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What are works?

Ce n'est pas seulement la main qui agit, ni le bras mais le corps tout entier. Sur certains dessins, le regard tente de suivre les lignes tandis que sur d'autres il peut se perdre mais chaque fois, un mouvement se met en marche. Selon le rapport du State of Global Air , en , les deux pays ont connu environ 1. Les gens exigent trop de la nature et de l'environnement. Les photographes de guerre ou les journalistes de terrain nous renvoient quotidiennement des preuves tangibles des drames qui surviennent aux quatre coins du monde.

In this temporary "studio", he revisited his July's exhibition offering and devising new works while bathing in the influences of the French capital and its abundant sources of inspiration. Contact presse Jean-Albert Herman jeanalbert noos. Within the shell, empty of their prior life lies the spiral of the golden ratio, with it's perfect dementions is used to define beauty and balance.

This spiral, that starts from the void and continues into infinity appears in many renaissance artist's work to illistrate a perfect figure or landscape. The unusualy large portortioned shells found in this installation by the artist Rachel Marks were inhabited by snails found behind her family home in Florida. The shell, now empty once carried the story of a creature is brought again life through the contact with viewers.

It is their movement that brings music, harmony and life continuing the story of their infinite golden ratio within. A book, sceleton like the shells lies at the end of their path, the words evacuated, waiting to be rewritten by anyone who passes through, the empty boxes where the words once lived referencing the divided proportions that make up the golden ratio spiral within the shells.

L'universel de la peinture et la substance infinie de l'art. Pendant un an, Dadaclub. En cinq ans nous avons accueilli 18 artistes pour 20 expositions personnelles ainsi que deux expositions collectives. Ou sont vos sculptures transparentes comme des carafes? Revisiter des formes anciennes de vases permet de renouveler le genre.

Leur foyer et leur famille constituent le terrain d'essai de chaque objet qu'ils produisent. Que pourrions-nous faire des objets de l'exposition Science Frugale? Que va-t-elle devenir? Fictae recouvre pour les Latins, la notion d'imaginaire et de fantastique. Kai : Groupe en japonais Genso : recouvre la notion d'imaginaire dans la culture japonaise. Ulysse Bordarias. Le focus de l'exposition permet de leur rendre hommage.

La synergie entre la ville et la vie nous interroge. Retrouvez toute la programmation sur www. Peter Martensen est un artiste singulier. Catherine was noticed and her collection was a real revelation. American women were won over by her French touch. And her reinterpretation of the screen-printed American flag was all the rage. It quickly became a bestseller. John Galliano was such a fan that he wore it for the final of his fashion show for Dior.

Catherine malandrino became one of the most popular fashion designers in new York. Indeed, after making a name for herself on the other side of the Atlantic, Catherine Malandrino, a talented fashion designer born and bred in France, has finally opened her first shop in Paris, almost three years ago, in the heart of the Saint Germain quarter, a neighbourhood she is especially fond of. A space in her image, reinvented with the help architect Christophe Pillet, a long-time friend.

Since then, Catherine has added accessories to her line and celebrated ten years of success. Halle Berry, Mary J. Despite a certain reserve, you are quickly aware that Catherine malandrino has a strong personality and real confidence in her abilities. She is slightly rebellious, with a sort of natural casualness. She was born in France — Grenoble to be specific.

But while Catherine malandrino learned her trade in France, her style today is definitely made in uSA. She draws inspiration from her roots and her dreams. With her boundless imagination, her creations are a clever mix of manhattan energy and Parisian romanticism. Her lines are therefore strong, daring and spontaneous, and they all bring out tremendous sensuality. She succeeded in finding that je ne sais quoi that speaks to all sorts of women, while keeping the high-end spirit.

Her world is simple, forward-looking, at once functional and uncompromising… In her own image. Her cuts are perfect. Her favourite materials: silk, cotton and cashmere. Her eye is unique. Her perfectionism is unbelievable. And why not. And Catherine, heavily influenced by Gabrielle Chanel, knows it. Blige are among her most loyal customers. Catherine is on all their lips. And the address of her store in Soho, the mythical new York shopping district, is on the agenda of every stylist of the stars of the moment. Always with the same idea of mixing the urban with the feminine.

She lives in a bright loft on the banks of the east River, crosses Central Park in an Aston martin to drive her son to school, and gets to the office early, where she slips into the role of the businesswoman fashion designer she is. But Catherine knows that consistency is the secret to success. So she never skips any stages, obstinately focusing on building up her brand, and she is gradually developing her name in connection with a real art de vivre! Stay tuned… Carole Schmitz. Si Halle Berry, Mary J. Mais, Catherine aura envie de voler de ses propres ailes. Ses coupes sont parfaites.

Her grandfather owned the bygone walsdorff Victoria Hotel, a renowned palace in Cannes. All day long, she would see incredibly elegant women filing past. Her sources of inspiration are infinite, and she is nurtured by dreams, friendship, and sunshine. She loves travels, laughing with friends, and the blending of cultures. She launched her first ready-to-wear collection in But the designer recalls her difficult beginnings and the obstacles she had to overcome to create her first collections, each time a risky enterprise.

But there were magical encounters, and very early on, her style was appreciated by the likes of Isabelle Adjani, mathilde Seignier, Catherine Jacob, Karine Viard, Catherine marchal, and many, many, more. Independent and wilful, an expensive price to pay. In fact, she venerates them. Born of a mix of circumstances and in a specific epoch, it is the art of combinations that complement one another.

But taken out of their context, or removed from their historical heritage, they lose their savour. She loves to bargain-hunt, to discover new artists, to accumulate objects, and above all, the sentimental and traditional ties that bind these objects. Her favourite materials are english fabrics, velvet, silk, leather, and suede. She prefers humour to the conventional, and one of her favourite games is to divert objects from their original function. And for her, luxury is giving oneself time.

Mais il y eut et il y a toujours la magie des belles rencontres, aussi. Du temps pour acheter, pour plaire, pour vivre. Carole Schmitz. BIO express : elle commence un stage chez Cacharel. Located on Avenue montaigne in Paris, the Chandy Casale agency excels through its communication consulting services for the world of luxury and prestige. It continues to expand worldwide, and has further extended its services this year by developing a family office branch dedicated to the Indian market. From her workshops in Saint-Petersburg, the young fashion designer Aliona Volskaya once again expresses true Russian elegance and prestige.

