The San Remo Conference , binding under international law, further envisioned the West Bank as being part of a sovereign Jewish state , and arguably encourages, rather than prohibits Jewish settlement in the area. Furthermore, according to Israeli government, many of the settlements were established on the sites of former Jewish communities that had existed there prior to on land that was legitimately bought, and ethnically cleansed by Arab forces.
Israel views the territory as being the subject of legitimate diplomatic dispute and negotiation under international law. The UN Security Council Resolution condemned the annexation as "a violation of international law". This annexation has not been recognized by other nations, although the United States Congress declared its intention to recognize the annexation a proposal that has been condemned by other states and organizations.
Because of the question of Jerusalem's status, no states base their diplomatic missions there and treat Tel Aviv as the capital,  though two states have embassies in the Jerusalem suburb of Mevaseret Zion. Israel asserts that these territories are not currently claimed by any other state, and that Israel has the right to control them.
Israel's position has not been accepted by most countries and international bodies, and the West Bank including East Jerusalem and the Gaza Strip are referred to as occupied territories with Israel as the occupying power by most international legal and political bodies,  the rest of the Arab bloc, the UK,  including the EU, the United States,   both the General Assembly and Security Council of the United Nations,  the International Court of Justice, the Conference of High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention,  and the Israeli Supreme Court see Israeli West Bank barrier.
Former U. President George W. Bush stated, during his presidency, that he did not expect Israel to return entirely to pre borders, due to "new realities on the ground. Both US President Bill Clinton and UK Prime Minister Tony Blair , who played notable roles in attempts at mediation, noted the need for some territorial and diplomatic compromise on this issue, based on the validity of some of the claims of both sides. In return, Palestinians would have received concessions of land in other parts of the country.
Full text of May 2017 UNESCO resolution on ‘Occupied Palestine’
During the period between the Oslo Accords and the Second Intifada beginning in , Israeli officials claimed that the term "occupation" did not accurately reflect the state of affairs in the territories. During this time, the Palestinian population in large parts of the territories had a large degree of autonomy and only limited exposure to the IDF except when seeking to move between different areas. Following the events of the Second Intifada, and in particular, Operation Defensive Shield , most territories, including Palestinian cities Area A , are back under effective Israeli military control, so the discussion along those lines is largely moot.
In the summer of , Israel implemented its unilateral disengagement plan ; about Israeli citizens living in the Gaza Strip were forcibly removed from the territory; some received alternative homes and a sum of money. The Israel Defense Forces vacated Gaza in , but invaded it again in in response to rocket attacks and the abduction of Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit by Hamas.
In December , Brazil recognized Palestine as a state with its borders. This action was later criticized by Israel and the United States, who labelled it "counterproductive". There were 3. According to the U. According to the UN , the Palestinian population was 4. The overwhelming majority of Palestinians are Muslims. Respect for the sanctity of all other divine religions shall be maintained". Arabic is the official language within the Palestinian Authority.
Hebrew and English are widely spoken. Consistent with its policy of Jerusalem as a united and indivisible capital of Israel , Israel does not publish exact figures of the number of settlers in East Jerusalem. Rather the figures of Israelis in Judea and Samaria District are given. Independently from the political composition of its subsequent governments, the number of settlers in the West Bank has grown rapidly and in a relatively straight line since see graphics.
The Constitution of the League of Arab States says the existence and independence of Palestine cannot be questioned de jure even though the outward signs of this independence have remained veiled as a result of force majeure. By the declaration, the PNC empowered its central council to form a government-in-exile when appropriate, and called upon its executive committee to perform the duties of the government-in-exile until its establishment.
In December , the PLO also assumed responsibility for civil administration in 17 areas in Hebron. This situation is said to be accepted by the Palestinian population insofar as it is viewed as a temporary arrangement. Since the Battle of Gaza , the two separate territories, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, are divided into a Hamas leadership in the Gaza Strip and a Fatah civil leadership in the autonomous areas of the West Bank. Each sees itself as the administrator of all Palestinian Territories and does not acknowledge the other one as the official government of the territories.
The Palestinian Territories have therefore de facto split into two entities. After the signing of the Oslo Accords, the Palestinian territories were divided 16 governorates under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian National Authority. Since there are two governments claiming to be the legitimate government of the Palestinian National Authority, one based in the West Bank and one based in the Gaza Strip. The Oslo II Accord created three temporary distinct administrative divisions in the Palestinian territories, the Areas A , B and C , until a final status accord would be established.
The areas are not contiguous, but rather fragmented depending on the different population areas as well as Israeli military requirements. In , after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire that ruled Greater Syria for four centuries — , the British Mandate for Palestine was established. Large-scale Jewish immigration from abroad, mainly from Eastern Europe took place during the British Mandate, though Jewish immigration started during the Ottoman period.
The United Nations Partition Plan proposed a division of Mandate Palestine between an Arab and a Jewish state, with Jerusalem and the surrounding area to be a corpus separatum under a special international regime. The regions allotted to the proposed Arab state included what became the Gaza Strip, and almost all of what became the West Bank, as well as other areas.
The Partition Plan was accepted by the Jewish leadership, but rejected by the Arab leaders.
