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French and German research focused on the polyp itself and its nature, notably its extremely small size, while English research, from another angle, studied the coral reefs created by polyps. British research therefore adopted a more geological and geographical perspective, while French-speaking research French and Swiss was pioneering in the eighteenth century when it came to defining the nature of the polyp; and the English took over when it came to studying large reefs and deriving hypotheses about the long timescale that prevails in nature.

The n-grams also drew our attention to a time lag in the use of terms in French and German texts. It is therefore essential to develop a differentiated diachrony. An increase in frequency is noticeable from the s, about twenty years before Germany. Despite having a more limited corpus, [2] it confirmed the major trends observed in the German n-gram. The research focused on the forms polyp, polypena, polyp, polypen, polypus , in texts scanned using OCR technology, broken down by genre and decade in the graphs below. Chronological distribution of texts in the corpus of the Deutsches Textarchiv database:.

Evolution by type of text fictional writings in green, non-literary writings in yellow, scientific literature in blue, press in red, all categories combined in orange. In German, the word hydra is present but the n-gram is difficult to interpret. In fact, when we check the published works, we discover that there are many which mention the Hydra of mythology. We therefore see that the interpretation of an n-gram must be supported by checks carried out in the texts. This is when another tool is useful to quickly identify the content of a text: TreeCloud software, which automatically creates word clouds and gives a first glimpse of the semantic content of a text.

N-grams provide a synoptic picture of the use of terms over time. They make it possible to perceive evolutions, and to go back to the publications that gave rise to them, thus helping in the formulation of hypotheses. They draw attention to major trends, which of course need to be verified by examining the texts. Laurentii Salvii, 10th ed. These can be referred to for details regarding the texts as well as the size of the databases. It was possible to quickly identify a complex lexical field Posts 1 , 2 and 3 , and then to study the use of terms diachronically Post 4.

It is now possible to tackle the movement of scientific knowledge and its incorporation into texts with a view to combining the automated analysis of masses of data with the interpretation of works and knowledge from the history of science. However, it continued to fascinate scientists, philosophers and poets until the nineteenth century. Although its animal nature was established, the polyp remained a major topic of interest.

Indeed, it was involved in many discussions about classification. In his work Philosophie zoologique , the polyp comes just ahead of infusoria, the least developed stage of life. The simplicity of its organisation and reproduction made it similar to certain plants: it appeared to be an intermediate being. Animals of modest size, often almost microscopic, polyps belonged to the realm of the infinitely small that captured the imagination throughout the nineteenth century.

It is therefore not surprising to observe that as early as the eighteenth century, beyond works centred on its nature and properties, the polyp found its way into more general, even philosophical, scientific arguments. A reader of Chateaubriand and a former student of Pouchet, Flaubert did not subscribe to this point of view. However, like many writers of his generation, he was marked by a romantic conception of nature that produced beautiful things that were the envy of art.

In his novel La Tentation de saint Antoine of , he imagines an ambiguous hallucination, a vision of a frenzied vitalism that leads to a dubious ecstasy, and which leaves us unsure as to whether it is inspired by the Devil or by God. Saint Anthony sees a chaotic series of natural metamorphoses in which the three natural kingdoms are mixed up, revealing the instability of species and forms: polyps appear which resemble sycamores, but they have arms on their branches and caterpillars instead of flowers.

Ascending the ladder of beings, beyond the separation of kingdoms, Antoine believes he sees life being born in a final hallucination. Literature found poetic potential in science, which it was quick to exploit, while, in the opposite direction, the scientific imagination at times appeared stimulated by poetry: it inspired bold hypotheses or provided images that gave shape to abstract conceptions. The relationship between science and poetry was therefore a two-way exchange, especially since writers and scientists were still able to interact easily, and sometimes collaborated.

The coral reef-building polyps inspired Lyell Principles of Geology , and Charles Darwin The structure and distribution of coral reefs , to conceive of a long time span which transformed nature, and Michelet, who quoted the two English scientists, drew a new form of wonder from their works.

It is the coral bank that is slowly rising, as a result of obscure but countless proletarians. If it reaches the surface of the water, your ship will be lifted, its keel turned in the air, and emptied as if by hand. Scientists, for their part, were keenly aware of the aesthetic properties of polyp and coral, especially since the poetry of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries had already highlighted their beauty. The polyp appeared — all of a sudden, everything else was overshadowed All those nomenclators who as they distinguished between classes, And to various kingdoms ascribed them places, Watched as a new body proudly displayed its new rights, Flouting the ancient laws of all these startled kingdoms, Combining within himself their rival natures, And occupied that uncertain boundary between them.