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Passionate, daring and imaginative, she does delightful work on exotic hides and rare furs, offering unique, sophisticated and extremely refined clothing models. Always in a romantic and glamorous vein, she successfully combines contemporary trends with her Slavic roots, giving her luxurious collections an exceptional stamp. Clothilde N. Recognized in the world of fashion for her refined and innovative touch, ken Okada has lately been putting her talent into shirts and blouses. She is now showing her collection, a blend of Japanese-inspired graphic cuts and western elegance: a subtle blend of contrasts and transparency that underline sensuality.

Your designs are a blend of elegance and modernity. She wants to be different, ant to express her personality. Your collections are divided into 5 lines. Can you explain this concept? How would you describe your new collection? I propose a different world every year, with a wide choice of models, and original and modern cuts. A Ken Okada woman is self-possessed. Japan is first and foremost my training, especially the Bunka Fashion College where I studied.

Your boutique rue de la Chaise, at the heart of Saint-Germain, has recently been renovated. Does it offer customized services? I try to be attuned to each and every woman who enters my boutique. What sort of lifestyle she has, how her body moves, what she appreciates. What I propose is close to a makeover. Have you got any other projects? Oh yes! Artists from all walks of life: photographers, actors, painters, and musicians. And the proceedings will go to a charity that helps children have access to education.

So much energy and inspiration must have a source. Contemporary art, cinema, and literature, are a way of perpetually renewing myself. I always say that I can well imagine myself living in Italy and cooking, decorating a castle, or writing a novel. Creativity of the 5 senses, that is my source of inspiration! La femme dans un univers, une image. La femme. Quelles sont les influences que la culture japonaise vous apporte dans votre travail? Ca aussi, je crois, me vient du Japon.

Ce que je propose est proche du relooking. Oh oui! Nous donneriez-vous votre secret? Is not Dead Radicalism, experimentation, disappearance of borders Classy yet popular, the brand has not only an artistic ambition, but also a political one Freedom of expression and thought, freedom to enjoy and create, freedom of exchange and sharing. Is not Dead clearly claims itself to be a group gathering together a mass of artistic sensitivities. How did music come into your life? Yan Saquet: We all have a story with music. It makes us closer, more sensitive, and stronger as well.

Yan Saquet : Nous avons tous une histoire avec la musique. Elle nous rapproche, nous renforce, nous sensibilise. La musique a toujours importante pour moi. Yan Saquet: they are numerous. When I was younger, I thought that one day, I would belong to a musical family or tribe, but curiosity is so much more beautiful… I think that one must start by being interested in order to become interesting. World, electro, Hip Hop, Rock, dance, classical… music has no frontiers. Quelles sont vos influences musicales? Yan Saquet : Elles sont nombreuses.

You have to stop hearing it, and start listening to it. If you want to seduce and conquer a population, start by sharing your music. I love it! I love it!! Yan Saquet: to be a sound designer is to create a musical DnA for a brand. I like to create this osmosis with a known brand to give it a strong emotional meaning.

A brand is unique, and its music must also be unique. Perfume has proven this in the past few years because it was capable of giving meaning to a brand. And music, like perfume, is also a natural element. Une marque est unique, sa musique sera elle aussi unique. Are the CDs you produce entirely made of compilations, or do they also have original music? Yan Saquet: I like the idea of working with artists from all over the world. And this is what licensing is all about. We make available to our clients the entire existing international catalogue.

Les CD ainsi produits sont-ils fait uniquement de compilations ou peut-on aussi y trouvez des musiques originales? Buying a brand CD is an impulsive purchase, and Starbucks is fine example. A musician of eclectic tastes, he is open to all styles, genres, periods and musical geographies. Music is a way of life, it surrounds us, conveys our moods, our desires, and signs our adherence to a group or a tribe. After having worked with artists such as Price, Texas, and others, what motivated you to take this turn?

Yan Saquet: I had been thinking for a long time about developing this sector. I arrived in new York in with that idea in mind. When I finally decided to start, the luxury business was very responsive to my project, which encouraged me a lot. I am delighted to be able to bring this added value to brands such as Cartier, Bulgari, Ralph Lauren, and others. Les ventes de CD ne se font plus seulement chez les disquaires habituels.

After Bring Ya to the Brink, a dance concentrate produced in with the cream of european electro underground, Lauper has traded her activist garb for aids, homophobia, and racism for her new songstress attire with an opus of blues covers that has been at the top of the charts in the uSA ever since its release. November 27th in Washington. Joe Cocker. Year of utopia. In , the flame still burns with Hard Knocks, a striking collection of 10 songs.

A rock and raucus number, to be sure. Hard Knocks, Sony Music World tour. October 10 at the Zenith in Paris. Retro Boss World premiered at the toronto Film Festival, the fall release of this excellent documentary, directed by thom Zimmy, recounts the creative process of a young, 27 year-old artist in the throes of labour for his fourth album: Bruce Springsteen.

Faithful Obama supporter, the rock icon revisits this era with lucidity during 6 hours of intelligent, archaeological material, comprised of exclusive studio and concert rushes, and a rigorous sound remastering. Along with previously unreleased footage, personal documents notes, alternative song words, song drafts… we discover an ambitious and demanding artist, as frightened of mass success as of errors of taste. Ce flash-back en donne la preuve. Stomp: Already Cult! A major show with over 11 million spectators worldwide and over in France alone , Stomp is a cult event that offers an array of rhythms, percussions, spectacular dancing, and humour.

Brooms, sinks, matches, trashcans, pails, sand, simple everyday objects… are just as many excuses for eight virtuoso artists to express their obsession with rhythm. A tremendous success with rave reviews, and standing ovations with the public, Stomp is back at the Casino de Paris. Stomp : Cultissime!

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  • Spectacle culte et incontournable aux 11 millions de spectateurs dans le monde dont plus de en France. Santana, Guitar Herald Over 30 original albums, 90 million records sold, 9 Grammy awards… the mexican guitarist has always divided his followers. An opportunity, with the celebration of his fetish instrument, to remind us that he still remains one of the few Latino musicians to have cleared the way in a globalized music industry, and to impose a Latin riff in guitars worldwide.

    October 12th in Bercy, Paris. In , in the Swiss village of Le Brassus, two young men passionately dedicated to fine watchmaking, Jules-Louis Audemars and edward-Auguste Piguet, decided to unite their skills in order to design and produce watches with complex mechanisms. The two classic collections : a tribute to the founders of the manufacture.

    Jules Audemars, recognizable by its round case with gently curved sides, and edward Piguet, which has a rectangular case, slightly arched and decorated with gadroons. Les deux collections classiques: un hommage aux fondateurs de la Maison. Tradition, excellence, daring tradition, excellence, daring: it is based on these three fundamental values that manufacture Audemars Piguet perpetuates the art of Haute Horlogerie.

