and earth. But lest they should object that this was said according to the flesh, though He alone from Whose flesh went forth virtue to heal all, was more than all; yet, as the Lord fills all things, so, too, we read of the Spirit: For the Spirit of the Lord filled the whole world.
You read, too, in the Gospel that the Angel descended at the appointed time into the pool and troubled the water, and he who first went down into the pool was made whole. That Angel, then, was a herald of the Holy Spirit , inasmuch as by means of the grace of the Spirit medicine was to be applied to our infirmities of soul and mind. The Spirit, then, has the same ministers as God the Father and Christ. He fills all things, possesses all things, works all and in all in the same manner as God the Father and the Son work. What, then, is more divine than the working of the Holy Spirit , since God Himself testifies that the Holy Spirit presides over His blessings, saying: I will put My Spirit upon your seed and My blessings upon your children.
Wherefore, too, the Apostle found nothing better to wish us than this, as He himself said: We cease not to pray and make request for you that you may be filled with the knowledge of His will , in all wisdom and spiritual understanding walking worthily of God. Therefore if he who has the Holy Spirit is filled with the will of God , there is certainly no difference of will between the Father and the Son.
The Holy Spirit is given by God alone, yet not wholly to each person, since there is no one besides Christ capable of receiving Him wholly. Charity is shed abroad by the Holy Spirit , Who, prefigured by the mystical ointment, is shown to have nothing common with creatures; and He, inasmuch as He is said to proceed from the mouth of God , must not be classed with creatures, nor with things divisible, seeing He is eternal. Observe at the same time that God gives the Holy Spirit. For this is no work of man , nor gift of man; but He Who is invoked by the priest is given by God , wherein is the gift of God and the ministry of the priest.
So the Apostle uttered this wish in prayer , and did not claim a right by any authority of his own; he desired to obtain, he did not presume to command. Peter, too, says that he is not capable of compelling or restraining the Holy Spirit. For he spoke thus: Wherefore if God has granted them the same grace as to us, who was I that I could resist God? But perchance they would not be moved by the example of apostles , and so let us use divine utterances; for it is written: Jacob is My servant, I will uphold him; Israel is My elect, My soul has upheld him, I put My Spirit upon him.
- Similar authors to follow?
- Regarding the unjust glorying of the papists in the imaginary dignity of their Church;
Who, then, can dare to say that the substance of the Holy Spirit is created, at Whose shining in our hearts we behold the beauty of divine truth , and the distance between the creature and the Godhead, that the work may be distinguished from its Author? Or of what creature has God so spoken as to say: I will pour out of My Spirit? There was therefore a pouring out upon us of the Spirit , but upon the Lord Jesus , when He was in the form of man , the Spirit abode, as it is written: Upon Whom you shall see the Spirit descending from heaven, and abiding upon Him, He it is Who baptizes in the Holy Spirit.
He shed forth then what He deemed to be sufficient for us, and what was shed forth is not separated nor divided; but He has a unity of fullness wherewith He may enlighten the sight of our hearts according to what our strength is capable of. Lastly, we receive so much as the advancing of our mind acquires, for the fullness of the grace of the Spirit is indivisible, but is shared in by us according to the capacity of our own nature. God , then, sheds forth of the Spirit , and the love of God is also shed abroad through the Spirit ; in which point we ought to recognize the unity of the operation and of the grace.
In like manner that you may believe that that which is shed abroad cannot be common to the creatures but peculiar to the Godhead, the name of the Son is also poured forth, as you read: Your Name is as ointment poured forth. For as ointment closed up in a vase keeps in its perfume, so long as it is confined in the narrow space of that vase, though it cannot reach many, it yet preserves its strength. But when the ointment has been poured out of that vase wherein it was enclosed, it spreads far and wide; so, too, the Name of Christ before His coming among the people of Israel was enclosed in the minds of the Jews as in some vase.
For God is known in Judah, His Name is great in Israel ; that is, the Name which the vases of the Jews held confined in their narrow limits. Even then that Name was indeed great, when it remained in the narrow limits of the weak and few, but it had not yet poured forth its greatness throughout the hearts of the Gentiles , and to the ends of the whole world. But after that He by His coming had shone throughout the whole world, He spread abroad that divine Name of His throughout all creatures, not filled up by any addition for fullness admits not of increase , but filling up the empty spaces, that His Name might be wonderful in all the world.
