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  • Libidacoria: IN A PLAIN BROWN WRAPPER.
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Canadaand internationalcartels:An inquiry into thenatureand effects of international cartelsand othertrade combinations. Ottawa: King's Printer. Canadian representatives abroad and representatives in Canada of the British Commonwealthand foreign governments. Canada, Treaty Series, Soviet foreignpolicy International journal, I 1 , Jan. Includesa discussion of Canada'srelationshipwith the Soviet Union. A discussion of the nature and implicationsof the "far-reachingdiplomaticrevolution " that Canadahasundergone in recentyears. Canada'stradecommissioners Quarterly review of commerce,XII 1 , Discusses the origin, growth, and war duties of the Trade Commissioner Service,and the commissioners' training and functions.

Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide. Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves. Built on the Johns Hopkins University Campus. Relevant when discussing this agreement is the importance of the unitization principle. XXVII, Praprotnik, op. It applies to both present situations and future ones. In June , the ICJ held that the previous agreements did not determine the boundary in question and that it would, thus, have to be determined independently.

The same would be applicable if the exploitation of the resources in the area by one Party would affect the possibility of exploitation by the other Party. In , Iceland and Demark concluded an analogous agreement with respect to their continental-shelf boundary, just south of the Denmark-Norway boundary.

In accordance with the Denmark- Norway agreement, the Denmark-Iceland treaty noted that the northernmost boundary point was to be established in cooperation with a third party, Norway. The agreement also included a natural resource provision nearly identical to the provision in the Denmark-Norway treaty Similar to the Iceland-Denmark agreement is the agreement between Greenland Denmark and Svalbard Norway , which outlines the maritime boundary. It went a step further than the maritime resources clause of the Iceland—Denmark agreement because it stated that a future exploitation agreement will establish the exploitation method and the profits sharing scheme.

Analogous to the U. Approximately km2 were now opened for exploitation The U. It only gave economic rights over what would become disputed areas if both the line and the mile EEZ principle had been applied. The United States ratified this Agreement and the Russian Federation applies it provisionally from the date of signature up to the present. The treaty creates the framework for the joint development of cross-border deposits and it attaches details about the conditions to be met by the unitization agreements, one for each deposit. The treaty offers both a safe judicial framework and the much- needed flexibility in negotiating each subsequent agreement.

Also, it recognizes that private companies could play a significant role in making the unitization process more efficient. In November Canada and Denmark signed an agreement on EEZs in the Lincoln Sea which could turn into the first step towards the settlement of other standing disputed delimitations In Russia announced that it would increase its military presence in the Arctic. More than that, there is historical precedent in terms of agreements regarding unitization, cooperation and joint development.

Thus, the region presents the needed preconditions for cross-border cooperation. Nonetheless, the region also presents threats to future cross-border cooperation. Firstly, the climate remains the main enemy of the extractive industry in the Arctic. There are extreme temperatures for most of the year, long periods of darkness, the ice has a destructive effect on installations and the subsoil cannot be drilled in for some periods due to its physical characteristics.

Secondly, a mature oil industry requires not only drilling technology but also adequate infrastructure. From this point of view, the oil industry is severely limited by the high costs of drilling platforms and transport capabilities pipelines, ice breakers, special ships and by the considerable length of supply lines Thirdly, exploitation can be hampered by the long period between exploration and commercial production, as proven by previous exploitations 20 years in the case of Hibernia and Sakhalin fields Also, despite the advanced drilling technology, the threat to the environment is still worrisome.

In other areas of the Arctic governments are trying to calm worries related to the environment while attempting to satisfy economic demands. Canada held an auction for more than , hectares in the Beaufort Sea and Mackenzie Delta only after the release of a National Energy Board review of offshore Arctic drilling. Also, the government called for bids to develop a five-year strategic plan to conduct oil spill research in the Canadian Arctic Those opposing drilling in the Arctic argue on behalf of upholding the Memorandum over the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and toughening the legislation concerning the extended Arctic Circle.

Drilling in the Arctic faces not only the dangers related to the nature of the region but also political and bureaucratic ones. On one hand, despite various forms of cross-border cooperation enshrined in the agreements between Arctic states, territorial disputes continue to threaten the industry. Beyond this line, states can claim rights over seabed resources if they can prove that the seabed is a natural prolongation of their national territory.

By allowing 29 Cutler J. Russia, Canada and Denmark argue that the ridge is a natural prolongation of their own territory, whereas the US argues that the Lomonosov Ridge is an oceanic ridge which would mean that no country can extend its rights over it Back in , Russia submitted its petition to the United Nations but the bid was rejected on lack of evidence. On 3 August Russia re-submitted its petition to the United Nations claiming exclusive control over 1. The two countries have competing views on how to draw the border.

Thus, the 26 km2 between Alaska and Yukon are in a judicial limbo, together with their natural resources. The area is believed to be rich in resources, which could entice the parties to speed up negotiations Unresolved Arctic sovereignty claims could substantially delay development of those oil and natural gas resources where economic 32 Arctic Oil and Gas, op.

On the other hand, red tape and unattractive fiscal policies decrease the chances of developing a profitable oil industry. At the moment, in Arctic Alaska, the lease term is 10 years. Given the weather conditions and the lengthy permitting processes that involve multiple federal and state-level government agencies , the time is hardly sufficient. Also, companies can lease blocks of up to only 3 square miles.

Perhaps the biggest hindrance to the exploitation of the Arctic Circle is the unpredictability of prices for a barrel of oil. On the one hand, a cheaper barrel, as it is now, means that the investments needed for Arctic drilling are not profitable. On the other hand, setting the Arctic business strategy is hampered by the long period between exploration and commercial production. Because nobody knows how the oil industry and the global market will look like in 20 years, one might think that the oil companies cannot take the risk of being excluded from an area with great potential.