    At each stage of its history, it has proved capable of adopting the latest avant-garde technologies and of placing them in the service of hand craftsmanship, thereby creating exceptional timepieces. Royal Oak, Royal Oak Offshore : In presenting the Royal Oak in , the first steel luxury sports watch, Audemars Piguet dramatically changed the codes of luxury watchmaking. Since, the story of this watch continues, giving rise to new interpretations, using innovative materials titanium or carbon alacrite , inaugurated with the Royal Oak Offshore, a collection dedicated to the extreme.

    Contemporary : the millenary Collection offers countless variations on the oval theme. Watches for men, but also for women with Lady millenary which offshoots in several different settings. Ladies : From the sport watch to the joaillerie watch, from ultra sober timepieces to exceptional pieces, the manufacture expands its celebrated collections of watches for women. Des montres pour hommes, mais aussi pour femmes avec Lady Millenary qui est similaire en de nombreux points.

    All of these rare watches are designed by Audemars Piguet and completed within its own workshops. Some of these timepieces require up to eight months of production. In fact, for Audemars Piguet , a watch should be as beautiful inside and out. Since , when Charles Stern acquired the Geneva based watch manufacture, Patek Philippe has remained at the hands of the same family, thierry begins the fourth generation.

    His training path brought him to work in many services from production to business management and he took responsibilities in several countries. Since he was head of the Creation department and quickly became Vice-President, taking then part in group strategic decisions. Following this first step of apprenticeship, thierry Stern was sent into the field, in Germany, where he spent almost two years with two large retailers of Patek Pilippe. During this period, he exposed himself to the world of commerce, sales and observed all the procedures and strategies that lead to the sale of a watch.

    He stays for two years, during which he visits all the retailers. In this role, he strives to organize and rationalize the whole service provision, in order to allow the directors to directly and instantly access the creations. He is equally a member of the Board of Directors. Step by step, DeWitt is building the manufacture of the 21st century and in its far sighted development, each step is carefully timed and well thought through.

    So one may be tempted to ask what makes DeWitt so unique. A brand identity directly inspired by mr de Witt himself, whose perception of contemporary watchmaking is daringly different and unconventional. DeWitt is an audacious brand. And audacity simply means being effortlessly bold, brave and innovative, yet never arrogant or aloof. And this is precisely what sets the brand apart. DeWitt est une marque audacieuse. Une recette unique en son genre. Like many other players within the watch industry, DeWitt aims to become a full-fledged watch manufacture that is both independent and self-sufficient in terms of production.

    Offering over square-metre of surface spread over three floors, the manufacture houses all the traditional watchmaking activities, from design right through to production and quality control. After studying art, jewellery and watch-making, he joined the family business, creating and designing watches and jewellery made in Switzerland.

    B - milus - tag Heuer - Spyker and more. An automatic Column-Wheel Stop-watch in exium-Am and titanium alloy offers an alluring price to enter the world of mr. B - Milus - Tag Heuer - Spyker Design is a contemporary, innovative, chic, intelligent and beautiful concept. Le design est un concept contemporain, innovateur, chic, intelligent et beau. Specifically with my work, I had a huge moment when seeing the KAReAmeS chair created with xO, in real life as my sketches date back 15 years! I was also elated to see my new projects implemented for Domodinamica, talenti, Valdichienti, Domovari and Vondom.

    However, stronger than ever design was in the air! Prix sur demande. I would define my work as Sensual minimalism where the objects and space communicate in harmony. In brief, new popular desires. Since , he has collaborated with the Kreo gallery for which he regularly develops new collections. From to , Francois Bauchet worked in partnership with neotu Gallery frequently exhibiting new collections.

    She was a scholarship holder at the Villa medicis, French Academy in Roma from to For ten years, Azambourg was totally focused on the saxophone, collaborating with Selmer and the IRCAm, and sponsored by the Fondation de France, the Fondation de la Vocation and by the music and Dance sector of the ministry of Culture. From to , his work was exposed at the VIA. For Lille he designed a mobile micro-restaurant, treating it as a slightly off-scale object. Born in Paris in Carte blanche VIA, Assistants to Philippe Starck. Design managers, Rossignol et Allibert. Label VIA, Architecture and interior architecture.

    Assistants de Philippe Starck. Design Manager de Rossignol et Allibert. Design global : environnement - industriel- communication 3D et 2D. One, Christophe Pillet, wears several hats and works in many different fields. Even if their universes were in no way fated to meet, they however do have something in common: they both tell stories and always add feelings to their creations so that they can touch the largest number of people. Meeting with two key characters who cannot be ignored in the world of design and fashion at the opening, in Luxembourg, of a new Jitrois boutique by Pillet Jean-Claude Jitrois: the attitude, plain and simple.

    You have it or not, as my grandmother used to tell me. Christophe Pillet: I feel we are both — at the risk of sounding presemptuous — in a dimension of timelessness. We are in the heart of fashion and design without being fashionable, being however deeply contemporary. Jean-Claude Jitrois: they perfectly complement each other. Christophe Pillet: We have the same job. We tell stories and share them. Jean-Claude Jitrois: the creation of the boutiques is a story of skin!

    In every sense of the word. Christophe, you developed a progressive concept reflecting the personality of M. Could we have some explanation? Quels sont vos points communs? Nous racontons des histoires que nous partageons. How did you meet? Christophe Pillet: And it all began ten years ago… time goes fast! Jean-Claude Jitrois: One thing that attracted me is this very sober and very stylish aspect he has. Professionally speaking, if you take all the elements which compose the universe of Jean-Claude Jitrois - body cult, stretch leather, the fact of always being on the verge of sexuality — and that you just stupidly enunciate them, there is this risk of falling into caricature which would lead to the word vulgar.

    From those elements that deeply belong to fashion, Jitrois obtains something deeply elegant and original. He knows how to go very close to the bounds of received ideas without going beyond them in order to create something original, at the core of fashion. He has a fusion that creates something brilliant. Besides, the man himself is elegant! Et ce dans tous les sens du terme. Proof is: all the modern-day designers have items made of leather in their collections. How would you define style and elegance? Any assessment? Jean-Claude Jitrois: my answer would be that you have to let us breathe.

    Christophe Pillet: nothing is scheduled with Jean-Claude Jitrois. We are not in the process of cloning… this is why each project is different. Il y a chez lui une fusion qui donne quelque chose de magnifique.