The pouring forth, then, of His Name signifies a kind of abundant exuberance of graces and copiousness of heavenly goods, for whatever is poured forth flows over from abundance. So as wisdom which proceeds from the mouth of God cannot be said to be created, nor the Word Which is uttered from His heart, nor the power in which is the fullness of the eternal Majesty; so, too, the Spirit which is poured forth from the mouth of God cannot be considered to be created, since God Himself has shown their unity to be such that He speaks of His pouring forth of His Spirit.
By which we understand that the grace of God the Father is the same as that of the Holy Spirit , and that without any division or loss it is divided to the hearts of each. That, then, which is shed abroad of the Holy Spirit is neither severed, nor comprehended in any corporeal parts, nor divided. For how can it be credible that the Spirit should be divided by any parcelling out? And so the Holy Spirit is eternal , but the creature is liable to fault, and therefore subject to change.
But that which is subject to change cannot be eternal , and there cannot therefore be anything in common between the Spirit and the creature, because the Spirit is eternal , but every creature is temporal. But the Apostle also shows that the Holy Spirit is eternal , for: If the blood of bulls and of goats, and the sprinkling the ashes of an heifer sanctifies to the purifying of the flesh, how much more the blood of Christ , Who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without spot to God?
The Holy Spirit is rightly called the ointment of Christ , and the oil of gladness ; and why Christ Himself is not the ointment, since He was anointed with the Holy Spirit. It is not strange that the Spirit should be called Ointment, since the Father and the Son are also called Spirit.
Nunc sancte nobis spiritus - Wikipedia
And there is no confusion between them, since Christ alone suffered death, Whose saving cross is then spoken of. Now many have thought that the Holy Spirit is the ointment of Christ. And well it is said ointment, because He is called the oil of gladness , the joining together of many graces giving a sweet fragrance. But God the Almighty Father anointed Him the Prince of priests , Who was, not like others anointed in a type under the Law, but was both according to the Law anointed in the body, and in truth was full with the virtue of the Holy Spirit from the Father above the Law.
This is the oil of gladness , of which the prophet says: God , even Your God , has anointed You with the oil of gladness above Your fellows. Lastly, Peter says that Jesus was anointed with the Spirit , as you read: You know that word which went through all Judea beginning from Galilee after the baptism which John preached, even Jesus of Nazareth , how God anointed Him with the Holy Spirit. And well did he say oil of gladness , lest you should think Him a creature; for it is the nature of this sort of oil that it will by no means mingle with moisture of another kind.
Gladness, too, does not anoint the body, but brightens the inmost heart, as the prophet said: You have put gladness in my heart. So as he loses his pains who wishes to mix oil with moister matter, because since the nature of oil is lighter than others, when the others settle, it rises and is separated. How do those wretched pedlars think that the oil of gladness can by their tricks be mingled with other creatures, since of a truth corporeal things cannot be mingled with in corporeal, nor things created with uncreated? And well is that called oil of gladness wherewith Christ was anointed; for neither was usual nor common oil to be sought for Him, wherewith either wounds are dressed or heat assuaged; since the salvation of the world did not seek alleviation for His wounds, nor the eternal might of His wearied Body demand refreshment.
Nor is it wonderful if He have the oil of gladness , Who made those about to die rejoice , put off sadness from the world, destroyed the odour of sorrowful death. Therefore the Spirit is the ointment of Christ. Or since the Name of Jesus is as ointment poured out, if they wish to understand Christ Himself, and not the Spirit of Christ to be expressed under the name of ointment, certainly when the Apostle Peter says that the Lord Jesus was anointed with the Holy Spirit , it is without doubt plain that the Spirit also is called ointment.
But what wonder, since both the Father and the Son are said to be Spirit. Of which we shall speak more fully when we begin to speak of the Unity of the Name. So, then, both the Father is Spirit and Christ is Spirit, for that which is not a created body is spirit, but the Holy Spirit is not commingled with the Father and the Son , but is distinct from the Father and from the Son. For the Holy Spirit did not die, Who could not die because He had not taken flesh upon Him, and the eternal Godhead was incapable of dying, but Christ died according to the flesh.