The Arab League threatened to take military measures to prevent the partition of Palestine and to ensure the national rights of the Palestinian Arab population. One day before the expiration of the British Mandate for Palestine, on 14 May , Israel declared its independence within the borders of the Jewish State set out in the Partition Plan.
After the war, which Palestinians call the Nakba , the Armistice Agreements established the separation lines between the combatants, leaving Israel in control of some of the areas designated for the Arab state under the Partition Plan, Transjordan in control of the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, Egypt in control of the Gaza Strip and Syria in control of the Himmah Area. In , Jordan annexed the West Bank.
Only the United Kingdom formally recognized the annexation of the West Bank, excluding the case of East Jerusalem which was de facto recognized. Israel captured both territories in the Six-Day War, as well as other territory belonging to Egypt and Syria. Since then, these territories have been designated Israeli-occupied territories. Immediately after the war, on 19 June , the Israeli government offered to return the Golan Heights to Syria, the Sinai to Egypt and most of the West Bank to Jordan in exchange for peace. At the Khartoum Summit in September, the Arab parties responded to this overture by declaring "no peace with Israel, no recognition of Israel and no negotiations with Israel.
UN Security Council Resolution introduced the " Land for Peace " formula for normalizing relations between Israel and its neighbors. This formula was used when Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt in in exchange for a peace treaty. While that treaty mentioned a "linkage" between Israeli—Egyptian peace and Palestinian autonomy, the formerly Egyptian-occupied territory in Gaza was excluded from the agreement, and remained under Israeli control.
This was an interim organization created to administer a limited form of Palestinian self-governance in the territories for a period of five years during which final-status negotiations would take place. The Palestinian Authority carried civil responsibility in some rural areas, as well as security responsibility in the major cities of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Although the five-year interim period expired in , the final status agreement has yet to be concluded despite attempts such as the Camp David Summit , the Taba summit , and the unofficial Geneva Accords.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The territories captured and occupied by Israel in that were part of the British Mandate for Palestine. This article is about the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. For the historical region, see Palestine region. For the modern-day state, see State of Palestine. For all territories occupied by Israel, see Israeli-occupied territories. For other uses, see Palestinian territories disambiguation.
Palestinian Territories according to a Green Line based definition. Arabic Hebrew. Palestinians Jews Samaritans. Used in Gaza Strip since Used since Used in West Bank since See also: History of Palestine and Timeline of the name Palestine. See also: Borders of Israel. Area assigned for a Jewish state. Area assigned for an Arab state.
Planned Corpus separatum with the intention that Jerusalem would be neither Jewish nor Arab. Israeli controlled territory from Egyptian and Jordanian controlled territory from until This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
See also: Positions on Jerusalem. State of Palestine. Officeholders whose status is disputed are shown in italics. National symbols. Flag National anthem. Legislative Council. Administrative divisions. Foreign relations. Other countries Atlas.
See also: International law and the Arab—Israeli conflict and Status of territories captured by Israel. Main article: Palestinian people. See also: Demographics of Palestine and Demographics of the Palestinian territories. Main article: Governorates of the Palestinian National Authority. Part of a series on the.
Achaemenid Empire Yehud Medinata. Rashidun Jund Filastin , Jund al-Urdunn.
Modern evolution of Palestine v t e. The red line is the "International Administration" proposed in the Sykes—Picot Agreement , the dashed blue line is the Zionist Organization proposal at the Paris Peace Conference , and the thin blue line refers to the final borders of the —48 Mandatory Palestine.
An ongoing British Mandate was proposed to keep "the sanctity of Jerusalem and Bethlehem ", in the form of an enclave from Jerusalem to Jaffa , including Lydda and Ramle. The proposal included a Corpus Separatum for Jerusalem , extraterritorial crossroads between the non-contiguous areas, and Jaffa as an Arab exclave. The Jewish population had increased from 83, in to , in Neither Israel's annexation nor Palestine's claim over East Jerusalem has been internationally recognized.
Palestine portal Israel portal. Retrieved 28 November Retrieved 10 June International assistance to the Palestinians after Oslo: political guilt, wasted money. Routledge studies on the Arab-Israeli conflict. London and New York: Routledge. December Archived from the original PDF on 16 February Retrieved 3 January United Nations. Retrieved 29 November Berkeley Journal of International law. Council of the European Union.
The Council highlights the importance of unhindered work of civil society both in Israel and the occupied Palestinian territory and follows recent developments in this regard with concern. Archived from the original PDF on 6 July Retrieved 6 July Retrieved 9 October Adds New Name: "State of Palestine " ". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 10 January International Business Times. Retrieved 22 October Archived from the original on 26 September Retrieved 21 November Retrieved on Access to Jerusalem and the Holy Places".
Jerusalem:Points Beyond Friction and Beyond. Kluwer Law International.
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Bearing Witness — Eight weeks in Palestine. London: Metete. International Court of Justice. Archived from the original on 28 August Retrieved 27 September International Committee of the Red Cross. Archived from the original on 7 February Archived from the original on 3 June Publishers, pp.
