More info below. Arrangement: The correspondence has been arranged in three groups, each of which has been arranged alphabetically. The financial records are in loose groupings by document type and content and are also somewhat chronologically ordered and the newspaper clippings are in chronological order.
Plays and music are not arranged. The photographs have been arranged alphabetically by the name of the individual, when known. Personal names of correspondents, journal titles, organization names, and play and song titles have been transliterated. Yiddish names have been transliterated according to YIVO standards except when the individual is known in English by another spelling.
Additionally, if the name appeared in Latin letters anywhere within the folder, that spelling was used rather than a standard transliteration. Often, individual names appear in several different spellings and versions within a single folder or a series of correspondence is addressed to multiple people or organizations. When this is the case, multiple names are listed, divided by a slash mark. The box and folder numbers start over again at 1 for each series and subseries. The folder numbers for the correspondence and the financial records and other administrative materials continue from one box to the next, while the folder numbers for the plays, music scores and audiovisual and memorabilia materials start over again at 1 at the beginning of each new box.
Box numbers consist of series number, and subseries number for Series I, and box number within that series and subseries. The collection has been divided into four series with the first series further divided into subseries. A majority of these performances were in New York City, but there are also materials from Philadelphia, Chicago, Boston, Toronto, and Montreal, as well as various locations in Israel and South America.
The materials include hundreds of music scores, dozens of play scripts and thousands of pieces of correspondence with numerous individuals, theaters, unions, and other organizations. There are also dues ledgers and other financial materials, such as receipts, invoices, contracts, and salary and payment agreements, membership address cards, election ballots, theater programs and posters, administrative records and reports, a handwritten Yiddish ledger of minutes of regular monthly business meetings and special annual meetings from , meeting notices, press releases, awards, paintings, banners, photographs, souvenir journals, and newspaper clippings.
Many of the materials are in fair condition, although much of the collection is brittle and torn and some of the collection, particularly the music scores, is extremely fragile and should only be handled carefully. These materials have not been factored into the linear extent of the collection. After a few weeks, Thomashefsky recognized the Union and the strike ended. In addition, the actors also began to receive wages, rather than a percentage of the profits.
The two Local branches, along with a separate union for Yiddish vaudevillians and variety actors, also founded in March , merged in , under the direction of Reuben Guskin, then the manager of the HAU. Actors could be fired without notice, and received commissions based upon the success of the performance and their individual popularity instead of receiving regular salaries. They were not compensated for their rehearsal time, worked seven days a week and were often treated quite poorly by theater managers.
The HAU combated this exploitation by setting rules for working conditions, fair wages and payment schedules. It kept non-Union actors out of productions in which Union members appeared, established a fund to support old and sick members, assisted striking unions that operated under the aegis of the United Hebrew Trades, and was closely affiliated from its beginning with the American Federation of Labor AFL and with the general and Jewish labor movement.
Periodically, a theater was forced to close when it could not afford to pay the high salaries of the actors and the other theater workers, such as musicians, advertisers and ushers, which the Union also helped to organize. The Union had a great deal of power over its members, as well as over the Yiddish theater establishment.
It determined which theaters actors could perform in and how prominently they would be billed on theater marquees. The more successful actors performed in New York on Second Avenue, where there were 14 Yiddish theaters at one time, while less successful actors were kept on a touring circuit, mainly the New York and New Jersey suburbs but sometimes as far away as the mid-west and Canada. Dues and initiation fees were very high but, once new members were admitted, they were guaranteed a higher minimum salary and a higher payment for extra performances beyond the required nine shows a week.
The Yiddish press in both Poland and the United States covered the dispute and each union threatened to boycott the other before Reuben Guskin was able to resolve the situation during a visit to Poland. During the s, when both the Union and Yiddish theater were at their heights, and into the s, when Yiddish theater attendance had already started to wane, the Union claimed about members and there were around 21 Yiddish theaters throughout the country.
