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Bread improvers and dough conditioners are often used in producing commercial breads to reduce the time needed for rising and to improve texture and volume. The substances used may be oxidising agents to strengthen the dough or reducing agents to develop gluten and reduce mixing time, emulsifiers to strengthen the dough or to provide other properties such as making slicing easier, or enzymes to increase gas production.


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Salt is often added to enhance flavor and restrict yeast activity. It also affects the crumb and the overall texture by stabilizing and strengthening [45] the gluten. Some artisan bakers forego early addition of salt to the dough, whether wholemeal or refined, and wait until after a minute rest to allow the dough to autolyse. Leavening is the process of adding gas to a dough before or during baking to produce a lighter, more easily chewed bread. Most bread eaten in the West is leavened. A simple technique for leavening bread is the use of gas-producing chemicals.

There are two common methods. The first is to use baking powder or a self-raising flour that includes baking powder. The second is to include an acidic ingredient such as buttermilk and add baking soda ; the reaction of the acid with the soda produces gas. This method is commonly used to make muffins , pancakes , American-style biscuits , and quick breads such as banana bread.

Many breads are leavened by yeast.

Beginner Sourdough Bread Recipe

The yeast most commonly used for leavening bread is Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the same species used for brewing alcoholic beverages. This yeast ferments some of the carbohydrates in the flour, including any sugar , producing carbon dioxide. Commercial bakers often leaven their dough with commercially produced baker's yeast. Baker's yeast has the advantage of producing uniform, quick, and reliable results, because it is obtained from a pure culture. If kept in the right conditions, it provides leavening for many years. The baker's yeast and sourdough methods follow the same pattern. Water is mixed with flour, salt and the leavening agent.

3-2-1 Pie Dough

Other additions spices, herbs, fats, seeds, fruit, etc. The mixed dough is then allowed to rise one or more times a longer rising time results in more flavor, so bakers often "punch down" the dough and let it rise again , then loaves are formed, and after an optional final rising time the bread is baked in an oven. Many breads are made from a " straight dough ", which means that all of the ingredients are combined in one step, and the dough is baked after the rising time; [47] others are made from a " pre-ferment " in which the leavening agent is combined with some of the flour and water a day or so ahead of baking and allowed to ferment overnight.

On the day of baking, the rest of the ingredients are added, and the process continues as with straight dough. This produces a more flavorful bread with better texture. Many bakers see the starter method as a compromise between the reliable results of baker's yeast and the flavor and complexity of a longer fermentation. It also allows the baker to use only a minimal amount of baker's yeast, which was scarce and expensive when it first became available. Sourdough is a type of bread produced by a long fermentation of dough using naturally occurring yeasts and lactobacilli.

It usually has a mildly sour taste because of the lactic acid produced during anaerobic fermentation by the lactobacilli. Sourdough breads are made with a sourdough starter. The starter cultivates yeast and lactobacilli in a mixture of flour and water, making use of the microorganisms already present on flour; it does not need any added yeast. A starter may be maintained indefinitely by regular additions of flour and water. Some bakers have starters many generations old, which are said to have a special taste or texture.

Recently there has been a revival of sourdough bread in artisan bakeries. Traditionally, peasant families throughout Europe baked on a fixed schedule, perhaps once a week.

Homemade Bakery French Bread

The starter was saved from the previous week's dough. The starter was mixed with the new ingredients, the dough was left to rise, and then a piece of it was saved to be the starter for next week's bread. The rapid expansion of steam produced during baking leavens the bread, which is as simple as it is unpredictable.

Steam-leavening is unpredictable since the steam is not produced until the bread is baked. Steam leavening happens regardless of the raising agents baking soda, yeast, baking powder, sour dough, beaten egg white included in the mix. The leavening agent either contains air bubbles or generates carbon dioxide.

Bread - Wikipedia

The heat vaporises the water from the inner surface of the bubbles within the dough. The steam expands and makes the bread rise. This is the main factor in the rising of bread once it has been put in the oven. Heat kills bacteria or yeast at an early stage, so the CO 2 generation is stopped. Salt-rising bread employs a form of bacterial leavening that does not require yeast.

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Although the leavening action is inconsistent, and requires close attention to the incubating conditions, this bread is making a comeback for its cheese-like flavor and fine texture. Aerated bread was leavened by carbon dioxide being forced into dough under pressure. From the mid 19th to mid 20th centuries bread made this way was somewhat popular in the United Kingdom, made by the Aerated Bread Company and sold in its high-street tearooms. The company was founded in , and ceased independent operations in It manipulates the gas bubble size and optionally the composition of gases in the dough via the gas applied to the headspace.