For of a truth He died in that which He took of the Virgin, not in that which He had of the Father , for Christ died in that nature in which He was crucified. But the Holy Spirit could not be crucified, Who had not flesh and bones, but the Son of God was crucified, Who took flesh and bones, that on that cross the temptations of our flesh might die. For He took on Him that which He was not that He might hide that which He was; He hid that which He was that He might be tempted in it, and that which He was not might be redeemed, in order that He might call us by means of that which He was not to that which He was.
O the divine mystery of that cross, on which weakness hangs, might is free, vices are nailed, and triumphal trophies raised. So that a certain saint said: Pierce my flesh with nails for fear of You; he says not with nails of iron, but of fear and faith. For the bonds of virtue are stronger than those of punishment. Lastly, his faith bound Peter, when he had followed the Lord as far as the hall of the high priest , whom no one had bound, and punishment loosened not him, whom faith bound. Again, when he was bound by the Jews , prayer loosed him, punishment did not hold him, because he had not gone back from Christ.
Therefore do you also crucify sin , that you may die to sin ; he who dies to sin lives to God ; do you live to Him Who spared not His own Son, that in His body He might crucify our passions. For Christ died for us, that we might live in His revived Body. Therefore not our life but our guilt died in Him, Who, it is said, bare our sins in His own Body on the tree; that being set free from our sins we might live in righteousness, by the wound of Whose stripes we are healed.
That wood of the cross is, then, as it were a kind of ship of our salvation , our passage, not a punishment, for there is no other salvation but the passage of eternal salvation. Whilst expecting death I do not feel it; while thinking little of punishment I do not suffer; while careless of fear I know it not.
Who, then, is He by the wound of Whose stripes we are healed but Christ the Lord? For what wonder would it be if the Godhead alone sinned not, seeing It had no incentives to sin? But if God alone is free from sin , certainly every creature by its own nature can be, as we have said, liable to sin. Tell me, then, whoever you are who deny the Godhead of the Holy Spirit. The Spirit could not be liable to sin , Who rather forgives sin. Does an Angel forgive? Does an Archangel? Certainly not, but the Father alone, the Son alone, and the Holy Spirit alone. Now no one is unable to avoid that which he has power to forgive.
But perhaps some one will say that the Seraph said to Isaiah: Behold, this has touched your lips, and shall take away your iniquities, and purge away your sins. For what else can we piously understand to be on the altar of God but the grace of the Spirit? Certainly not the wood of the forests, nor the soot and coals. Or what is so in accordance with piety as to understand according to the mystery that it was revealed by the mouth of Isaiah that all men should be cleansed by the passion of Christ , Who as a coal according to the flesh burnt up our sins , as you read in Zechariah: Is not this a brand cast forth from the fire?
And that was Joshua clothed in filthy garments. Which doubtless is the reason why some names of solemn Feasts, Sacrifices , and other holy things are reserve in sacred tongues , Hebrew, Greek, or Latin. Again, for necessity, English not having a name or sufficient term, we either keep the word as we find it, or only turn it to our English termination, because it would otherwise require many words in English to signify one word of another tongue. In which cases, we commonly put the explanation in the margin.
Briefly, our Apology is easy against English Protestants because they also reserve some words in the original tongues not translated into English: as Sabbath , Ephod , Pentecost , Proselyte , and some others. The sense whereof is indeed as soon learned as if they were turned so near as is possible into English. By which terms, whether they be truly translated into English or no, we will pass over.
Certainly an English man is still to seek what they mean, as if they remained in Hebrew or Greek. It more indicateth that nothing be wittingly and falsely translated for advantage of doctrine in matter of faith. Wherein as we dare boldly proclaim the sincerity of this Translation, and that nothing is here either untruly or obscurely done on purpose in favor of Catholic Roman Religion, so we cannot but complain and challenge English Protestants for corrupting the text contrary to the Hebrew and Greek which they profess to translate, for the more show and maintaining of their peculiar opinions against Catholics.
As is proved in the Discovery of manifold corruptions. For example, we shall put the reader in memory of one or two. Genesis 4. But as we hear in a new Edition which we have not yet seen they translate it almost as in the first.