It would not be the first time in history when, despite cheap oil and overproduction, multinational oil companies decide to make significant investments in regions where they would not have invested if they took into consideration the global oil prices. Opportunities When analyzing the Arctic Circle, one can see the threats to cross- border cooperation and the precedent set by agreements that either settled disputes or created the necessary conditions for future cooperation.

Setting aside the steps that states take to cooperate in the development of their cross-border deposits, individual initiatives to boost the industry are worth discussing. Giver the very long time between exploration and commercial production, some countries look for new ways of attracting investments. One of these methods is changing the leasing terms, by increasing the number of years and decreasing royalties and taxes.

As opposed to the US, Canada encourages greater risk-taking by energy companies willing to commit capital and resources to the Arctic. If discoveries are made, the Significant Discovery License SDL system allows operators to retain control over their field until it becomes economically viable to develop and produce the resource.

Canada is not the only country trying to cut unnecessary red tape in order to attract investments. Greenland permits operators to acquire much larger tracts of offshore blocks than the three square mile blocks offered by the United States. Furthermore, in the Northeast Greenland offshore, operators can extend the initial license term to 16 years. This area holds extremely promising resource development potential, but it also poses some of the most—if not the most—challenging ice conditions across the entire drilling-for-oil-in-the-arctic.

Another individual initiative if realized, it could consolidate Arctic resources exploitation is the possible future change in the status of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and its eventual opening towards commercial bids. The Reserve was established in the s so that the American Navy, if needed, could tap into the oil of an area owned by the federal government. These authorities are, in turn, under the influence of numerous political parties. Conclusions The obvious and accelerated warming of the Arctic Circle reactivates a number of challenges and problems.

On the other hand, the absence of glaciers means that the area can be exploited. At the same time, the exploitation of the melted Arctic Circle is hampered by climate, costs and conflicts between the riparian states. Also, interstate cooperation in the development of offshore, cross-border deposits has proven both efficient and sustainable from legal, political and commercial points of view. It remains to be seen if the Arctic states will be overwhelmed by the threats posed to the Arctic exploitation or whether they will take advantage of the opportunities for cooperation and the development of the industry in this difficult but rich region.

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Bastida, Ana E. Cleveland, Cutler J. Jayalakshmi, K. Ong, David M. Seeing how their presence in the Gulf was vital to the security and stability of the region, one is left with questions to why the region continued to remain stable after the withdrawal. Literature brings into discussion a transition from British to American influence in the region. However, it can be argued that this answer is somewhat unsatisfactory.

According to former diplomat Christopher Rundle, those words were graffiti on the walls of the British Embassy in Teheran during the events of the Islamic Revolution2. E-mail: andreibruma outlook. The inclusion of Britain however presents somewhat of a mystery. Was it confusion or a reflex of old times? Although a case can be made that centuries of British control over the Persian Gulf may not have contributed to lots of trust between Iranians and the British, this does not explain why the struggle against the Iranian monarch and the subsequent revolutionary actions would necessarily spill towards the United Kingdom, as the facts place the United States at the centre of most events.

Also, the literature focuses almost entirely on the role of the US. According to Fain it was designed to maintain stability in the region and to prevent the USSR to expand its influence in the Persian Gulf3. Obviously, the economic importance of the oil rich Persian Gulf was a strong motivation for the West to secure stability in the region. With Iran and Saudi Arabia as sworn enemies and an unstable Iraq, stability was all but natural.

As presented by Fain the construct was based on a framework that was to encourage the regional actors to cooperate and resolve their disputes so that any possible conflict could be resolved through political action. British influence was seen as essential for this strategy to work. As a consequence, a regional arbiter was required that had to be made strong enough to discourage any conflict in the area, as Hurewitz argues5, but that at the same time could be sufficiently controlled.

The logical choice for this role was Iran, where at that time the pro-western Shah was consolidating his position, making Iran a reliable ally for the West. Consequently, Iran needed to be supplied with sophisticated weapons systems to be provided by the US and its allies. In the eyes of the United States, the security construct was of such importance that it took major steps to substantiate it.

This is clearly demonstrated by the weapon systems that Iran had access to.

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As Stork and Paul argue, the US sold F-4 Phantom aircrafts Israel being the only other state in the region that was in possession of this type of aircraft to Iran in an effort to secure its place as the region arbitral 6. The importance of the security construct can also be demonstrated by the fact that it even overwrote some of the US foreign policy doctrines.

Moens argued that the importance of Iran and the Shah as an ally and gendarme for the Persian Gulf surpassed the Carter Doctrine and multiple other US directives that forbade the sale of arms to states that violated human rights9. Even more so, President Carter, during his visit in , 5 Jacob C. Summing up, the security construct that governed the Persian Gulf from to was envisioned to maintain political and economic stability and cooperation in the Persian Gulf and to prevent the spread of USSR influence within the region, mainly through the influence its initiators were supposed to have on the local parties in the region and through a strong and well-armed Iran to discourage any major conflict in the area.

Although the British hold on their foreign policies was very strong, this must not be understood as a colonial rule on the Persian Gulf states. Within this framework the British could intervene in disputes between the Persian states usually concerning frontiers , an involvement that was generally welcomed and accepted by local rulers However, in this construct came to an end when the British announced their withdrawal from the East of Suez.