The Great Depression, the continued acculturation of the Jewish population, the lack of new audiences that accompanied the end of immigration, the movement of Jewish audiences towards Broadway and motion pictures, and higher production costs for Yiddish plays than for English plays, due in part to Union contract requirements, combined to erode the audience for the Yiddish theater. This could be felt already by the season, when all of the Yiddish theaters in New York closed in midseason, two minor theaters folded and two Second Avenue theaters were put up for sale.
By , several of the biggest stars of the Yiddish theater had left for overseas or for the non-Yiddish stage or Hollywood. By midseason, the managers of the remaining nine New York theaters threatened to close if there was not a 40 percent cut in Union personnel salaries. The Union threatened to strike and, starting on December 8, , the theaters closed for two weeks. The Union was forced to cut the salary scale by percent and to waive its power to set a quota for actors for every theater for the duration of the season, but it was not enough.
The season was even worse and tension between the Union and the theater managers increased. A committee of five labor leaders was established to look for ways to improve the situation of the theaters, consisting of Baruch Vladeck, manager of the Forward ; David Shapiro, publisher of Der Tog ; Adolph Held, president of the Amalgamated Bank; Jacob R. Reuben Guskin was not included. Theaters continued to close, fewer productions were staged and it was harder for Yiddish-language actors to find work.
He also quietly aided many of the European actors who had survived the Holocaust, oftentimes personally donating money. Guskin remained as HAU president until his death in , after which the Union was lead by elected volunteer presidents who were also active in the Yiddish theater. The Union held its last official meeting in the s, but continued on until October , when it was officially labeled non-operational by its umbrella union, the Associated Actors and Artistes of America, an affiliate of the AFL-CIO.
Based upon: Edna Nahshon, Krysia Fisher. Zalmen Zylbercweig ed. Leksikon fun yidishn teater Lexicon of the Yiddish Theater. Chicago Ill. Alternate Extent Statement: For more information, contact:. The HAU Archive includes a rich collection of original manuscripts of theater music, including a substantial collection of Yiddish operettas. The music scores cover the period and consist of hundreds of operettas on a variety of subjects, including family themes, religion and tradition, and the lives of American Jews and their families in Europe during the immigration period.
The music consists mainly of instrument parts of operettas by composers such as A. Hellman, J. Brody, D.
good morning and freilachs no 2 score Manual
Hirsch, and G. Most of this music was originally composed in the earliest period of the Yiddish theater in Jassy, Bucharest, Czernowitz, and New York. The music scores are particularly fragile and should be handled with extreme care.
Hirsch and E. Manori, Tel Aviv, handwritten words in Yiddish. Shkliar, copyright by S. Sigal, Buenos Aires, from edition of S. Spoliansky, copyright , Editions Salabert, Paris. Invocation, traditional Yiddish melody of Russia and Poland, after the notation of Shalitt, by Kurt Schindler, voice and piano, copyright by G.
Schirmer, Inc. Katz, New York. Naidat, Tel Aviv. Jacobowitz, New York, February 9, Hellman, leader, 11 numbers, 1st and 2nd violin, bass, trumpet, trombone, drums, clarinet, flute, viola. Hellman, March , New York. Ellstein, Metro, copyright , Joseph P. Katz, copyright ass. Shalom, Metro, copyright Mohar, music by H. Zellner, Hazemer, Tel Aviv, copyright Theodore Baker, music by Edvard Grieg, copyright , G. Schirmer inc. Olshanetsky, piano, B tenor sax, violin, drums, alto, B sax, trumpet B.
Fleischman, text of song on separate sheet. Offenbach, arranged by Alfred Roth, trombone, trumpet A, drums, bass, 1st clarinet A, flute, 1st violin. Witmark and Sons, New York, drums, 1st trumpet in A, trombone, 1st clarinet in A, B, flute, bass, viola, 1st and 2nd violin, 2nd trumpet in A, B flat, cello, piano. Leivick, music by A.