    Elle_-_7_au_bre_ by Elena Gavrykova - Issuu

    Pouvez vous nous expliquer cela? Le Luxembourg est votre 5e collaboration si je ne me trompe, un bilan? Magazine editorials, advertising spots and other representation galas, more and more the luxury brands immerse themselves in the aura of the stars to show their colours. Return on a true societal phenomenon. If the appropriation of the big names of cinema and music has become a small feat these days for luxury brands, it is not something new.

    Long time reserved for the pleasure of these ladies, the business of star marketing now aims for a larger audience and is now conquering the heart of men in search of a piece of celebrity. Silence on the set! A spot realized by a master hand with sumptuous images then paired with a fairylike imaginary scenario. Silence, on tourne! Originally, the wine spends seven years in the cellar, and on lees. It is then taken out of the cellars and proposed to tasting.

    He has a perfect knowledge of bottle. It will need no less than a total of 12 to 16 years to attain this second plenitude, distinguished by an exceptional intensity. He knows that during the ageing process, the wine acquires slow and subtle metamorphoses. As long as a bottle is not purged of its yeast, the wine continues this long and singular evolution. Il en a une connaissance exceptionnelle. From the selection and the assemblage of the finest grapes, issued from the best soils, to the decision of making a vintage wine, every step obeys to the quest for excellence that the wine reveals.

    Its secret resides in the exceptional length of the added maturation accorded to the wine. La richesse se fait alors superbement persistante, tranchante, persuasive. Le Manifesto en est la profession de foi. Summer is marked by long, sunny periods, regularly punctuated by overcast and rainy periods. A California breeze is livening up the microcosm of Parisian photography. After deciding that fashion would be his direction and photography his medium, he came to the conclusion that living in europe was his greatest option.

    He studied fashion in milan where he lived intermittently for four years, and then moved to Paris where he found his true calling. Currently dividing his time between Paris and new York, Ron continues to do editorial, advertising, and celebrity photography for publications in the united States and europe. Ron is currently working on new cutting edge editorials and some video work with his partner, Seth Karecha.

    Seth Karecha is an artist in several mediums, with a varied background in computer science, fine arts, music, and animation. His primary mode of expression in the past three years has been fashion photography and art direction in an ongoing collaboration with his comrade Ron Contarsy. Seth is currently building a post-production studio for personal projects and to provide advertising clients with service that ranges from concept to final delivery. In his spare time he likes to unplug and disappear. Ganesha : Your talent is unquestionable, and I suppose that to reach such perfection in your work, you must always be looking for new technologies?

    Marek : In markimage, we give importance to each movement applied to the works. Is your clientele large and varied? Our passion for the image adapts to differents actors such as photographs who are looking for perfection, or agencies looking for innovative works and our clients who are looking for a classical and high quality product.

    Exhibitions, vernissages. Expositions, vernissages. Do you still open the doors of your laboratory to everybody? Our laboratory opens every day and for each curious person who wants to discover the atmosphere, the people or the engines which allow us to realise those images. Photographers are also numerous to come to see us and we like to spend time with them and their pictures. You have diversified the activities of Markimage with the purchase of Paris Plastification. Does this new string to your bow open to you new horizons?

    Founded more than 30 years ago, it established itself in the luxurious world of beauty through its professionalism and the splendour of its models. Renoncer, toujours renoncer. Give your interior world a gentle, fashionable boost. Price on demand www. Marcel Wanders est un conteur, et ses fantaisies narratives sont toujours aussi bluffantes.

    Rachilde and French Women's Authorship: From Decadence to Modernism

    Prix sur demande www. Like a vortex… A designer of many faces for objects with multiple interpretations. Weathered metal structure with two orientable heads. Very sober and elegant. Pure Luxury. In , the famous fashion house presented Pippa, a line of roaming folding furniture designed by Rena Dumas and Peter Coles.


    A collection based on the idea of elegance on the move and whose beauty has been enhanced over time. Pur Luxe. Designed by Andrea Branzi, the Foglia teapot is designed in the shape of a tea leaf. In short, a great idea for a gift. Like a work of art that can hang on a wall like a tapestry, Patrick Norguet drew inspiration from old archives of rugs and embroideries to create this unique, oversized composition reproduced by the Tai-Ping craftsmen. Mirroring this exercise is a rug with more reasonable dimensions but just as stunning, luxuriant, in shimmering reddish colours, hand-knotted according to ancestral tradition.

    Both industrial and glamorous! Chandeliers have long represented fascinating decorative items, often conveying a message of cultural status. Through his designs, Michael McHale has decided to rock preconceived notions. Conversely, meter exists in verse on an exclusively virtual basis. Meter does not exist as such, but is given to us as the never realized expectation of mechanical repetition. In such a case, meter ceases to exist in the shape of a regular system, but it does exist in another way.

    We have either a coordination of unities which is accomplished progressively , or a subordination which is accomplished regressively. Thus, a poetic system uses the same dephasing redu- plication in which the mechanical regular is virtual and the non-regular rhythm is actual.

    Cinema, as the formalists understood it, never pos- sessed any virtual or ideal dimension. In film, everything is giv- en to the gaze. Tynianov insisted that a constructive shift in literature pro- duces a renewed vision and can serve the destruction of recog- nition. But what is it that gets visible apart from the form itself?

    In principle, nothing. What is visible is to a great extent reduced to the dynamics of the construction that in the final analysis 17 Ibid. It is not by accident that later on Jakobson would talk of the becoming-visible of the poetic language itself. This however was not all that Tynianov suggested. He also used the idea of the constructive principle in order to include cultural history in his thinking. According to Tynianov, evolution presupposes system changes not affecting tradition. But the change of systems also means that evolution itself has a certain inherent constructive principle.

    One system becomes virtual, like meter, and against its background, the actual system reveals its potential func- tionally comparable with rhythm. To a considerable extent, the evolutionary mechanism follows from the constructive principle that forms the system of the verse.

    On the contrary, it emphasizes this distinction. Such is the historical role of poetic parody. Here, he no longer thinks of cinema as the mechanical repro- duction of fragments of reality, but as a dynamic structure simi- lar to poetry. A dynamization of static articulation is the product of historical evolution that neither cinema nor any other medi- 19 Ibid. Iampolski - Film Resisting Theory um can escape.

    Thus evolution overcomes the limitations of technology and transforms cinema from a purely mechanical medium of re- cording into a form of art. It introduces a constructive principle into objects that are alien to it. This becomes possible because there is no significant difference between the constructive prin- ciple in art and evolution. Evolution transforms cinema into an art form and simultaneously reverses the relation between tech- nology and form: Furthermore, cinema as art is no longer concerned with innova- tion in and of itself, but only with the technical means that develop its intrinsic potentials and that are selected with its basic devices in mind.