The reasons for this decision are still being debated by academics. But unlike the differences in views about the underlying reasons, there is a general consensus about the fact that the withdrawal left a security void in the region. As the region undoubtedly was of strategic importance for the entire west, and as the United States on its own were unable to fill this void due to its involvement in Vietnam19, this situation presented a growing problem, especially when multiple attempts to convince the United Kingdom to reconsider their decision failed.

Ultimately, the solution was found in engaging Britain into the creation of the Security Construct as detailed in the previous chapter. British influence, however, was still defined as a cornerstone of the Construct. Obviously, Britain was capable to use its influence to stimulate cooperation between the local actors and solve disputes as described by Fain 21 , but, in the absence of British troops in the region, policing the states of the Persian Gulf and keeping peace was an impossibility. To give such a crucial role to Iran must have been based on the assessment that the West and the UK in particular would have enough influence on Iran to secure their goals.

The discovery of oil in Iran deepened both the importance of and the British influence on Iran, especially after the foundation of the Anglo- 20 Ibidem, p. The British dominated the technology to refine oil24, making Iran dependent on their expertise. The importance of the Iranian oil reserves became very imminent during World War II when the Western allies feared that they could be cut off of supplies due to German influence on Reza Shah, who had declared Iran to remain neutral This, alongside the need to secure the transportation of arms to the USSR, was the main reasons for the occupation of Iran by British and Soviet troops After the war, this lead to a territorial dispute between Iran and the USSR, as the Soviets refused to withdraw their troops until they would receive similar oil concessions as the British and Americans already enjoyed Even though British expertise was vital for Iran, in Mossadegh —the prime minister of Iran and popular leader—, made the decision to nationalize the Anglo-Persian Oil Company.

This was not acceptable to the British This British-designed and executed move clearly demonstrated the extent of British influence at that time. Ward, op. In the years after, the consortium remained the largest oil producer in Iran34, thereby further consolidating British influence in Iran. Although CENTO never matured into an influential organization, it allowed the Shah to expand its military forces and buy sophisticated new military equipment from the west35, tying Iran technologically to the west.

But a growing number of declassified documents relating to events at the end of and reveal a fundamentally unchanged level of influence. Due to the limitations of the material these documents may not yet be seen as conclusive evidence, but they do establish its likeliness. The instability generated by the Islamic Revolution forced the British government into action in an attempt to solve the situation and bring back stability, preferably with the Shah still in power.

Hambly, Charles Melville eds. Mr Weir said that this should not necessarily prove harmful. Everyone knew we had relations with the Government, Armed Services and members of the opposition. Mr Judd stated that it was time we cooled down our relations with the Shah. The references made to the Army and the Opposition also show at least an assumed level of influence that goes beyond the ordinary. McCourt, op. This clearly suggests that Britain was interested in and believed it was able to play a role even in an Iran without the Shah. Non-governmental officials seemed to have had the same perception.

An internal letter from David Stephen, political adviser, addressed to the Private Secretary, gives us access to a broader understanding of British influence over Iran. This position clearly takes some time to establish. In the absence of British or American troops in the region, the role of regional arbiter was assigned to Iran. To realize this, Iran had to be strong enough to discourage any conflict in the area Yet, the role of the United States in this area is better documented than that of the United Kingdom.

As we know, the US sold F-4 Phantom aircrafts Israel being the only other state in the region that was in possession of this type of aircraft to Iran However, clues may not so much be found in declassified defence contracts as well as in the correspondence between the British government and the one in Iran with regard to the cancellation of contracts after the Islamic Revolution.

When the Shah was forced to leave Iran, a power struggle began which was won by the Ayatollah Khomeini The actions of the new 44 See Taylor Fain, op. Hurewitz, op. It is in the list of contracts enclosed in the telegrams to London, announcing the Iranian desire to cancel the contracts that valuable information can be found of what the British government was selling to Iran. The contracts cancelled were not only for tanks, armoured vehicles, support ships, hovercrafts, spare parts and ammunition for these types of weapons, but also for consultancy and construction of naval bases Interestingly, in documents about discussions within the Cabinet Office for almost a year after the cancelation of the contracts, it is mentioned that Britain still remained the second largest defence equipment provider to Iran Not only is the United Kingdom the second largest weapons supplier to Iran, but the contracts between the two cover all military sectors and are not restricted to just equipment, spare parts or ammunition.

In fact this is highly consistent with what one would expect as a result of the Security Construct. The British focused in the period between and on a broad military build-up of Iran. A selective policy with regard to arms sales to other countries in the region is also highly consistent with the underlying principles of the Security Construct.

Thus, it aimed at making only one country strong enough in order to discourage conflicts in the area. The Collapse of the Security Construct The western support that the Shah was enjoying under the Security Construct did not only manifest itself in his foreign policy, but also domestically. These domestic reforms, imposed by the Shah, represent the beginning of the end for the Security Construct. Faced with unrest, the Shah turns to his western allies for advice.

Wagner, op. The situation became so grave that in January , the Shah was forced to leave Iran58 which opened the way for the Islamic Revolution. The government left by the Shah was unable to restore stability. Although the Bakhtiar administration tried to prevent Ayatollah Khomeini from returning to Iran, the religious leader arrived in Tehran and was greeted by large masses of people Once he returned he imposed, through referendum, a new constitution60, thus establishing the new Islamic Republic of Iran. The internal struggle for power continued until the Hostage Crisis, which Khomeini used to rally the population around his cause against the United States This generated a days crisis between the newly formed Republic of Iran and the USA, prompting the United States to sever diplomatic ties with Tehran and impose an arms and oil embargo The embargo from the United States against Iran left the Islamic Republic without its most important arms suppliers.