Jones, arranged by Prof. Hellman, February 18, , Thalia Theatre, M. Williams, 1st Clarinet in A. Hellman, New York, May , A. Tanzman, comedian, with Lyric Theatre Stock Co. Andino, copyright by G. Schirmer, 1st violin, 2nd violin, 1st and 2nd cornets in B flat, bass, flute. Kammen, Brooklyn, New York. Greenberg, Hellman, New York, August , A. Hellman, 1st violin, 2nd violin, viola, bass, flute, 2nd trumpet in F, 1st trumpet in F. Gropper, New York, L. Friedsell, Hunter, New York. Offenbach, arranged by Theo. Moses, property of Joseph Brody, New York.
Jerome, arranged by Milton Ager, piano, horns in F, cello, copyright Redfield, piano, flute, clarinet in B flat, cornets in B flat, trombone, drums, horns in F, 1st violin, 2nd violin, viola, cello, bass, copyright Mackie, piano, 1st cornet in A, 1st violin, cello, 2nd violin, viola, bass, piccolo, 1st clarinet in A, 2nd cornet in A, trombone, drums, property of A. Hellman, New York. Cohan, 1st violin, piano, 2nd violin, viola, bass, flute, 1st clarinet in B flat, 1st cornet in B flat, 2nd cornet in B flat, trombone, drums and timpani.
Jonghmans, in various handwritten and printed sheets, piano, voice, 1st violin, enclosed in 1st violin:. Briegel, piano, 1st violin, 1st cornet in B flat. Hellman, trombone, 11 numbers, property of A. Hellman, Hausmann, trombone, and , Reines, trombone player. Smith, printed music, various instruments, property of A. Hart, piano and words. Eilenberg, arranged by Theo. Moses, 2nd violin, bass, property of J.
Santley, trombone, drums. Grant, trombone, drums. Roberts, 1st clarinet in B flat, horns in F, organ, solo and obligato violin, viola, 2nd cornet in B flat, trombone, violoncello, flute, 1st violin, 1st cornet in B flat. Shakespeare Comes to Town, arranged by J. Chattaway, cornet in B flat, bass and cello, 2nd violin. Chattaway, 1st cornet in A, property of A.
Paone, piano, drums, 2nd cornet in B flat, 2nd violin, 1st clarinet in B flat, flute in C, 1st cornet in B flat, trombone, cello, bass. Evans, piano, 1st cornet in A and B flat, 1st clarinet in A and B flat, 2nd violin, viola, flute and piccolo, cello, 1st violin, property of A. Smith, bass, 2nd violin, 1st clarinet in A, 1st cornet in A, 1st violin. Sachs, 2nd clarinet in B flat, horns in F, bassoon, drums, 1st clarinet in B flat, oboe, flute or piccolo, bass, trombone, 2nd violin, property of A. Williams, piano, cello, bass, viola, 2nd cornet in B flat, drums, flute, 1st cornet in B flat, 1st clarinet in B flat, 2nd violin, trombone.
Alford, piano, 1st violin, 2nd violin, 1st clarinet in A, flute and piccolo, cello, drums, trombone, 2nd cornet in A, 1st cornet in A, bass, viola. Alford, piano, 1st violin, 2nd violin, 1st clarinet in B flat, flute, cello, drums, trombone, 2nd cornet in B flat, 1st cornet in B flat, bass, viola. Hellman, 1st violin, drums, cornet in A, bass, flute, clarinet in A, 2nd violin, viola, trombone, 4 numbers, property of A. Prizament, Jaime Lewin Collection, bass, violin, trumpet in B flat, drums, tambourine.