    In the interaction of technology and art, the positions of the two have been reversed as compared to the situation that ob- tained at the outset: now it is art that dictates the technical devices, it is art that, in its onward march, selects them, changes their ap- plication and function, and finally discards them — not the reverse. The art of cinema has found its material. It does not give rise to new 21 Ju. Ann Arbor: Michigan Slavic Publications, , This provides the basis for a completely new interpretation of gesture and movement.

    Had the shots been three-di- mensional, given in relief, their interpenetration, their simultane- ity, their synchronicity, would have been unconvincing. Only by taking advantage of this simultaneity is it possible to create a com- position that not only reproduces motion, but is itself based on the principles of that motion. Due to such limitations, the new art transcends the level of reproduction of movement — as metric regularity and abstraction — and acquires a flexible dynamism arising from the principles of dephasing, shift, deformation, and evolution.

    What is going on here?

    In this way, cinema becomes similar to literature. In spite of the modernity of their approach, the formalists failed to overcome a fetishistic attitude towards art. Paradoxi- cally, it is the technological nature of film that made it difficult for them to think of cinema outside the framework of aesthetics. The problem lay in the simple fact of the regularity of intervals between photograms. Tynianov was able to integrate the virtual regularity of meter into poetry, but the purely mechanical regu- larity that constitutes the film image appeared to resist the idea of art as the formalists cultivated it.

    Already at the time of the invention of the movies, the reg- ularity of intervals between photograms created difficulties in 22 Ibid. Iampolski - Film Resisting Theory the measurement and reproduction of movement. In the work of the formalists, cinema developed a new resistance to theo- ry, disrupting theoretical efforts to explain it on artistic princi- ples. This resistance increased with new attempts to integrate mechanical reproduction into the domain of the artistic.

    If that was a failure, its history is interesting in itself. I was looking for him in the delegation of Russian film artists and scholars visiting Bombay. A man with an intense and meditative expression caught my eye. He wore glasses, was of medium height, with a high forehead, a compact body and gentle manner.

    I observed him, unobtrusively I thought, but he had noticed it. We exchanged faint, complicit smiles. He had to be Naum. And so he was! From that point, the thread of word- less understanding runs till today.

    If I were to mention only one quality of Naum that I find out- standing, it would be neither his vast erudition, nor his fantastic mind, nor his insatiable curiosity, nor his generosity, nor his joie de vivre, nor his capacity to love and connect with people, but to really listen to them. His listening is an intense activity — an act of almost Yogic concentration. As he listens to you, your thoughts arrange themselves, like iron filings aligning along the magnetic lines of force.

    Naum can draw the unborn, unthought thoughts out of you, with the love, patience and tenderness of a Socratic midwife. Since getting the books that I needed for my study was difficult in the U. By the time I left Moscow, there was a ninety-kilo hillock of rare books on his table; one day, this enchanted hillock flew into my study in Bombay. I still have the age-yellowed notes of our unending conversa- tions and wonder whether we worked together for five weeks or five months! A picture of Eisenstein began to emerge for me.

    It was like looking at a mural in a vast Ajanta cave, in the light of a sin- gle fluttering candle, with images coming into light, passing into darkness; an image of the compassionate Buddha appear- ing and disappearing. A vague sensation has now grown into a conviction…not just one Archimedean Point, but many. He wrote: The language was very difficult… the hardest thing was un- derstanding the way of thinking … by which Oriental turns of phrases, sentences, word formations and word outlines are con- structed. Three of the fundamental concepts of his aesthetics emerged out of this study: montage, montage cell, and monistic ensemble.

    With these, he built a sensuous-conceptual hanami- chi, or Flower Bridge,6 between Japan and his world. Such Flower-paths had also reached the Indian shores7 and Eisenstein was the most revered artist-thinker for us. In the his- tory of colonial India, our finest artworks were nothing more than The Much Maligned Monsters8 to the Europeans. Eisen- 2 S. Eisenstein, Selected Works. Writings, , ed.

    It is a long, raised platform left of centre, from the back of the theatre, through the audience, to connect with the main stage. Generally used for entrances and exits and asides of the actors or scenes taking place apart from the main action. As India and the U. Though Indian culture did not play a major role in his world-view, each one of his references to it is a penetrating insight. He made us look at our culture anew. He had learnt from many non-European civilisations and in each of them, he found an Archimedean Point, to turn some part of the Eurocentric world upside down.

    From , he trav- elled to Europe, the US, and Mexico, returning only in This experience provided him the physical and mental space to look within from without. He also met some of his greatest con- temporaries and exchanged ideas with them. All this provided him with many significant perspectives on art and the sources and process of creativity.

    Eisenstein experienced the grandeur and immensi- ty of the Pre-Columbian landscape architecture and sculpted space. He had used the wide-angle lenses in Strike,10 General contact with the Indian art used to regard the many-headed Indian deities as monsters. It took centuries before these works could be appreciated in their true significance and grandeur; though, admittedly, some of the British administrators did a lot for their discoveries and preservation.

    London: Thames and Hudson, , Khopkar - The Flower Bridge and The Archimedean Points Line,11 and even in October, to stretch space, but there was a qualitative shift in what he created in the Mexican footage and thereafter in Ivan the Terrible. He used the wide-angle lens- es and pan-focus consistently for the construction of oneiric, even hallucinatory visions not seen before in cinema. In terms of a kinaesthetic experience of monumentality, Western sculpture does not have much on the scale of Assyr- ian, Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Pre-Columbian, Buddhist in- cluding the brutishly destroyed Bamiyan Buddhas , Persian Persepolis , Khmer Angkor Wat or the Indian monolithic cave temples of Elephanta and Ellora.

    Just as Eisenstein took from other civilisations, he gave to them generously. On the same page there are two more examples from Strike. The great Indian filmmaker, Ritwik Ghatak was deeply influ- enced by Eisenstein. He used wide-angle lenses for all his films. From film to film, his lens-angles became wider. He used 9. The monumental com- positions of the 9. In one particular shot, Ghatak framed three heads, the frontal face of a young boy flanked by two profiles of women, evoking the famous three-headed gigantic sculpture of Lord Shiva, in the Elephanta Cave temple near Bombay.

    Anne Zouboff, ed. Ted Perry London: Methuen , These heads, … twenty feet high, are smaller than those of the Bayon in Angkor; but colossal in comparison to the figures around them, they fill the cave as Pantocrator fills the Byzantine cathed- rals of Sicily. Like the Pantocrator, this Shiva stops below the shoulders without becoming a bust. Hence its disturbing aspect of severed head and divine apparition. A full face and two monumental profiles, whose planes …are worthy of the highest work of art…This figure belongs …to the domain of the great symbols, and what this symbol expresses, it alone can express.

