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1. Introduction

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If there is a survey it only takes 5 minutes, try any survey which works for you. Register for FREE 1st month. More notably, our work offers novel insights into how conceptual processing makes partial use of perceptual systems suggesting that retrieving a concept entails the activation of modality-specific neural channels with weights proportional to the reliability of the signals produced by these channels during actual perception of the conceptual referents. However, this happens regardless of whether or not the referent possesses some features, provided that those features are typically associated with the corresponding superordinate category.

Our study gives some initial hints that this selection and storing may be based on the same mechanism that mediates the integration of multiple perceptual information into a coherent percept, that is the weighting of concurrent inputs based on their reliability. We thank D. Crepaldi for his helpful suggestions concerning the statistical analysis of data using linear mixed-effect models.

BFMM designed the experiment, prepared the stimuli, wrote the e-prime code for controlling stimulus presentation and response collection, performed the experiment, analyzed the data, drew the figures, wrote and revised the manuscript. AMB designed the experiment, contributed to the discussion of the data, and revised the manuscript. LG helped preparing the stimuli and running the experiment. CC designed the experiment, contributed to data analysis and to the discussion of the data, and revised the manuscript. LR designed the experiment, contributed to the discussion of the data, and revised the manuscript.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Behav Sci Basel v.

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Behav Sci Basel. Published online Jul Barbara F. Find articles by Barbara F. Anna M. Find articles by Luca Gemmi. Find articles by Lucia Riggio. John Coverdale, Academic Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received May 5; Accepted Jul This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract We investigated the conceptual processing of nouns referring to objects characterized by a highly typical color and orientation. Keywords: grounded cognition, conceptual processing, neural adaptation, McCollough effect.

Introduction In the last decades, an increasing number of functional neuroimaging, neurophysiologic, and behavioral studies have provided support for the grounded cognition view whose main theoretical assumption is that conceptual processing makes use of the same neural systems that mediate perception and action for empirical reviews and theoretical discussions see [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ]. Materials and Methods 2. Participants Thirty-four students of the University of Parma 20 females, mean age: Procedure Participants were tested individually in a sound-attenuated room, dimly illuminated by a halogen lamp directed towards the ceiling.

Phase 1: Induction of the McCollough Effect To decrease the responsiveness of visual neurons in posterior LV4 region, jointly sensitive to the green color and the vertical or horizontal orientation, participants were exposed to a McCollough effect induction procedure in which two orthogonally oriented grating patterns spatial frequency: 0.

Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Table 1 Complete list of nouns used in Phase 2, their length number of letters , lexical frequency occurrences per million , familiarity score on a seven-point scale , imageability score on a seven-point scale , and animacy score on a seven-point scale. Phase 3: Evaluation of the McCollough Effect To test whether the adaptation procedure administered in Phase 1 was successful, the McCollough effect was evaluated by means of a visual paired comparison task.

Phase 4: Washing-Out the McCollough Effect To delete the long-term neural adaptation generated at the beginning of the experimental session, the same procedure employed in Phase 1 Figure 1 d was used but this time participants of both groups were exposed to white-and-black vertical and horizontal grating patterns. Phase 5: Estimation of Concept Color and Orientation To further control the critical nouns used in Phase 2 as go-stimuli, participants were asked to judge the color and prevalent orientation of the natural objects denoted by these nouns.

Results 3. Estimation of Concept Color and Orientation The color and orientation estimates produced for each critical noun were converted into numeric values and averaged across subjects for the conversion tables used, see Figure 2. Figure 3. Table 2 Fixed effect of the final mixed model on noun categorization times.

Figure 4. Figure 5. Discussion In this exploratory study, we investigated the conceptual processing of nouns referring to natural objects characterized by highly typical colors and orientations e. Conclusions In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that neural adaptation can impair conceptual processing. Author Contributions BFMM designed the experiment, prepared the stimuli, wrote the e-prime code for controlling stimulus presentation and response collection, performed the experiment, analyzed the data, drew the figures, wrote and revised the manuscript.

Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References 1. Barsalou L. Perceptual symbol systems. Brain Sci. Grounded Cognition. Fisher M. Embodied language: A review of the role of the motor system in language comprehension. Glenberg A. Action-based language: A theory of language acquisition, comprehension, and production. Jirak D. Grasping language—A short story on embodiment. Mahon B. The orchestration of the sensory-motor systems: Clues from neuropsychology. A critical look at the embodied cognition hypothesis and a new proposal for grounding conceptual content.

Paris ; — Martin A. The representation of object concepts in the brain. Meteyard L. Coming of age: A review of embodiment and the neuroscience of semantics. Toni I. Language beyond action. Brain signatures of meaning access in action word recognition. Marino B.

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How the motor system handles nouns: A behavioral study. Viewing photos and reading nouns of natural graspable objects similarly modulate motor responses. Reading cinnamon activates olfactory brain regions. Simmons W. A common neural substrate for perceiving and knowing about color. Pecher D. Verifying different-modality properties for concepts produces switching costs.

Chatterjee A. Disembodying cognition. Dove G. On the need for embodied and dis-embodied cognition. Grill-Spector K. Repetition and the brain: Neural models of stimulus-specific effects. Trends Cogn. Morita T. The neural substrates of conscious color perception demonstrated using fMRI. Jones P. Extremely long-term persistence of the McCollough effect. McCollough C. Color adaptation of edge-detectors in the human visual system. Barnes J. The functional anatomy of the McCollough contingent colour after-effect.

Kurby C. Adaptation effects on world recognition times: Evidence for perceptual representations. In: Forbus K. Wiemer-Hastings K. Access to perceptual features during world recognition. In: Bara B. Ishihara S.

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Tests for Colour-Blindness. Kanehara Shuppan; Tokio, Japan: Laudanna A. In: Bolasco S. Volume 1. Cisu; Roma, Italy: In Italian [ Google Scholar ].