Sarrett, London. Altman, Detroit, Mich. Perlmutter, Canavrim, Hellman, New York, , A. Santley, orchestration by Sam Danks. Glazounow, arranged by Charles J. Roberts, 2nd violin, oboe, bass, timpani and drums. Mitchell and Archie Gottler, arranged by Frank Skinner, piano. Saint-Saens, arranged by Charles J. Roberts, 2nd violin, bass, 2nd cornet in B flat, viola. Moses, flute, 1st violin, 1st horn in F, viola, drums, 1st cornet in B flat, trombone, cello, 1st clarinet in B flat, 1st violin, property of J. Moses, flute, 1st violin, 1st horn in F, viola, drums, 1st cornet in B flat, trombone, cello, 1st clarinet in B flat, property of J.
Williams, drums, 1st clarinet in B flat and A, bass, piano, 2nd violin, 1st violin, flute, property of A. Evans, 2nd cornet in B flat, viola, 2nd violin, piano, drums, trombone, 1st cornet in B flat, piccolo and flute, 1st clarinet in B flat, 1st violin, bass, property of A. Cohan, viola, bass, flute, 1st clarinet in B flat and A, 1st cornet in B flat and A, trombone, drums, cello, 2nd cornet in B flat and A.
Small Shmulewitz , arranged by Albert Teres, copyright by A. Smulewitz, arranged by J. Rumshisky, copyright by The Hebrew Publishing Co. Lillian, arranged by S. Grichtman, copyright by I. Reingold, music by G. Mendelssohn, The Hebrew Publishing Co. Gilien, music by Joseph Brody, copyright by Joseph Brody.
Remick and Co. Pether, arranged by George Lechler, copyright by Theodore Lohr. West, copyright , by Novello and Co. Birkbeck, music edited by Walter Parratt, copyright , by Novello and Co. Barnard, M. Wareing, copyright , by Novello and Co. Evans, for various instruments, property of A. Hellman, New York, copyright by F.
Haviland Pub. Evans, cornet in B flat, clarinet in B flat, flute, copyright by Sol Bloom. Sachs, 1st violin, cello, property of A. Hellman, New York, copyright by I. Gaul, copyright , by Novello and Co. McCabe, various instruments, copyright by Jerome H. Chattaway, clarinet in B flat, flute, trombone. Evans, 2nd violin, bass, cello, viola. Bodewalt Lampe, various instruments, copyright by Jerome H. Rosenberg, piano, trombone, clarinet in B flat, trumpet in B flat, drums, registered by Philip Laskowsky. Helm, words by Joseph McCarthy, 2nd violin, piano.
Frenchy, by Con Conrad, arranged by Mornay D. Helm, viola, drums, cello, 2nd cornet in B flat, 2nd violin. Seredy, E. Katzenstein, piano, 1st clarinet in B flat, 1st violin, 1st cornet in B flat, cello, drums, copyright by Carl Fischer, New York, enclosed untitled piece for trombone, property of Joseph Brody, New York. Tchaikovsky, arranged by Mark White, piano, copyright by Radio Corp.
Finkelstein, oboe, cornet, drums, flute, 1st violin, cornet C, F, viola, bass and cello torn. Folder 3: Der Ungarischer Sanger Ouverture. Folder 3: Dorfschwalben aus Osterreich. Llisovsky, Posliedni Tsvitok, Moscow, - Yo. Bleichman, Usta moi moltchat, Moscow, - J. Rumshisky, Tarantella, New York Hellman, property of A. Hellman, New York, 15 nos, flute, drums, viola, bass. Hellman, New York, 2nd violin. Folder 7: Unidentified Music and Scores. Hellman, New York, 14 numbers, trombone, cornet, bass. Hellman, New York, 12 numbers, cornet, drums, trombone. Hellman, New York, 27 numbers, bass, violin, with text.
Lateiner, music by A. Hellman, New York, Thursday, February 25, , , January 3, , trombone, cornet, bass and cello, flute, Hermann Joseffer old and torn. Finkel, 1st violin, trombone, clarinet, bass, 2nd violin, viola. Hellman, New York, 13 numbers, cornet, 2nd violin. Finkelstein, 18 numbers, 1st violin, bass and cello, viola, 2nd violin, flute, clarinet in C, trumpet, trombone, drums, cornets, 2nd clarinet torn.