Furthermore, when the American consultants left Iran, they committed a series of sabotages, taking with them the avionics of the Iranian air force, leaving the Iranian Republic 57 Alexander Moens, op. Thus, the strong and well-armed Iran that was supposed to counterbalance its neighbours was turned weak, militarily unorganized and unable to deploy its forces.

In fact, this triggered the Iran- Iraq war. Pelletiere observes that although the Iranian armed forces were already dysfunctional immediately after the Shah left lacking central coordination 65, Iraq was not ready at that time to engage in a conflict However, the Hostage Crisis convinced the Iraqi leadership that the balance of power between the two countries had shifted 67 due to the fact that Iran was not only unorganized but now also lacked the weapons to defend itself.

Within a year after the above mentioned events, the Iran-Iraq war started. This meant a total collapse of the Security Construct. In reality, the Security Construct appeared to be based, for a large part, on the position of the Shah. British action during de final months of the Shah suggests that indeed a post-Shah era was evaluated. As British influence was extended to the leaders of the opposition, the British designed a contingency plan which involved identifying and contacting the main leader s of the opposition that would be friendly toward the west Although the British still hoped that the Shah would resolve the situation73, this contingency plan was meant to keep Britain in a good position with a possible different government and maintain their contracts and interests.

These contracts included but were not limited to the sale of military equipment towards Iran. However, the last discussion between the British ambassador and the Shah already indicates that the contingency plan envisioned by the British had limited chances of success. We had some discussion of practical matters but his whole manner was that of a man who was talking about past events which no longer had personal relevance to him. He laughed and said in a detached way that Iran had no money and could not help.

We also discussed the future foreign policy of any Iranian government. Again, his manner was that of a man who was prepared to take a mild but detached interest. Equally relevant is the miscalculation regarding the importance of the Shah for the armed forces. Then, the Hostage Crisis forced the final shift in the British policy towards Iran.

Before this crisis, the British position was still to focus on maintaining stability in Iran, but after the assault on the American Embassy the British were forced to take action to aid the United States in their efforts to release the hostages. Pelletiere, op. As the British felt obliged to choose the side of the US, they lost most of their influence on Iran. As discussed, the British influence on Iran and the Shah was based on economic, political and military dependencies of the latter. When these dependencies were simply denied by the new Iranian government, British policymaking had to return to a dilemma with regard to their own interests.

Obviously, British interests were damaged by the nationalization of the National Iranian Oil Company by the new Islamic regime. The regime cancelled the Consortium Agreement of and all regulations associated with it, causing an exodus of foreign employees and thus leaving the industry in the hands of domestic employees But British interests were also to be viewed in relation to its allies. Ministers agreed in June that, subject to satisfactory financial arrangements being made, these deliveries should proceed. Appropriate payments of sums due have now been made and necessary letters of credit opened and the MOD is ready to recommence supply.

No spares and ammunition have been supplied since the hostages were taken in early November and Defence and FCO Ministers have agreed that for the time being no supplies should be declared for shipment and that administrative delays should be offered as the excuse if one is called for.

This is the current position. An overt Arms Embargo would do no immediate damage to the Iranian Government but the Armed Forces are eager to obtain delivery of spares and ammunitions which they must have if they are to be used as effective instruments of law and order. These actions, that clearly and ostensibly placed the United Kingdom in the United States camp, together with the growing instability of the situation in Teheran, made it necessary for London to decide to close 81 Ibidem. Still, diplomatic relations with the Islamic Republic were maintained and the Iranian Embassy in London remained open As none of the British actions had the required impact it is apparent that British influence over the new Khomeini administration was very limited if not non-existent, and even more so after the closure of the British Embassy.

Signs that the Iranian Islamic Revolution was also starting to destabilize the region were coming in soon after. The hostilities Lord Carrington referred to were the first signs of the upcoming Iraqi invasion of Iran later that year September. Although this communication in itself is perfectly normal, it also clearly shows the shift in British concerns.

Similarly, when later that year the war between Iran and Iraq was indeed threatening free shipping in the region, the British government reengaged militarily in the area deploying two war ships: HMS Coventry85 and HMS Alacrity They were instructed not to intervene in the war but to protect its interests and, as part of an international effort together with the US and the French, to guard and rescue any civilian ships caught in the crossfire of the conflict The combination of a war and an ongoing arms embargo to one of the belligerents Iran further limited whatever possibilities were left to influence the situation, as is shown by the following telegram that circulated inside the Foreign and Commonwealth Office: 83 Cristopher Rundle, op.

Summing up, the sequence of events not only led to the collapse of the Security Construct, but also to serious damage to British interests. That embargo continuing after the Iran- Iraq started made it impossible to intervene in the war, even if they had wanted to. The remaining position for the British was to defend their own interests, wherever possible. Conclusions This study makes a case for a much more prominent British role in the Security Construct for the Gulf after the British withdrawal of , than usually is perceived in literature.

The Security Construct was an American initiative prompted by the void left by the British after their decision to withdraw all of their troops East of Suez. In this design, pro-western Iran fulfilled the military role and British influence was deemed to be sufficient to achieve the required balance. Western controlled stability in the region could then be instrumental in blocking the USSR in this part of the world. Although reluctant at first, the British decided to participate in this construct.

Seemingly it came with less risk and fewer costs. The construct held strong for almost a decade, but when it was put to a serious test in it showed a fatal weakness that, apparently, was not accounted for. It could be argued of course that the security construct was leaning too much on the position of one person, the Shah. The element that surprised all parties involved was religious radicalism that did not answer to known western logic. The protests of and signified a desire for change in Iran that even the Shah was clearly seeing. That is a question that each and all of the US allies had and have to find an answer to.