    It dovetails with a much broader framework of music of landscape in Nonindifferent Nature. Una visione rifratta delle riflessioni sul colore di S. Eisenstein was happily out- side the ambit of the U. Chinese civilisation was also a major influence of Eisen- stein. Mei had toured the US in and had met Charles Chaplin, who had spoken to Eisenstein about Mei,23 who had a tremendous impact on the avant-garde of the twentieth century. These books by Min Tian deal with the most important intercultural relationships between the Occidental and Chinese theatre.

    They help us understand better, not only Eisenstein, but also Brecht, Tretiakov and Meyerhold, four giants of the twentieth century art. In Kathakali,26 a great Indian dance-drama, the men perform female roles even today, in a stylised gesture language and manage to convey exquisitely the feminine emo- tions and actions, even breastfeeding, in the most refined way without pretending to be women.

    In Maharashtra, Balgandarva, a male actor playing female roles, set the template for women, from speech, gestures, gait to hair styles in the early decades of the twentieth century. The Indian dance-form, Bharatnatyam, which used to be performed by Devdasis, women attached to temples, is considered one of the most sensuous dance forms. Its great gurus have been almost exclusively men. Like cinematic mentioned earlier, imagicity is a key concept for Eisenstein, which he never freezes.

    These two books have excellent essays on the dance-drama. He had begun to feel that it was the source culture from which Japan had learnt a great deal. Along with cinematic and imagicity Eisenstein speaks of polysemie of the Peking Opera, wherein a simple object like a table becomes a staircase, a mountain, to a stool, a bed, etc. It splits into Yin, the female, and Yang, the male principle. This is a social unity splitting into Yin and Yang.

    If the division between the sexes were the cause of the first division of labour, then how come only in Ancient China it became so important? Shiva, mentioned earlier, in an androgyne. He is symbolically represented in union with his consort Shakti the female force. Their icon is the union of an erect phallus lingam penetrating a vagina yoni. Another form in which they are represented is called Ardhanaarishwar, half-man, half-woman God. All classical Indian artistic creation in theatre, dance, painting or sculpture,36 oscillates between the feminine aspect, lasya: curvaceous, graceful, gentle and feminine, and tandava: the masculine aspect, virile, powerful, muscular and aggressive.

    One of the paths that leads to this Lord is called Tantra. Without going into greater detail here, suffice it to say that the highest aim of this path is ecstasy. But the Indian female principle, Shakti — literally power or energy — also has its terrible and destructive aspect in Kali, the dark Goddess, like the Greek Furies. He defines the aesthetic bliss as the co-uterine, as the ecstatic bliss Brahmananda, the joy of feeling one with the universe.

    From Yin and Yang, in Pair — Impair 39 we come to their specific application to numbers — odd impair Yang and even pair Yin. They always reveal something concrete, new and valuable about how a work of art is created and experienced. Eisenstein explores the relation- ship between the pre-logical and the logical thinking and in the process, discusses magical thinking, animism, sensuous versus logical thought and even histories of philosophy and literature.

    Features, considered functional at one stage, recur as expressive at another. Khopkar - The Flower Bridge and The Archimedean Points sphere, where bodily needs are never experienced and gravi- tational force is nonexistent. Ancient China, with its pantheistic world view, was the first civilisation to devote centuries to the development of landscape painting. The Tao of Painting42 has instructions about painting natural phenomenon from rocks to insects. The Chinese paint- ers organised each element of painting, through the conceptual framework of Yin and Yang and brought astonishing visual uni- ty to their paintings.

    These were at once the pictures of nature and expressive rhythmic patterns. Should there be a question as to which has a wider appeal the answer would undoubtedly in favour of calligraphy. In this cultivation and appreciation of pure witchery of line and beauty of composition, therefore, the Chinese have an absolute freedom and entire devotion to pure form as such, as apart from content.

    A painting has to con- vey an object but a well-written character conveys only its own beauty of line and structure. In this absolutely free field, every variety of rhythm has been experimented upon and every type of structure has been explored. Anyone who has gazed at the walls full of calligraphic wonders in Alhambra in Granada, in the great mosques of Persia, Turkey and India, and the manuscripts in the Topkapi, Malik National museum of Iran, the calligraphic scrolls in Peking and Taipei museums will know what man can do without painting figures — he can evoke every conceivable form in the universe through the calligraphic line.

    I started my essay with my meeting with Naum in They show us the highest peaks of twentieth-century aesthetics achieved by a visionary who sought the science in art and looked for art in science. I await at least one more volume, Rezhissura, on the art of direction, in the next few years and many more in the springs to come. Let Naum live a hundred springs and more to fulfil what he alone sees now and what we will all wait to see. I had a vague picture of Eisenstein decades back.

    Now this great gift of Naum and his colleagues, lets the world see the thinker-artist emerging like a colossus out of the waters of his creation. His passion, compassion, and wisdom overflow the barriers between forms of life, races, cultures, continents, art- forms, ethics and aesthetics. In such times, artists are the antennae of universal conscience.

    Only love and beauty can save nature and culture. Tagore started painting at sixty- seven, with crossing out words from his poems and joining them with lines in spontaneous forms and shapes. The film is about a taxi-driver and his decrepit taxi, liv- ing in a hill-station in close proximity of the animistic tribe of Oraons.

    The man and his machine are depicted as a couple deeply in love with each other. Her headlights become her expressive eyes, seen through the mist of the valley. When her owner gives a free ride to a beautiful damsel in distress, the taxi refuses to budge and glares furiously with her headlights. As this old taxi gives up the ghost, the accompanying death-rattle of the mechanical sounds is full of deep sorrow. A resurrection moment comes when, after selling the taxi as junk, the owner hears the sound of her rubber horn.

    In the distance, veiled in morning mist, is a smiling child honking the old-fash- ioned rubber horn of the taxi, which sounds like the first cry of a newborn infant. One generation passeth away, and anoth- er generation cometh: but the earth abideth for ever. With the damage of Chernobyl still fresh and burning, some members of the audience were wiping their eyes when the film ended. This, I think is what attracts people all over the world to Eisenstein.

    They listen to him for he listened to the voices of their civilisation. His words, inshallah,45 will be reborn, with new lives, on new soils and in new tongues. The words of a dead man Are modified in the guts of the living. He was a nobleman and engi- neer corps officer, born in Ukraine, who fought World War I in the tsarist army and in October sided with the revolution. At that time he was also known as a radical Futurist poet and au- thor of the first book written in any language about Picasso. After that, Aksenov was basically unemployed and had few friends and no money. The latter circumstance had for a long time not been a concern.