Finkelstein, 13 numbers, violin principal, viola, 2nd violin, flute, clarinet, drums, 1st violin torn. Folder 5: Potpouri; Die Afrikanerin. Staszy, printed.
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Hellman, trombone, 1st violin. Folder 1: Ben Jacob oder Das Familienzeichen. Folder 4: Pages of Russian Song Book. Folder 5: English Songs for Instruments. Folder 7: Yehudit Di Tsveyte; Scattered pages. Folder 4: Untitled Manuscripts with Texts under Notes. Folder 5: Untitled Music with Text. Finkelstein, viola, violin, cornet, trombone, cello, clarinet. Folder The Fanatic Kuni Leml. Folder 2: Untitled Music with Texts. Folder 3: Untitled Music with Texts. Folder 5: Score of Unidentified Operetta. Hellman, 1st violin, clarinet in C, flute, bass, 2nd violin incomplete. Hellman, New York, 14 numbers, 2nd violin, viola.
Folder Unidentified Manuscripts with Texts under Notes. Folder 3: Music with Texts under Notes. Folder 4: Unidentified Orchestra Scores. Sanctus - When Mr. Shakespeare Comes to Town, by J. Folder 3: Music by Esta Saltzman for tenor sax, clarinet. Folder 4: Music by Esta Saltzman for tenor sax, clarinet. Prizament - Shpilt fidele - Moscow Nights, words by M.
Prizament - Pastekhl a Troymer, signed by A. Blumstein, Local - Di Alte Heym, arranged by? Stutchkoff, music by Joseph M. Finkelstein, no words, overture fragmented , 1st and 2nd trumpet in F, oboe, 1st and 2nd trombone, cello, 2nd clarinet in B. Finkelstein, violin, clarinet B, viola, 1st and 2nd trombone, drums, flute.
Finkelstein, clarinet C, 1st and 2nd violin, trumpet F, trombone, flute, cello, drums, viola, Czernowitz, Hellman, 1st and 2nd violin, bass, flute, trumpet, trombone, viola, clarinet in B - Clipping of program of Thalia Theatre, May 24, Seifert, Arranged by by A. Hellman, 15 number, flute, bass, 2nd violin. Hellman, 1st and 2nd violin, viola, trombone, trumpet, clarinet in A, flute, bass, 1st violin. Hellman, drums, bass trombone, trumpet in B, A, flute, viola, 1st and 2nd violin, 5 numbers. Folder 8: Di Laykht zinike? Hellman, leader, 11 numbers, 1st and 2nd violin, bass, trumpet, trombone, drums, clarinet, flute, viola - Die Leichtziniege, Lebensbild in 4 acten, by Scheikevitz, arranged by A.
Kurantmann, number 2, Der Frauen Ferfurer. Hellman, 4 numbers, 1st and 2nd violin, bass trombone, viola, 1st violin, flute, trumpet, clarinet. Secunda, trombone part, 1st overture, overture to 2nd act, 3rd overture, flute, cello. Perlmutter, piano, trumpet, flute, bass, 2nd violin, drums, clarinet, viola, trombone.
Thomashefsky, music by Perlmutter and Wohl, property of M. Rumshisky, trombone, flute, clarinet, 1st and 2nd violin, trumpet, viola, bass, direction, overture. SpasNew York, opus 85, Mayence, chez les fils de B. Folder 7: Einlage, No 17 for Bar Kokhba. Folder 8: Sanin, Russian selection. Folder Fragment of an Unidentified Song.