Such an action might have had severe implications on British overall interests. If the larger context of the Cold war is taken into consideration, the negative implications of a refusal to comply with the American design might as well have overridden the negative effects of the failure of the Security Construct. As seen in the beginning of this study, the revolutionaries considered the USSR worse than both the British and Americans put together. As a consequence, it is not surprising that in the aftermath of the collapse of the Security Construct, the USSR was unable to bring Iran in its sphere of influence.

Taking everything into consideration, the paradoxical message that started this study can now be understood.

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As a consequence their inclusion in the list is not only the result of historical domination of the Gulf, but a continuing presence under a different form in the internal workings of the Gulf. Even more relevant, although an American construct was governing the security of the Gulf, British heritage made the revolutionaries unable to decide which power would be able to develop a stronger influence on Iran, putting both the British and the Americans on the same place.

As a consequence, an argument can be made for the importance of the British for the construct and the level of influence they had. Furthermore, even after the Islamic Revolution, the two western states were viewed with the same mistrust until the US allowed the Shah to briefly stay in the US, pushing Iranian resentment towards the US over the limit. Looking at the failure of the Security Construct from a British perspective adds to the understanding of the Islamic Revolution and allows us to look at events from another dimension.

This would naturally passion relations between Iran and the west. Last year, the Islamic Republic of Iran and the West signed an important accord. Sings of a more open Iran are emerging, arguably bringing the two sides closer and allowing some chances for rapprochement. Seeing how opinions regarding this landmark accord are divided, these new perspectives on the founding moments of the Islamic Republic and its relations with the West are not only welcome but vital to understand and bridge the divide between the two sides. Cook, Alethia H.

Houghton, David P. McCourt, Conor D. Nye Jr. Pelletiere, C. Wagner, Heather L. Ward, Steven R.

June 26, 1945 - San Francisco United Nations Charter Signed

Watkins, E. The study begins with a historical background of relations up to and follows the evolution of bilateral ties up to the present day. The research tracks the evolution of relations in tight correlation with the internal political struggle in both states. At the same time, it takes into consideration the broader regional and global tendencies that influence objectives, options, perceptions and decisions in Bucharest and Tehran. Ultimately, the subject is connected to the Eurasian balance of power in the post-Soviet world. The strategic position of the two states, situated on opposite ends of the Ottoman Empire, was the driving force behind the inevitable rapprochement between them.

Previous contacts had occurred but December 18, can be considered the start of relations between Bucharest and Tehran1. The relationship slowly grew throughout the decades, but was interrupted by the outbreak of World War Two, when the two countries were on opposite sides of the conflict. E-mail: dragos. The same goes for post-revolutionary Iran, in need of resuming trade and soon involved in a bloody war with Iraq. Nevertheless trade continued but not near the pre scale4.

After that, Romania got closer to fellow rebel nations such as Libya and Iran5. Political contacts were eventually deepened, peaking in However, soon after the Romanian delegation landed in Iran, the anti-communist demonstrations that had erupted throughout the country degenerated, culminating in a full-scale revolution. XXII, No. They did not want to be associated with a bloody dictator who oppressed his people, especially since the Iranian Revolution had dealt with a similar situation.

As the communist super-structure was dismantled and replaced with the clean slate of freedom, much of what Bucharest had represented abroad collapsed. Foreign trade deals, while still in place, fell apart after January because of disillusioned workers, opportunist former secret service agents turned capitalist investors and, most of all, the lack of a judiciary system prepared to take on the new reality7. However, after the disappearance of the USSR and the Warsaw Treaty Organization and after the new democratic elections of , the government turned towards NATO and the Western European Union for its security and towards association with the European Communities as a prelude to eventual integration8.

The next year, during the outbreak of the Gulf crisis, he kept Iran out of the conflict. In this regard, the new leader of Iran was on the same page as his counterpart in Bucharest. Ion Iliescu agreed to enforce the embargo on Iraqi oil in spite of the fact that Baghdad was delivering shipments to Romania in order to repay an old debt. In light of this situation, the two governments began to reignite the old relationship through mutual visits in between the two foreign ministers.

In , after the election of a new Romanian Parliament, the President of the lower chamber visited the Majlis Iranian parliament. This was reciprocated with a visit from the Iranian Minister of Foreign Affairs. Thus, oil shipments from Iran continued intermittently up to These old energy-devouring entities, recently downsized or altogether closed, used to be the main justification for maintaining large oil imports. As consumption was shifted towards domestic consumers, the national resources of hydrocarbons and coal were sufficient After , the efforts made by Bucharest to preserve the 9 Glenn E.

It identifies issues and recommendations for organizational and procedural improvements. Glasgow, Lieutenant Colonel W. Army Europe, dated A staff ride guide conducted from May , to study the battlefield, to study the tactical principles of one of the most important battles in Japanese history and to examine the lessons learned within context of modern warfare. Senate Committee on Appropriations. Report was prepared in response to taskings from Senate Appropriations Committee Senate Report regarding the reduction of dependents overseas. The Committee requested a report on actions that could be taken to reduce the number of DOD dependents overseas, with particular consideration of alternatives that restrict accompanied overseas tours.

Section 1: Personnel Initiatives. Options; Section II. Rotation of Ground Combat Units: Chap. Cost Factors. Human Factors. Section 3. Rotation of Combat and Operations Squadrons: Introduction. Section IV. Noncombatant Evacuation Operations; Section V. Conclusions and Recommendations.

Siemon, Bruce H. The Early Occupation; 2. The Need for More Air Defense; 3. Training; 4. Air Defense Priorities. Initial Concepts; Further Planning. The Command and Control Crisis. Nike Plans; 8. Major Developments. Nuclear Weapons Support; Missile Firing Ranges; Chap 4. Toward a Balanced Air Defense.