    When his family estate and the income from it disappeared in the smoke of the Revolution, first the army and then government as- signments had provided him a living. From his literary activities he earned, of course, nothing. Ivan Aksenov and Russian Modern- ism, is forthcoming. A rare photo of Aksenov provided, of course, by Naum He published a few articles but the history he wrote to mark the fifth anniversary of the theater in was banned by the censorship.

    His lectures on the theory and history of drama were evidently not documented, despite the fact that they were followed attentively by a class of young men and women who would set their stamp on Soviet theater and film for decades. K] lectures were mirages and dreams. Notes were frantically jotted down. Flavours, colours, sounds. A gold haze over everything. A secret within a secret. A veil behind a veil. Despite the extensive research that has been done on the s in recent decades, there are still many doc- uments in the Russian archives waiting to be read and inter- preted.

    Jane Gary Harris, trans. He was gone for almost six months. When Aksenov returned to Moscow toward the end of he resumed contact with the theatrical world. But it involved a surprising volte-face. Back in Moscow Ivan Aksenov finally witnessed the appear- ance of the book he had been writing the past few years, and he was even paid a modest fee. Gary Smith Cambridge, Mass. Nevertheless, in certain respects the author set his stamp on the new book. Its title, which on the title page was in the form of a typographical baroque goblet, was in its entirety: HAMLET and other essays to assist our Shakespeare scholarship on the subjects of bear baiting, pirate editions, blood vendettas, on Mr.

    On the class nature of the dogma of divine predestination, and also on many other remarka- ble and edifying things. The opening essay is a broad introduc- tion to the Elizabethan age that describes the breakthrough of capitalism in English society and theater world and the emer- gence of the individual as the focal point in the new drama be- ing created at the time. Shakespeare and his environs—from his predecessor Christopher Marlowe through writers Aksenov had translated, including John Webster, Cyril Tourneur and John Ford—are rapidly sketched in a series of colorful portraits.

    In the essay on Hamlet Aksenov presents a method of his own for analyzing drama that he calls thematic, modeled not on literary theory but on musicology. As his starting point he takes the fact that the Formalists lacked tools for analyzing the theater. It can only be analyzed in relation to the stage produc- tion. The central notion in theater consists of the situations that are directly or indirectly presented in the text. These situations constitute an overarching theme: By this word we will mean the verbally formulated scenic task that determines the successive actions of the actors over the course of the entire composition the main theme or its individual components derivative and secondary themes.

    A theme can both be expressed by the words of the script in the form of a maxim and derived from a series of successively uttered word groups, as what comprises the subject they have in common. This definition of a theme is not entirely like what musicians are familiar with, and it differs significantly from the methods and means by which music combines various dramatic themes. The 7 Aksenov, Gamlet i drugie opyty, Kleberg - Ivan Aksenov, Shakespeare and Ben Jonson basic distinction lies in the fact that different types of dramatic themes tonalities can sound simultaneously a mix of comedy and tragedy without leading to a common tonality.

    For a play to be popular it needed to contain three levels: a lyrical-erotic level, one of suspense or adventure, and a third that was coarsely comical. The motley audiences of the time demanded different things from the theater and there had to be something for everyone. Shakespeare was a master at tying all the levels together into a single whole. In Hamlet the opposite situation obtains: the suspense level and the theme of revenge have taken over.

    The plot of the tragedy is thoroughly symmetrical. Laertes represents the dying age, Fortin- bras the new; Hamlet is torn between them. As proof he submits that the symmetry is imperfect, which is of course what his argument set out to demonstrate. The critic does not seem to be bothered by the circularity of his reasoning.

    His answer is that it is meaningless to attempt to rework the content of the tragedy into the triumph of socialism over bourgeois individualism. The vitality of the play is on a completely different level. What is interesting in Shakespeare is not his ideology but the dynamism of his writing. From him we take the passion of struggle and passion of criticism of the obsolete, the passion of fearless analysis and his relentless inquiry. And it is possible and even easier than it seems to bring this to the contemporary spectator. We must reject the notion that classic works—the legitimate legacy of centuries of efforts of human thought—are some sort of contraband that can only be disseminated in the Soviet Union on the condition that they be charged some sort of special punitive tariff or stamped with a counterfeit trademark.

    All the same, it will not be possible to fool precisely those whom such things were intended to fool. Its tone, however, differs from that of his earlier writings. Speak- ing here is no longer the aphoristic critic but a lecturer with informative digressions, references to previous authorities and a moderate measure of entertaining anecdotes and ironic winks to his audience. His breathing is slower and his style lacks the abrupt breaks or cryptic wording of his earlier works. What Benjamin called the restoration period meant new job opportunities in the cultural field.

    One interesting phenomenon typical of the early s was the publishing house Academia spelled with Latin letters. With its extensively annotated new translations in the Treasury of World Literature series it satis- fied the new political demand for living classics at the same time as it provided employment to highly qualified philologists and translators from the prerevolutionary period. In something of a Shakespeare boom erupted in the So- viet Union. After all, he was the author of a book on Hamlet and, although critics sensitive to the political climate in had passed it over with indifference, the wind had now shifted.

    As so often before, however, Aksenov was in the wrong place. He wanted this perennial runner-up to Shakespeare to finally get redress. Louis: Telos Press, , Ak- senov Moscow—Leningrad: Academia, , A scan of the title page of part 1 of the Ben Jonson edition. All of this is reinforced by a swarm of historical bric-a-brac and glances into interesting events and persons of the time. He limited himself to a jocular dialogue preceding one of the masques. The author and the architect set designer and director discuss plans for implementing the com- pleted text.

    Let the audience figure it out. Meyerhold had a pre- decessor more than three hundred years ago. As a contributor to Academia, Aksenov regularly attend- ed meetings of its editorial committee and was allotted special ration cards. The proposal came from Gustav Shpet. Now he had found a refuge with Aca- demia. The thing is that on the 3rd there will be a public reading and discussion of Shakespeare translations. In the next breath Aksenov mentions a person who was pre- pared to do what he could to prevent him from working on the 15 Ben Dzhonson, Dramaticheskie proizvedeniia, Smirnov was a prominent philologist from Leningrad, actually a specialist in Romance languages and literatures, but also an expert on the Shakespearean age.