At the end of the eighteenth century and during the nineteenth century the polyp was sometimes associated with philosophical hypotheses, in an epistemological context where observations, experiments and metaphysical considerations could still coexist. Art can make the polyp a multi-headed, multi-tailed Hydra and if it kills these heads and tails, they will yield an equal number of perfect polyps. Although this second meaning was becoming increasingly rare in the nineteenth century, some writers willingly fostered the ambiguity between the arms of the polyp and the tentacles of the octopus for poetic or fantastical purposes, especially when the metaphors took on a symbolic or even moral meaning.

Whether located at the centre of dreams of unity, of the continuity of life, of development or of evolution, whether a scientific object or a symbolic image, the polyp was part of the imaginary of an era fascinated by the dark forces of life, by the infinitely small, by a matter which seemed to be inhabited by a spirit or which, conversely, seemed animated by its own, strange or even threatening vitality.

It is therefore not surprising to frequently find polyps mentioned both scientifically and poetically in popular works that highlight the wonders of nature such as those by Camille Flammarion and Louis Figuier or in books for young people by Louis Boussenard or Louis Jacolliot. Nicolle, , 2 vols. Marpon et E. Flammarion, Marne et fils, , 2 vols. II, p. Comments: Author of Latin translations, Mollevault also published odes and elegies.

Linnaeus took as the basis for his system the organs used for reproduction. It is located in the centre of the corolla and is surrounded by stamens. The pistil is composed of three main parts.


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The upper part is called the stigma , the middle part is called the style , and the lower part is the seed receptacle, and is called the ovary. The middle part, being the least useful, is often missing, or seems to be missing; the other two are never missing. The stigma is used to receive the fertilising dust from the anthers of the stamen, to convey it through the style into the interior of the ovary, where the seed is formed.

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Philosophie du botaniste , by Jolyclerc. The beauty of its colour and shades are what earned it its name. Pascal Duris , Hugues Marchal M. Reference to Olof Rudbeck Axel Hohnsbein Context, key moments, orientations Beginning in the s, the dissemination of the biological knowledge became part of the trend towards the popularisation of science via the press. General interest magazines The second form of popular science journalism was emerging simultaneously in general-interest magazines, which dealt with science, literature as well as art: these publications were primarily aimed at a readership that was eager for knowledge.

A popularising press focused on science in general A third form of scientific journalism later developed along the lines of the general-interest magazine: Napoleon III muzzled the press when he took power in , directly promoting the emergence of a host of non-political magazines. The press specialising in biological knowledge A fourth form of science journalism still requires detailed mapping: the biological press.

Bibliography for this post The editions listed are available online. He drew from it an analytical theory that since George Green has been called the theory of potential. It allowed him to study the shape of the stars in more general cases than those examined by his predecessors. Clairaut no longer assumed that the fluid composing a star was homogeneous, and he considered various possible laws of gravitation.

This correction of the law elicited a spirited reaction from Buffon, who opposed this modification with metaphysical considerations on the simplicity of the laws of nature. Clairaut, more positive and more a pure mathematician, wanted to stick to calculations and observations. Nevertheless, the minimal value of the term added soon made Clairaut think that the correction—all things considered—could apply to the calculations but not to the law. This is what he declared to the Academy on 17 May The latter twice wrote to tell me that he had made fruitless efforts to find the same thing as I, and that he begged me to tell him how I arrived at them.

The controversies arose anew when Clairaut, strengthened by his first success, turned to the movement of comets. In Edmund Halley had announced that the comet observed in , , and would reappear in or He attributed the disparity in its period of appearance to perturbations caused by Jupiter and Saturn. The attention of astronomers was therefore drawn toward this new passage, and Clairaut found in it a new field of activity.

Clairaut, Alexis-Claude

The conditions favorable, in the case of the moon, to solving the three-body problem did not exist here. The analysis had to be much more precise. It was essentially a question of calculating the perturbations brought about by the attractions of Jupiter and Saturn, in the movement of the comet. The actual passage to perihelion took place on 13 March. By reducing his approximations even more, Clairaut calculated the date as 4 April. Then, in a paper awarded a prize by the Academy of St. Petersburg in , and through use of a different method, he arrived at the last day of March as the date of passage.