Background; Recent U. Proposed Transfer of Air Defense Responsibilities. DeLong, Elizabeth J. Bernhart, and Mary T. Study to inform the officer corps of a new concept [see date] for officer personnel management, to solicit comments and to gain acceptance of the OPMS concept and its components.

Fundamental element of the Plan are competitive promotion lists that ensures professional and technical competence, recognizes individual specialties, and limits nonproductive competition by clarifying opportunities, conditions, etc. Plan has six policy areas: professionalism, grade structure system, career management system, promotion system, evaluation system and counseling training system.

Rosson, General W. The Buddhist Uprising in ; Chap. Prisoner of War Issue; Chap. Reduction of US Forces; Chap. Copies were maintained in the files of the Office of the Under Secretary of the Army. Finley, James P. Maps; Section 5. Reproduced Photos. Army Combat Developments Command, 15 February Koropey, Colonel Oleh B. Army, [undated].

Two reports submitted by the Senior Review Panel on Sexual Harassment and the Inspector General following its inspection of equal opportunity and sexual misconduct policies and procedures at initial entry level training organizations. Reports include 17 issue papers that present a narrative overview of the major recommendations, actions taken in response to findings, and actions to be taken.

Andreacchio, Major Nicholas A. His mission was to advise the G3 on all aspects of ARVN Armor, including training, operations, employment, and organization. The account is an autobiographical one but includes his analysis of the problems experienced with the command and solutions for overcoming the obstacles. Analysis and Conclusion; appendix: questionnaire summary; bibliography. Shanahan, Edward P. Chickamauga Staff Ride Briefing Book. The first of a series of USARAC Staff Ride handbooks for use by Army Reservists about battlefields such as this Civil War battle at Chickamauga to analyze military operations on the actual terrain and thereby enhance an understanding of lessons and principles of war.

Interviews with Charles J. Philip Y. Browning, Jr. Edens, Ret. John W. Foss, Ret. Robert S. Hardy, Jr. Denny Leander, Ret. William R. Richardson; Lieut. Christopher Scammon; Lieut. Stephen R. Stover; Col. John A. Frank I. Travis, Jr.

  • The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus.
  • Marios Adamides (Author of 40 Wise Sayings and Quotes by Great Men and Women)?
  • Awakening to the Obvious.

Schindelholz, Jr. Vilcoq, II; Maj. Also a chronology of selected major events in the history of the USARC and a list of abbreviations and acronyms. Staff Sergeant Warren, Michael A. LaCharite, Norman A. CRESS, under contract with the Department of the Army, prepared a study for a social science research project in support of Army requirements. Views or conclusions contained in the reports are those of its authors and should not be interpreted as representing official policies of the Department of the Army or the U.

It is concerned with two aspects of VC terrorism: those VC actions that can be described as terrorist acts and the nonmilitary targets against which such actions were directed. Viet Cong Terrorism. Patterns and Characteristics. Targets Defined, Target Patterns and Characteristics. Political and Military Context. Chapter 5. Bongiovi, First Lieutenant Joseph R.

Lewis, Washington. Analysis and Conclusion. This volume includes annexes on the General Maintenance System. Annexes in this publication are on construction, facilities engineering, and engineer operational support. Activation and deployment to Thailand in Expansion of the Training Base; Chap.

Special Training Requirements; Chap. Major Activations during FY ; Chap. Deployments to Southeast Asia; Chap. Impact of Deployments Chap. Logistics and Planning; Chap. The First Year of the Army Buildup. German Radio Intelligence. MS P One of the manuscripts in the series that is commonly referred to as the Captured German Manuscript collection because, like the others, it was prepared by a former high ranking officer of the German Armed Forces and prepared the manuscripts under the sponsorship of their former adversaries. Manuscript includes a biographical sketch of the principal author; list of other contributors; list of charts; Chap.

Introduction; Chap. The Significance of Electronic Warfare; Chap. German Radio Intelligence Operations ; Chap. Eight appendixes. This is a history of the Detroit Arsenal that is part of the heritage of Tank-automotive Command. The Reduction of the Colmar Pocket. Manuscript of Second Draft, 1 April A page manuscript diary, with maps and appendices, compiled from the diaries, letters, press releases and other documents related to Battery F, th Field Artillery.

The author was a Corporal in the battery during the Great War. Appendices include a complete roster of Battery personnel. Cross Reference: WWI. This manuscript is missing the first thirteen pages. Declassified manuscript that served as the basis for the authors Allied Participation in Vietnam , CMH Publication , published in This is an account of allied assistance to the Republic of Vietnam and of efforts to enlist that assistance.

Army Combat Arms Regimental System. Standlee, Mary W. Dallas, Texas: 31 August Combat Studies Institute, U. The author provides examples of friendly fire involving U. He draws tentative conclusions about the causes and effects of friendly fire and offers recommendations for those who expect to study the subject further. Prepared for the Office of History, U. Army Corps of Engineers by K. This guide attempts to list every important document examined that relates to the planning, construction, or use of these temporary buildings.

The inventory covers temporary buildings constructed at Army and National Guard installations from to Edited by Charles R. Army Center of Military History, The report was prepared after a two-year in-depth study of the armed forces by the Department of Defense. Kirkpatrick, Charles E. The guide provides lists of five to seven books organized into twenty chronological sections.

There is a brief synopsis provided for each title listed. This study examines the U. This book is dedicated to all those lost in the September 11, attack on the Pentagon as well as to the families who cherish their memory. This book is a limited edition work printed for and given to the families of the deceased.