    There were, in fact, grounds for both disagreement and competition between Aksenov and Smirnov. There was also another, more import- ant reason for the conflict between the two men. Aleksandr Smirnov was an ambitious and pedantic philologist who had staked his entire academic prestige on forcing through his own ideas about how Shakespeare should be read and what modern Russian translations of his works should look like. Smirnov, Tvorchestvo Shekspira Leningrad: Izd. Kleberg - Ivan Aksenov, Shakespeare and Ben Jonson regarding them as simply suppliers of texts that needed to be constantly checked and corrected.

    As far as he was concerned, Ivan Aksenov was a savage who lacked a degree—unless one counted the one from the military college—and whose erudi- tion was enormous, but unsystematic and idiosyncratic. For his part, Aksenov must have viewed Smirnov as a bookworm. During the years of the Shakespeare boom Ivan Aksenov was able to publish a number of articles, which Susanna Mar after his death collected from various journals and had printed in a volume entitled Shakespeare.

    Essays Shekspir. Recognition as an expert on Shakespeare, however, also meant that his contribution to the history of the Russian avant-garde was eventually erased together with knowledge about the movement in general. We are sure that this equation with two unknowns will be solved incorrectly. Obituaries emphasized his many-sidedness but devoted al- most all their attention to his contributions to the Shakespeare scholarship that was currently so important. What few people were aware of when Ak- senov died was that the published books were only a minor part of his works.

    He left behind a number of completed manuscripts that had languished for years with various publishers or were quite simply rejected. Most of the others had to wait until the major two-volume edition of his works in Portrait of the Artist Sergei Eizenshtein. Po- trtret khudozhnika , published by Naum Kleiman in Moscow in A more well known silhouette by the artist S. Medvedevsky, scan from the original. Every one of his essays contains the idea for a book, every book a suggestion for a series. His humor incomprehensible. Akse- nov himself, misunderstood. I liked Aksenov very much. For his wicked tongue and his wicked wit, and his disagree- ableness.

    Aksenov and I were friends. What was beautiful about the Elizabethans was their inequity. Their one-sidedness. Disproportion and asymmetry. In this case his face was, if not a mirror of the soul, then an analogy of thought. He thought disproportionately and asymmetrically. He was one-sided, asymmetrical. And subjective.

    This made him programmatically alien. The hero of his film had a mission to unite his country against ex- ternal enemies and against internal dissent and conspiracy. At the same time, he had to overcome the self-doubts tormenting him and pay the price extorted by a single-minded devotion to his cause. He moved in the space of tragedy. He had read her book with excitement and filled his copy with underlinings.

    He speaks of: i Images of the body as such -connected with the central position of the person in the plays. Moreover: at least one of these senses is of wider significance for the art of film as Eisenstein had been conceiving it: namely, the third sense, to do with the expression of mental and emotional states. But it is further connected with the structure of film through the construction of what is pre- sented. Both the selection of montage pieces and the rhythms of their succession have direct physiological and emotional ef- fects on the viewer of a film.

    Lary - Tragedic Interconnections and Intersections on the film screen, but as a compositional skeleton to hold con- scious and felt reflections of the world. The state is sub- ject to forces of deformation and disintegration. The unification of the state and the maintenance of unity are never assured. At times the ruler is destroyed by the state or sacrificed for the state. Conversely, the unity and harmony of the state depend on the steadfast will and survival of the ruler.

    But Ivan continually breaks out of the mold of a chronicle. The chronicle of events is elev- ated to a cluster of dramatic collisions of generalized tragedy. The scene in Ivan, Part One where the Tsar receives the last rites was likely conceived under the influence of the deathbed scene towards the end of 2 Henry IV. In both scenes the problems of stability and succession are foremost. In the film Ivan lies su- pine, with an enormous Bible opened over his head. The boiars stand around, waiting to resume their divisive plotting. Not one of them moves to swear allegiance to the legitimate heir, the frail infant Dimitri.

    In the cor- 3 Eizenshtein, Dramaturgiia Kinoformy, His son, Prince Hal, is away hunting; he has given little sign of preparedness for the responsibilities of ruling. The moment is critical -without an adequate ruler the country risks falling apart. The King sinks into a slumber; Hal comes in, and seeing the crown on the bed, he ponders the bur- den it represents, tries it on and goes out. Suddenly waking up, the King sees the crown is gone and imagines in a moment of panic that it has been stolen; already the country is being pulled apart. Crude striving for power, it appears, is all that governs men.

    The analogies with the scene in Ivan are suggestive — ex- cept that Ivan rises from his deathbed in a kind of resurrection. Sickness and death are over- come. Ivan is reborn is a more powerful form —on his way to becoming the Terrible or Fearful Tsar. It is a form of Dionysian rebirth. For Eisenstein this had become became a major preoc- cupation.

    Dionysius was a metaphor for the peripeteia of the changing seasons and thus a god of the plant kingdom and of its inevitable change, growth, and decay. Eizenshtein, Izbrannye proizvedeniia v shesti tomakh, 6 vols. Moscow: Iskusstvo, , Lary - Tragedic Interconnections and Intersections ation at the highest point of tension of the drama.

    Montage was a form of dismember- ment. An art based on montage depended on the re-assemblage of montage fragments. They were a vestige of the Dionysian myth. His film art depended on a continual reenactment of the Dionysian meta- phor of renewal. This suggestion is reinforced by some more particular references.

    In lectures delivered to his film students in Alma Ata at the very height of his work on Ivan , he talked about images of dismemberment of the state from King Lear: In the tragedy King Lear Shakespeare turned to this theme at the very moment when the dismemberment of England was a pos- sibility From this point of view, Lear is opposed to the division of the state, as is shown by the folly of this division here In Lear there is the theme of disastrous partition In no other tragedy is there so much injury to the body parts and destruction of the human organism as in this piece.

    Each tiny detail of the work shows the horror of the various things that are occurring. Which are the image structures there? The images are based on trees. Trees and gardens are shown, symbols of the genealogical tree and of the refusal of one family of trees to be destroyed. The state is susceptible to destruction from within -- through deception, jealousy, betrayal, betrayal by a foster son even Fedor Basmanov in the unfilmed Part Three. The film is of course incomplete. A letter to Tynianov written in , concurrently with his work on the film, pro- vides one suggestive line for exploration.

    What regen- eration or renewal would mean following this disintegration is an even broader field for speculation. It is in their reaching into one another that they transgress their own limitedness and begin to speak. Above all, its dynamism: the very fact that the desired image is not something ready-made but has to arise or be born. For this process, three forces meet: the filmmakers, the film, and the spectators. Montage is not merely an artistic vehicle but a mode of communitarisation in which the you and the I convene. Images of the Last Supper, of communion and transubstantiation become secularized; communities which emerge temporarily in the cinema become sacralised.