A Reply to One Well Disposed Towards the Latin Church
In like sort, Genesis And yet [they] themselves translate the same, as St Jerome doth, Genesis Again, Genesis Which the Edition of , correcting, translateth Idols. And the marginal Annotation well proveth that it ought to be so translated. With this, then, we will conclude, most dear we speak to you all that understand our tongue, whether you be of contrary opinions in faith, or by worldly fear participate with another Congregation, or profess with us the same Catholic Religion , to you all we present this work, daily beseeching God Almighty, the Divine Wisdom, [and] Eternal Goodness, to create, illuminate, and replenish your spirits with his Grace, that you may attain eternal Glory.
Not only to those which first received and followed his Divine doctrine, but to all that should afterwards believe in him and keep the same precepts. Whereby appeareth his will, that all should be saved. Why then are not all saved? The Apostle addeth, that they must first come to the knowledge of the truth, because without faith it is impossible to please God. This groundwork, therefore, of our creation in Christ by true faith, St Paul labored most seriously, by word and writing, to establish in the hearts of all men.
In this he strengthened the Romans by his Epistle, commending their faith as already accepted and renowned in the whole world. He preached the same faith to many Nations, amongst others, to the learned Athenians, where it seemed to some as absurd as strange, insomuch that they scornfully called him a word-sower , and Preacher of new gods Acts But St Augustine alloweth the term for good, which was reproachfully spoken by the ignorant.
And so in respect of the Israelites to whom they were first sent, calleth the other Apostles Messores , Reapers , and St Paul, being especially sent to the Gentiles, Seminatorem , a Sower , or Seminary Apostle. As at this time in our country, for the diverse sorts of pretended religions, these spiritual works are necessary to teach and feel all British people, because some, in error of opinions, preach another Gospel, whereas in verity there is no other Gospel.
They preach indeed new doctrines, which cannot save. Others follow them believing falsehood. But when the blind lead the blind not the one only, but both fall into the ditch St Augustine, On the Usefulness of Believing, chapter 1; Matthew Others conform themselves in external appearance, fearing them that can punish and kill the body.
But our Lord will bring such as decline into unjust obligations, with them that work iniquity Psalm The Relics and small flock of Catholics in our country have great sadness and sorrow of heart, not so much for our own affliction, for that is bearable, but for you our brethren and kinsmen in flesh and blood, wishing, with our own temporal damage whatsoever, your salvation. Now is the acceptable time 2 Corinthians 6.
But we are made partakers of Christ and his Mysteries, so that [we] ourselves neglect not his heavenly riches, if we receive and keep the beginning of his wealth firm unto the end, that is, the true Catholic faith, building thereon good works by his grace, without which we cannot think a good thought, by which we can do all things necessary to salvation.
But if we hold not fast this ground, all the building faileth. Or if confessing to know God in words, we deny him in deeds Titus 1. Briefly, if we have not charity 1 Corinthians 13 , the form and perfection of all virtues, all is lost, and nothing worth [anything]. But if we build upon firm ground, [with] gold, silver, and precious stones, such [a] building shall abide, and make our vocation sure by good works, as St Peter speaketh 1 Peter 2.
These saith St Paul are the heirs of God, co-heirs of Christ. For albeit the passions of this time in themselves are not condign to the glory to come, that shall be revealed in us; yet our tribulation, which presently is momentary and light, worketh through grace above measure exceedingly an eternal weight of glory 2 Corinthians 4. What shall we therefore meditate of the special prerogative of English Catholics at this time?
For to you it is given for Christ, not only that you believe in him, but also that you suffer for him. A little now, if you must be made pensive in diverse temptations, that the proof of your faith, much more precious than gold which is proved by the fire, may be found unto praise, and glory, and honor, in the revelation of Jesus Christ 1 Peter 1. Many of you have sustained the spoil of your goods with joy, knowing that you have a better and a [more] permanent wealth.
Others have been deprived of your children, fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, and nearest friends, in ready resolution also, some with sentence of death, to lose your own lives. Others have had trial from reproaches, mockeries and stripes. Others of bonds, prisons, and banishments. And so we leave it to your devout meditation. So we repine not in tribulation, but ever love them that hate us, pitying their case and rejoicing in our own.
For neither can we see during this life how much good they do us, nor know how many of them shall be as we heartily desire they all may be saved, our Lord and Savior having paid the same price by his death, for them and for us. Love all therefore, pray for all. Do not lose your confidence, which hath a great remuneration. For yet a little, and a very little while, he that is to come will come, and he will not slack.