The twenty-five were reduced by lot to nine, and the nine elected forty-five.
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These forty-five were once more reduced by lot to eleven, and the eleven finally chose the forty-one who elected the doge. Morreale, Padua , pp. In a ceremonial formula for consulting the Venetians, when a new doge was chosen, before he took the oath of investiture, he was presented to the people with the formula: "This is your doge, if it please you.
He was presented with the unconditional words "Your doge". While doges had great temporal power at first, after , the doge was constantly under strict surveillance: he had to wait for other officials to be present before opening dispatches from foreign powers; he was not allowed to possess any property in a foreign land.
The doges normally ruled for life although a few were forcibly removed from office. After a doge's death, a commission of inquisitori passed judgment upon his acts, and his estate was liable to be fined for any discovered malfeasance. The official income of the doge was never large, and from early times holders of the office remained engaged in trading ventures.
From 7 July , during a vacancy in the office of doge, the state was headed ex officio , with the style vicedoge , by the senior consigliere ducale ducal counsellor. One of the ceremonial duties of the doge was to celebrate the symbolic marriage of Venice with the sea.
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This was done by casting a ring from the state barge, the Bucentaur , into the Adriatic. In its earlier form this ceremony was instituted to commemorate the conquest of Dalmatia by Doge Pietro II Orseolo in , and was celebrated on Ascension Day. On state occasions the Doge was surrounded by an increasing amount of ceremony, and in international relations he had the status of a sovereign prince. The doge took part in ducal processions, which started in the Piazza San Marco.
The doge would appear in the center of the procession, preceded by civil servants ranked in ascending order of prestige and followed by noble magistrates ranked in descending order of status. Francesco Sansovino described such a procession in minute detail in He description is confirmed and complemented by Cesare Vecellio 's painting of a ducal procession in the Piazza San Marco. From the 14th century onward, the ceremonial crown and well-known symbol of the doge of Venice was called corno ducale , a unique ducal hat.
It was a stiff horn-like bonnet, which was made of gemmed brocade or cloth-of-gold and worn over the camauro.
This was a fine linen cap with a structured peak reminiscent of the Phrygian cap , a classical symbol of liberty. This ceremonial cap may have been based on the white crown of Upper Egypt.
Venice, an historical sketch of the Republic
The Doge's official costume also included golden robes, slippers and a sceptre for ceremonial duties. Until the 15th century, the funeral service for a deceased doge would normally be held at St Mark's Basilica , where some early holders of this office are also buried. After the 15th century, however, the funerals of all later doges were held at the Basilica di San Giovanni e Paolo.
Twenty-five doges are buried there. As the oligarchical element in the constitution developed, the more important functions of the ducal office were assigned to other officials, or to administrative boards. The doge's role became a mostly representative position. The last doge was Ludovico Manin , who abdicated in , when Venice passed under the power of Napoleon 's France following his conquest of the city.
While Venice would shortly declare itself again as a republic, attempting to resist annexation by Austria, it would never revive the dogal style. It used various titles, including dictator , and collective heads of state to govern the jurisdiction, including a triumvirate. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Doge of Venice Coat of arms. Main article: Promissione ducale. Main article: List of Doges of Venice. Random House.
Retrieved 9 July Black, , p. Stanford University, , p. NS 5 , pp. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 12 July Egyptian Mythology and Egyptian Christianity, with their modern influence on the opinions of modern Christendom. London: J. Doges of Venice. About This Book : Catalog Entry.
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Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book. Believing that a State is an organicwhole, and that such an organism can be more easilystudied in a City- than in a Territorial- State, it appearedto me that the Venetian Eepublic presented one of themost striking examples of the inception, birth, adolescence,decline, and death of a community which history has tooffer for our observation.
Throughout her career the personality of the Eepublicovershadows the personality of even her most distinguishedcitizens. Athene in the Partvenicehistorical00brow. Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work. Image from page 7 of "Venice : an historical sketch of the republic" Identifier : venicehistorical00brow Title : Venice : an historical sketch of the republic Year : s Authors : Brown, Horatio F.
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