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Recognition and the United Nations. Cambridge: Grotius Publications Limited. Retrieved 26 December The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 21 June Arab Herald. Retrieved 28 August Retrieved 30 June Israel ministry of foreign Affairs. Retrieved 18 May The British labour movement and Zionism, — The Jewish people have always regarded, and will continue to regard Palestine as a whole, as a single country which is theirs in a national sense and will become theirs once again.
No Jew [ dubious — discuss ] will accept partition as a just and rightful solution. Paw Prints. The Palestinians can run their lives freely in the framework of self-rule, but not as an independent and sovereign state. Scopus 5, and the Gaza Strip Archived from the original on 16 January Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 20 May Although Jerusalem was a part of territory beyond the Green Line that was ruled by Jordan until , Israel declared Jerusalem "complete and united" as the capital of Israel according to the Basic Jerusalem Law. The Golan Heights are another exception, having been informally incorporated by Israel with the Golan Heights Law.
The UN Security Council declared this to be null and without any international legal effect. The sections of the Green Line that delineate the boundaries between Israel, the West Bank and Gaza run through heavily populated regions. The Line corresponds to the military front of the War, and while the considerations dictating its placement were primarily military, it soon became clear that in many places it divided towns and villages, and separated farmers from their fields. Consequently, the Green Line underwent various slight adjustments, and special arrangements were made for limited movement in certain areas.
Jerusalem was divided in half, into East and West Jerusalem. The village of Barta'a , partially due to errors on the map, was left with one third of its area on the Israeli side and two thirds outside of it.
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According to Avi Shlaim , in March as the Iraqi forces withdrew and handed over their positions to the Jordanian legion, Israel carried out Operation Shin-Tav-Shin which allowed Israel to renegotiate the cease fire line in the Wadi Ara area of the northern West Bank in a secret agreement that was incorporated into the General Armistice Agreement. The Green Line was redrawn in blue ink on the southern map to give the impression that a movement in the green line had been made.
During the war in —48, Jews residing east of the Line, including the Jewish Quarter of the Old City , were taken prisoner by the Jordanians. All but a few of the Gush Etzion defenders were massacred. The prisoners were returned to Israel after the war. These have been strongly criticised by other nations. Many Israelis believe that the settlements are important to Israel's security and also support the settlements ideologically. In contrast, many Israelis believe the settlements are an economic burden and a barrier to peace. From August to September , Israel implemented a unilateral disengagement plan in which the entire Jewish population of the Gaza Strip was evacuated.
Green Line (Israel) - Wikipedia
In , Ehud Olmert proposed a convergence plan that called for Israel to disengage, unilaterally, if necessary, from much of the West Bank east of the line. The majority of Palestinian Arabs on the Israeli side of the Line fled or were expelled during the Arab-Israeli War around , The Umm al-Fahm - Baqa al-Gharbiyye - Tira area, known as the " Triangle ," was originally designated to fall under Jordanian jurisdiction, but Israel demanded its inclusion on the Israeli side due to military and strategic considerations. To achieve this, a territorial swap was negotiated with Transjordan , giving the latter Israeli territory in the southern hills of Hebron in exchange for the Triangle villages in Wadi Ara.
In the Six-Day War, Israel occupied territories beyond the Green Line that were inhabited by over a million Palestinian Arabs, including refugees from the — war. In , Israel annexed East Jerusalem and gave its Arab inhabitants permanent residency status. They were also entitled to apply for Israeli citizenship. United Nations Security Council Resolution deemed the law null and void, and this status has not been recognised by any other nation. In , the Knesset enacted the Golan Heights Law , ostensibly as a reaction to Syrian provocations. This extended the Israeli rule of law to the Golan Heights.
Rogers said that "any changes in the pre-existing [ armistice] lines should not reflect the weight of conquest and should be confined to insubstantial alterations required for mutual security. We do not support expansionism. Schwebel responded that " The question of whether, or to what extent, Israel should withdraw its population and forces to its side of the Green Line remains a crucial issue in some discussions surrounding the Israeli—Palestinian conflict.
There is a near-unanimous international consensus that Israel should withdraw to its side of the line. The Palestinians were not party to the drawing of the Green Line and they rejected UNSC , saying that it did not call for an independent Palestinian state, and referred to them as refugees. Since , most elements in the PLO have accepted the pre-June line as a basis for the establishment of a Palestinian state. In the early s, American intellectual Noam Chomsky argued that Israeli claims that the Palestinian leadership rejected the international consensus calling for a Palestinian state, with borders along the Green Line, were not consistent with the documented record.
The majority of the Israeli public opposes reverting to pre borders. The Israeli West Bank barrier constructed in the early 21st century is, in parts, kilometres away from the Green Line; but most lies within Palestinian territory. According to Hebrew University geographer Ilan Salomon, the Green Line can be discerned from space via satellite; it is marked by pine forests planted by the Jewish National Fund to demarcate Israeli territory. Salomon and Larissa Fleishman conducted a study regarding Israeli students' knowledge of the location of the Green Line, and they found that not much more than one third could identify its placement.
They learned that "students who identify with left-leaning parties are more familiar with the location of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip , can sketch them more accurately and are also more aware of the nature of borders.