It was difficult to do any better. But this is a problem that has not been solved before, in either theory or practice. In James Bradley made public his discovery of the aberration of light and the Lapland expedition scrupulously took this phenomenon into consideration in the determination of latitudes. Bradley had not given any theoretical proof, however; and in paper writter in , immediately following his return from the expedition, Clairaut offered the neglected proffs.

He dealt with this question several times again; and in he indicated how to make corrections for the aberration of planets, comets, and satellites. The unequal refrangibility of light rays made the astronomical refracting telescope imperfect, and Newton had therefore preferred the reflecting telescope. In Euler suggested making up two component glass object lenses with water enclosed between them. But in Klingenstierna sent a report to Dollond that led the latter to redo the Newtonian experiments and to go back to his original opinion. Thus, he used object lenses made up of two glasses having different optical qualities.

His technique, however, still remained mysterious. Clairaut, thinking that it would be expedient to provide a complete theory on the question, undertook precise experiments in which he was assisted by the optician George and his colleague Tourniere. The Academy of St.

Petersburg had made this question the subject of a competition in , and the prize was won by Klingenstierna. Quand ces faisances ne sont pas fournies en nature, on les estime en argent. Dix arpens suffisent pour en contenir le nombre dont un faisandier peut prendre soin ; mais plus une faisanderie est spacieuse, meilleure elle est. On le fait en nettoyant avec grand soin leur caisse, dans laquelle ils passent ordinairement la nuit.

On les abandonne enfin, lorsqu'on voit qu'ils n'ont plus besoin de secours. Nous lisons dans Pline, l. Florus, liv. Silius Italicus, liv. Plutarque, Censorin, de die nat. Rhodiginus, lib. Godwin, anthol. On les garantit de la pluie en les couvrant d'un manteau d'armes. Ce rapport sera l'expression de notre certitude ou de notre incertitude. Voyez l'article FOI. FAIT Jurisprud. Il y a des excommunications qui sont encourues par le seul fait, ipso facto.

Voyez le titre de l'ordonnance de , article 4. Voyez le titre viij. Voyez Loyseau , des offices, liv. Bougier, lettre H. Basnage, tr. C'est ainsi que l'explique l'article Voyez aussi Lodunois , ch.

Cap du mail : un chantier qui interpelle

Voyez le tit. Voyez Boniface , tome V. Voyez Papon , liv. Bouvot, tome II. Basset, tom. Boniface, tom. Pinault, tom. Voyez la loi On appelle aussi prix fait, un prix certain qu'on ne veut ni augmenter, ni diminuer. Voyez les Pl. Meneston sur Cher, art. Dunois, art. Voyez Brillon , au mot Festagium.

O miseras hominum mentes! D'Herbelot, biblioth. Daniel, hist. Celui-ci ne se rassemble que trop.

1765: A year in the correspondence between d’Alembert and Lagrange

Cette montagne s'appelle aujourd'hui Rocca di mondragone, monte Massico. Falmouth signifie l'embouchure de la Fale, parce que ce havre est l'embouchure de cette riviere. C'est de Falmouth que partent les paquebots pour Lisbonne. Ce faltranck nous vient de Suisse, d'Auvergne, des Alpes. Mais on n'exploite d'entre les falunieres, que celles qu'on peut travailler avec profit. On fouille quelquefois au printems, mais cela est rare. Il y a de la marne dans les environs des falunieres ; mais elle ne vaut rien pour les terres auxquelles le falun est bon.

Voyez de Thou, liv.

Adolf P. Youschkevitch — Wikipédia

Tavernier, voyage de Perse ; Justinian, hist. Nous ne parlerons donc pas de ces diverses relations. La troupe des gladiateurs, qui faisoient leurs exercices sous un chef commun, s'appelloit aussi familia : ce chef portoit le nom de lanista. Brutus, ce M. Voyez les lois Demeurer dans la famille, c'est rester sous la puissance paternelle. Fusarius, de fidei-comm. Voyez la Peyrere, lett. Voyez digest. Voyez Marine , Pl. On nomme aussi fanaux, toutes les lanternes dont on se sert dans les vaisseaux pour y mettre les lumieres dont on a besoin.

Le fanatisme n'est donc que la superstition mise en action. Si quelque lecteur avoit l'injustice de confondre les abus de la vraie religion avec les principes monstrueux de la superstition, nous rejettons sur lui d'avance tout l'odieux de sa pernicieuse logique. Mais si l'ignorance ou la corruption abusent des meilleures institutions, quel sera l'abus des choses monstrueuses?