Schubert - Marche alla Turca, by W. Mozart - Pecheur Napolitain et Napolitaine, for cello, by A. Rubinstein - Caprice Viennois, for piano, by Fritz Kreisler. Secunda, lyrics by I. Rosenberg, trumpet, trombone, cello, clarinet, 14 numbers. Folder 3: Unidentified Music Sheets and Scores. Hellman, trombone, trumpet, drums, 1st violin, viola, bass, flute, clarinet, 6 numbers. Hellman, 1st violin, 2nd violin, bass, viola, trumpet, trombone, flute, clarinet. Fleischman Fleischkan? Lillian - America - Duet - Dolores Valse, by Walteufel, flute, 1st and 2nd violin, 2nd trumpet, drums, trombone, oboe, viola, bass, clarinet - The Jolly Coppersmith, by C.
Peter, arranged by Franz Mahl, printed - Kush-Kush, trombone, bass, clarinet, viola, trumpet - Kum Aheym, 1st and 2nd violin. Folder 3: Unidentifed Music withTexts. Folder 4: Unidentified Music with Texts. Offenbach, arranged by Alfred Roth, trombone, trumpet A, drums, bass, 1st clarinet A, flute, 1st violin - Printed dramatic music, Series XI, Theodore Bendix, trombone, trumpet, drums, bass, 2nd violin, clarinet, flute, 1st violin - Printed music for 1st violin, no title, property of Joseph Brody.
Hellman, bass - Shabes Yomtev, number 13, flute, 1st violin - Khor fun Korbones for chorus. Folder 6: Untitled Music with Words under Notes. Hellman, 1st and 2nd violin, viola, bass. Folder 4: Concert Edition of Orchestra Music. Finkelstein old , viola, violin bass, 1st violin, piccolo, clarinet in C, flute, piccolo, trombone, trombone in F, 2nd trombone in F, grand cassa, cello, clarinet in C, 1st and 2nd trumpet in F. Folder 4: Monsieur et Madame Quadrille. Faust old , clarinet in C, viola, trombone in F, oboe, 2nd clarinet in C, cello, trumpet in F, piccolo, 2nd trombone in F, 1st and 2nd violin, bass, 1st violin, flute.
Folder 6: Osute Fete Mare Quadrille. Folder 7: Von Romenia in der Romenia March. Finkelstein, 1st and 2nd clarinet in C, 1st violin, flute, bass, viola, 2nd violin, trombone in F, drums, trombone, trumpet in B, F, oboe, 2nd trombone in F, piccolo torn. Folder 9: Unidentified Quadrilles and Marches. Seifert, arranged by by A. Hellman, drums, trombone, trumpet, clarinet.
Friedsel, direction by S. Jarschowsky, flute, bass, viola, 2nd violin, 1st violin, trombone, drums, piano, trumpet. Hellman, New York, July 16, , trumpet, clarinet, 2nd violin, drums, viola, bass, trombone. Folder 4: Farkoyfte Kinder oder Fargesene Mames. Hellman, New York, April , flute, trombone, bass, flute, drums. Hellman, title page, by Lateiner and Mogulesko, copyright , piano, 2 pages - Blimele March, piano, 1 page.
Finkelstein, 23 pages, bass, 1st and 2nd violin, viola, principal old. Folder Ouverture Light Cavalry. Helman, introduction, viola, trumpet in A, B, signed Sal Halpern , 13 numbers. Hellman, New York, 11 numbers, flute. Mohr, ass. George A. Cragg, printed, clarinet B flat, drums, trumpet in B flat, trombone, piano, bass, 1st violin, 2nd violin, flute, clarinet in A, viola, copyright by Shapiro, Bernstein and Co. Folder The Mascot of the Troop. Witmark and Sons, New York, drums, 1st trumpet in A, trombone, 1st clarinet in A, B, flute, bass, viola, 1st and 2nd violin, 2nd trumpet in A, B flat, cello, piano - Unidentified with texts.