The CMH volume is one of twenty-five copies printed above the number given to the families. Gunhus, Chief of Chaplains, This document was prepared in response to a study request from the Secretary of the Army. Chapter 3 examines the extent to which the President and his civilian and military advisers consider mobilization during the first 3 years of the Vietnam ground war and the rationale behind the non-mobilization during this period. Chapter 4 focuses on the mobilization for the Vietnam War and addresses in detail what happened regarding the Army Reserve Component forces involved.

Chapter 5 ends the study with conclusions and interpretation relative to mobilization in general and to the partial mobilization for the Vietnam War. This study is an analysis of the operational use of Army forces after Vietnam War. This report is one of a series prepared as a preliminary step toward the development of a definitive history covering activities of the Engineer Service in the European Theater of Operation. This manuscript contains the eighteen appendices to Report 13, Petroleum, Oil and Lubricants.

This manuscript contains twelve appendices to Report No. The actual report, to which these appendices apply, is not at CMH. Forces to Vietnam. A short history of the creation of regional Commanders in Chief during World War II and the positions evolution through This picture and text history of the town of Gelnhausen, Hesse, Germany is written in German, includes a pamphlet with a short history written in English.

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The photographs focus on the old city of Gelnhausen, i. The 2nd Brigade, 3rd Armored Division Spearhead was stationed at Gelnhausen from until its deactivation in A brigade of the 4th Armored Division garrisoned the town before This paper covers: the exploitation of Japanese Army, Navy, and government records captured by US Forces between through for intelligence purposes and prosecuting war crimes; the transfer of the records to the National Archives in ; use by researchers ; and the events leading to the return of the papers to Japan in Griffiths, Robert K.

Army Center of Military History, no date. Divided into 2 volumes for filing purposes only. This is the 1 st draft of a CMH volume published in McNaughton, James C. This is a research paper examining the management of the Defense Foreign Language Program during the post-war era. Thomas J. Charles W. This research paper addresses the roles and missions of the U.

Army that support U. This guide lists selected papers prepared at the US Army War College by students of the classes to Part II—subject index. This monograph evaluates the Russian naval presence in the Mediterranean and its challenge to NATO forces, with data gathered from a literature search.

This report evaluates the problem of retaining experienced personnel within the National Guard in a time of no draft and the all-volunteer army. It examines three major retention factors in depth: training, junior NCO and junior officer inexperience, and incentives and benefits. Cunningham, Gregory Robert. Van Peer, Maj. Fred H. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, , pp. Cohen, William S. May McCabe Colonel E. This short monograph lists and describes major Chinese Army units circa Two copies. This monograph provides a detailed description of the Chinese Fourth Field Army during the early Korean War, with maps.

This monograph lays out the historical background, commanders, combat effectiveness, and composition of the Chinese Communist Third Field Army and subordinate commands. Contents: I. A collection of charts describing basic Chinese units, including armies, infantry regiments, battalions. A collection of personal reminiscences, narratives, photographs, copies of original documents, lists of medal winners, etc, involving the Battle of the Bulge in World War II.

Includes detailed chronology. Von Luttichau, Charles V. Written by a German historian, this monograph seeks to explode the myth that the German High Command planned the invasion of France in as a modern blitzkrieg. Quick and devastating campaigns, he argues, have been common throughout history and are not necessarily the result of modern armored warfare though the latter certainly facilitate rapid victories.

This monograph is a compendium of original documents, maps, photographs, personal impressions, and reproduced newspaper articles concerning the presence of American soldiers in France from World War I to Francis, Lt. Bob L. This short paper examines whether the US government could achieve major economies by unifying the armed forces.

As a pointer to the future, the author looks at the Canadian experiment in such unification, plus British efforts toward same. Hill, Captain Georgia D. Army Institute of Advanced Russian Studies, 95 pp. This paper describes the role played by women in the Soviet Army during World War II and their role in the s Soviet Army, with pointers to the future.

This brief report analyzes the conduct and results of two crucial mobilization exercises of the late s. It finds across-the-board shortfalls in logistics and coordination. Contents: Chapter I: Introduction. Chapter IV: Manpower. Parker, Brig. This paper examines the use of Eighth Army Artillery during the latter part of the Korean War, when both sides occupied static positions. This pamphlet guides Army agencies in the implementation of the Reserve Forces Act of Appendices: 1.

Supply Plan, 2. Facilities Plan. November , Department of the Army. Volume 1, pp. Volume I contains the main text, Volume II the annexes and addenda to that text. Contents, Vol. Battlefield Dynamics, F. Additional Technology Demonstrations, G. Bernstein, Dr. Lewis ; Lang, Ms. Sharon, Walker, Dr. James A. Having misplaced the third volume of his original diary, the author adds a narrative coda that summarizes his recollections of his remaining war service. This extensive handbook lays out the blueprint for governing areas of Germany occupied by Allied forces before German defeat or formal surrender.

It covers such subjects as civil administration, eradication of Nazism, public safety, and public health, to name a few. Officers; Appendices: A. Finance and Property Control Documents, C. Instructions to Reich Minister of Posts; E. Receipt for Supplies to be Furnished by the Supreme Commander. Army Materiel Command, 30 September , pp. This narrative covers the first four years of the Army Materiel Command, from conception to operations in Vietnam. This compendium of short narratives describes the activities of all U.

Army divisions in World War I, starting with the 1 st Division and ending with the th Division never actually formed, but conceptualized. This comprehensive report describes efforts by the U. Horvath, Sgt. Rudolf G. A former Lodge Act volunteer details his experiences in the Special Forces, which he joined after escaping from then-communist Hungary.