Il laissoit les armes aux faux prophetes qui n'auroient ni la raison ni l'exemple pour eux. Qu'est-ce donc que le fanatisme? Dans la confusion des devoirs. Que pensez-vous de cela? Il courut dans le xj. Venons maintenant aux symptomes de cette maladie. Au second rang sont les visionnaires. Je suis le monarque de toute la terre, diroit un tailleur, l'esprit-saint me l'a dit. Non, diroit son voisin, je dois savoir le contraire, car je suis son fils. Nous nous promenons depuis long-tems sur les rivages de la mer pour le recevoir Mais passons aux grands remedes qui sont ceux de la politique.

Mais s'il n'y a point de barriere au pouvoir du souverain Est-ce qu'elle se soutient sur des bras de chair? Voudriez-vous la faire regarder comme un instrument de politique? Mais aussi quels dangereux instrumens en de mauvaises mains! Un enthousiaste est souvent plus redoutable avec ses armes invisibles, qu'un prince avec toute son artillerie. Exilez ces esprits ardens au fond des provinces, ils mettront toutes les villes en feu. Fanatisme du patriote.

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Il y a une sorte de fanatisme dans l'amour de la patrie, qu'on peut appeller le culte des foyers. Commerce mesure des grains dont on se sert en Portugal ; quinze fanegos font le muid ; quatre alquiers font le fanegos ; quatre muids de Lisbonne font le last d'Amsterdam. Il y a des peuples fanfarons. La fanfaronade est aussi dans le ton. Il est bien plus facile d'entasser des sentences les unes sur les autres, que de converser.

Art milit. Il est conduit par un officier subalterne, auquel on donne le nom de waquemestre. Cette ville est la patrie de deux papes ; savoir de Marcel II. FANO, Comm. Voyez Planche IV. Les anciens mettoient tout simplement le membre dans une espece de caisse qui contenoit fort bien tout l'appareil. Voyez l'article suivant. Cette origine est manifeste dans le diminutif hanulum pour fanulum, petit temple. Reinesius, inscript. Voyez l'article CERF. Le premier, j.

Quant au terme de faquin, qui dans cette circonstance est le synonyme de celui de quintaine, sa source n'est point obscure. Il est fait mention de ce droit dans le liv. Sa longit. Commerce poids dont on se sert dans quelques lieux du continent des grandes Indes. Que l'on s'amuse au spectacle de la farce, c'est un fait qu'on ne peut nier. S'il n'avoit rien d'attrayant, il ne seroit que mauvais. Mais qu'importe, dit-on encore, que le public ait raison de s'amuser?

Ne suffit-il pas qu'il s'amuse? Job, chap. Voyez Tavernier , voyage de Perse, liv. Depuis les voyages de M. Quaecumque afficiet tali medicamine vultum, Fulgebit speculo laevior ipsa suo. Horace l'appelle humida creta. Marine ce sont des fagots qu'on met au fond de cale, quand on charge en grenier.

Suivant M. On couvre les fargues d'une bastingure bleue ou rouge. Elles sont jointes aux montans, avec de petites chevilles de fer. Elle ne se peut faire que de nuit. Ce sont les bateaux ou chaloupes des barques qui sont dans le port qui s'y occupent. On peut concevoir encore le corps farineux comme une espece de corps muqueux dans la composition duquel le principe terreux surabonde.

Les farineux fournissent dans cette distillation, tous les produits communs des corps muqueux. Les racines de plusieurs plantes de diverses classes, fournissent de la farine. Voyez tous ces articles. Voyez PAIN. Voyez Boerhaave , aphorism. Ray, synop. Est-il saisi? Voyez le P. Winslow le nomme le muscle du fascia-lata. Le chancelier Bacon, de augmento scientiar. Malebranche, dern. Claude prieur religieux de l'ordre des FF.


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Voyez ses opuscules, p. Mercurialis, ibid. Sennert, l. Willis, de morb. Frommann, lib. Cet auteur se donne beaucoup de peine, ibid. Vandermonde a traduite. Grotius explique cependant avec beaucoup de vraisemblance ce mauvais oeil, de celui de l'avare, dans ses notes sur le ch. Gori, dans son Museum Etrusc. Thomas Bartholin, de puerperio vet. Don Ramirez de Prado, dans son Pentecontarche, c. Son opinion sur le mot higa, n'a point de fondement, mais elle a quelque rapport avec ce qu'on lit dans Suidas, que l' est une petite machine, , dont les Magiciennes se servent pour rappeller leurs amans.

Biser a transcrit ce passage de Suidas, dans ces notes greques sur le v. Frommann, l. Perkins, lib. De augm.