Bread has a significance beyond mere nutrition in many cultures because of its history and contemporary importance. Bread is also significant in Christianity as one of the elements alongside wine of the Eucharist , [59] and in other religions including Paganism. In many cultures, bread is a metaphor for basic necessities and living conditions in general. For example, a "bread-winner" is a household's main economic contributor and has little to do with actual bread-provision. This is also seen in the phrase "putting bread on the table". The Roman poet Juvenal satirized superficial politicians and the public as caring only for " panem et circenses " bread and circuses.

In Slavic cultures bread and salt is offered as a welcome to guests. Words for bread, including "dough" and "bread" itself, are used in English -speaking countries as synonyms for money. Bread is sometimes referred to as "the staff of life", although this term can refer to other staple foods in different cultures: the Oxford English Dictionary defines it as "bread or similar staple food ".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Staple food prepared from a dough. For other uses, see Bread disambiguation. Main article: History of bread. Main article: List of breads. Dark sprouted bread. Main article: Flour. Main article: Bread improver. Main article: Baker's yeast.

How to make French Baguettes at home

Main article: Sourdough. Main article: Bread in culture. Online Etymology Dictionary. The paths of history. Cambridge University Press. Slavic langues retain many Gothic words, reflecting cultural borrowings: thus khleb , bread from an earlier khleiba from Gothic hlaifs , or, rather, from the more ancient form hlaibhaz , which meant bread baked in an oven and, probably, made with yeast , as different from a l-iepekha, which was a flat cake moulded liepiti from paste, and baked on charcoal. Bon Appetit. Retrieved 30 September Agence France-Presse.

Retrieved 19 October Retrieved 17 July Ramsey, Dorian Q. Fuller, and Tobias Richter: Archaeobotanical evidence reveals the origins of bread 14, years ago in northeastern Jordan. On food and cooking. Food in History. Stein and Day. Natural History. Loeb Classics. Food and Agriculture Organization.

Retrieved 1 October Wheat, in the form of bread, provides more nutrients to the world population than any other single food source.


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  6. Aside from bread wheat and durum, other types of wheat include spelt, emmer, einkorn and kamut. Technology of Breadmaking. In the past, maize corn , barley, oats, sorghum, millet and rice have all found their way into bread products at some time, usually when wheat and rye have been in short supply. Nutrients Review. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. After the confirmation of NCGS diagnosis, according to the previously mentioned work-up, patients are advized to start with a GFD [49]. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. For both wheat allergy and coeliac disease the dietary avoidance of wheat and other gluten-containing cereals is the only effective treatment.

    International Journal of Food Science and Technology. European Food Research and Technology. Food Chemistry. Food Microbiology. New York: Scribner. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Huffington Post. Retrieved 2 October Simply Recipes. The Guardian. Our most dutiful mealtime companion becomes the main ingredient in this inventive array of recipes, from a hearty clam chowder to a luxurious take on a pudding favourite Department of Agriculture, U.

    Retrieved 26 October Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. British Broadcasting Corporation. Protein quality and the effects of processing. New York: M.


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    See Figure 2. Bread: a baker's book of techniques and recipes. New York: John Wiley. A high gluten white flour will require more mix time than a white flour with a lower gluten content, Professional Chef: Level 2 Diploma. Retrieved 21 March Red Star Yeast. Berlin: Springer. Food and Product Design Magazine. Becoming a Chef. Weekend Bakery.

    King Arthur Flour. The Oxford Companion to Food. See our 10 Best Hand Mixers to Buy in Turn to our test's champion for so-smooth cookie dough, cake batter, and perfectly whipped egg whites. This Hamilton Beach was among the most affordable models we tested and earned a high score in nearly every evaluation. It comes with a handle on top to make lifting the head super easy, plus it suctions to your countertop so it'll stay in place when you're mixing.

    And rather than just offering numerical speeds, Breville's assigned specific tasks do you want to cream vs. Our experts found it easy to add ingredients without stopping the mixer and loved the heavy-duty glass mixing bowl. It was still a top performer in our test, however, and certainly worth considering if you bake in large quantities. Type keyword s to search. Today's Top Stories. Independence Day Through the Years.

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