He details the role such volunteers played in establishing the Special Forces. Includes article from Special Warfare magazine. Shrader, Charles R. A survey of language issues encountered by US military advisers in the early years of the Vietnam War The narrative examines responses to a series of questions asked American officers regarding their verbal communications with South Vietnamese counterparts.

Stofft, Brig Gen. William A. Center of Military History mss. Includes two folders of documents concerning the making of this manuscript. The Center of Military History intended this manuscript to instruct Army officers on the role of history in military leadership. Quirk, Major Richard J. Date not given, possibly This short paper addresses urges a revision of the Army decisionmaking process. Instead, he argues, commanders should rely on factual information and address operational risks as they are identified.

This paper presents a detailed chronology of Revolutionary War events that involved the Continental Army during the year Volume 1 presents the basic narrative plus detailed chronology , Volume 2 numerous survey forms concerning sexual harassment, plus statistical results of said surveys. US Government Printing Office. October 22, This Congressional report 1 lists citations for all American military personnel who won the Congressional Medal of Honor, by war from Civil War onward, with citations , state and name. An earlier version of the volume on Medal of Honor recipients.

The table of contents is the same, save for the absence of a preface. The Vietnam list goes only to Decorations, US Army, War Department, Office of the Adjutant General, with addenda from and The National Defense Act, Approved June 3, as amended to January 1, , inclusive, with related acts and notes. This Congressional document contains the text of the National Defense Act of with updates , along with those of the Pay Adjustment Act with updates and military pay tables circa Bien Hoa, Vietnam, This compendium of medical information includes lists of official publications, methods of treatment, methods of sanitation, veterinary procedures, and so forth.

Cummins, Kent. This handbook presents recreational ideas for military morale, welfare and recreation MWR staff in planning 50 th anniversary of World War II commemorative events. This short monograph presents organizational diagrams and defines the functions of the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Operations, including those of its subdivisions. Continental Army Command, February Health and Sanitation Study, South Vietnam. Contents: A. General, B. Medical Materiel, H. Research and Development, List of Figures. A compendium that lists military officers who have made notable contributions to certain areas of medicine, followed by capsule biographies of these officers.

Army, Appendix B: Bibliography. Approximately pp. Sachs, Alexander. This is a collection of correspondence, short articles and documents collected by Alexander Sachs that concerns the earliest days of the American atomic bomb project, predating US entry into World War II. It traces efforts of various scientists and government officials to persuade President Franklin D. Roosevelt to pursue an atomic program Given the German threat. Among others, the collection contains letters from top scientists like Albert Einstein and Leo Szilard.

This collection of documents concerning revisions to the Defense Act includes the original text of the act, plus revisions along with those made afterwards. Army Materiel Command. This organizational manual also includes general orders covering the years to , specifically assumptions of command and retirements. It includes organizational charts and breakdowns, plus an extensive operating manual. The author provides a detailed section on the Halabja incident, in which the Iraqi Army killed large numbers of Kurds. He concludes with a plan under which Iraq could achieve democratic government.

Author Unspecified. A short monograph on the 24 th Infantry Regiment, US Army, that gives an outline history of the unit from its formation on 15 March to its disbanding in September Gulick, Lt. This pamphlet lays out the organizational basis of Army and Navy cooperation in coastal defense circa Master Index: Standard Headings. World War II vintage date unspecified. This work lists all the headings to be found in World War II studies, in such categories as campaigns, vehicles, and geographic designations.

Most of the work is an alphabetical listing of subject headings from ABC-1, Anglo-American staff conversations, to zones of security. House, Major Jonathan M. The third chapter in a continuing work, this article covers joint military aspects of the US intervention in Lebanon. It includes maps and organizational charts. A one-page cover sheet describes the possibility of making members of the Nurse Corps commanding officers. This seven-page chronology describes how Army nurse headgear has evolved from early Christianity to It includes extensive attachments, among them a full chapter from a book on wardrobes for women in the army, plus excerpts from two other chapters from other books and pages from quartermaster supply catalogues.

This compendium of documents concerning US military relations with Korea includes a short narrative, a lengthy chronology of events from to , lists of commanding officers, unit patches and a selection of photographs. It includes lengthy supplements drafted in mid and also features a cover letter by the author and three depot newsletters from the World War II era. Williams, Dr. James W. Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 3: Moving Toward Air Assault. Chapter 4: Vietnam—The Army Transformed.

Chapter 6: s and Beyond. This report on possible ways to improve supply depot operations includes a narrative analysis, briefings, charts, critiques and a revised version. This volume gives a brief overview of mines and countermining techniques used from World War II North African campaign to Vietnam, beginning in reverse order. Gensler, Robert E. Ottinger, Herchal, Senior Analyst.

This volume of the series gives narratives with numerous quotations from primary sources about the North African campaign and the use of mines therein. Contents: Summary. Combat Experience. Appendices in separate volume. Introduction; II. Environmental Assists and Complaints; IV. Doctrine, Policy, Tactics and Techniques; V.

Education and Training; VI. Contents: Sequence of Military Events; A. Smith, Herbert L. Environmental Assists and Constraints; IV. Materiel; Appendixes Separate Volumes ; Maps. This appendix describes types of mines used by both sides in the Korean War and their operational employment. June Volume I: Vietnam. Contents: Chapters: I. Allen, Gordon O. Chapters: I: Introduction; II. Appendixes: G: Mine Warfare Center. H: Selected Standard Operating Procedures.

Prepared by Mine Warfare Center. J: Inquiry into Mine Techniques. K: Ambush at Phuoc An. L: Selected Articles from Publications.