Hellman, New York, bass, 1st and 2nd violin, viola, flute, 15 numbers, 1st violin, flute. Viltozzi - Oj Mari Waltz, flute, clarinet, trumpet, trombone, drums, score. Hellman, New York, 14 numbers, trombone, trombone part by S. Finkelstein March 2, , 1st and 2nd clarinet, 2nd violin, trumpet in F, violin, flute, trumpet B, trombone, 1st violin, flute, clarinet C, viola, 2nd violin, bass, 1st violin, drums, flute part by Charles Bernbank, New York, Folder Milkhome Milchume -Korbones.
Folder 7: Akh vi es Benkt Zikh Tsurik. Folder 1: Der Ungarischer Sanger Ouverture. Folder 2: Der Ungarischer Sanger Ouverture. Folder 4: Der Ungarischer Sanger Ouverture. Folder 1: Unidentified Music with Texts. Folder 5: Songs of the Displaced Persons. Folder 8: Resurrection? For Trumpet. Evans, medley overture, piano, 2nd violin, viola, bass, cello, 1st clarinet in A, flute, 2nd cornet in A, trombone, drums.
Folder 1: From Mae Shoenfeld Collection. Jacobs - Opgenart, music by Abe Ellstein, words by J. Jacobs, piano, words on separate pages - The Man I Love, clarinet, flute, tenor sax B flat, piano, violin, cornet B - Tango number 2, piano, trumpet B flat, cello, clarinet B flat, bass, flute, trombone, drums, violin - Mazl, piano, violin, trumpet B flat, trombone, violin lead, sax B flat, sax E flat.
Folder 2: From Esta Saltzman Collection. Folder 4: Arranged by M. Waldteufel, arranged by Jack Kammer, copyright by J. Kammer, printed. Glickman, flute. Secunda, violin, piano, arranged by Fleischman, trombone, Meyer-Esther, drum, cello, flute, trumpet B flat. Folder Duet number 1; Nostalgias Tango. Folder 1: From Esta Saltzman Collection. Jacobs and A. Reisen, notated and arranged by N.
Category:For violin, piano
Saslavsky, Inc. Ellstein - Oygn, words by Molly Picon, music by A. Posner in English translation by S. Beigelman, trombone, 1st violin, piano, clarinet, basso, flute, direction, trumpet, cello. Folder 1: Schedule of Plays on Sunday. Goznisky, E. Infantes, music by L. Folder 6: Fragments of Song Sheets. Katz, Folder 4: Untitled J.
Rumshinsky Operetta: Number 1-School Boys. Folder 5: Untitled J. Folder 6: Untitled J. Folder 7: Untitled J. Folder 8: Untitled J. Folder 9: Untitled J. Folder Untitled J. Hellman, 2nd violin, trombone, drums, piano - Peer Gynt Suite, by E. Grieg, arranged by Theo. Theatre, Phil. Hellman, 1st violin, 10 numbers, flute, 11 numbers, drums, 1st cornet in B, clarinet, bass, trombone, viola, Unlabeled 1, Unlabeled 2, 14 numbers, Unlabeled 3 piano 15 numbers, Milo Hellman, flautist, New York, Thalia Theatre, New York, December 16, , W.
Eckstein, Arch St. Laschow, December 7, , Laschow, S. Folder Der Oizer; Unlabeled Music. Heymn, words by A. Liesin, music by M. Folder 6: Anthology of Yiddish Songs. They wanted to explore klezmer and lautari roots, and fuse the music of the two "other European" groups. The resulting band now performs internationally. A separate klezmer tradition had developed in Israel in the 20th century. In order to preserve and promote klezmer music in Israel, Burstein founded the Jerusalem Klezmer Association , which has become a center for learning and performance of Klezmer music in the country.
According to Walter Zev Feldman , the klezmer dance repertoire seems to have been relatively uniform across the areas of Jewish settlement in the Russian Empire. Historically, young klezmorim learned tunes from their family and their elders in bands. However, there were several times in history where this transmission broke down, including mass emigration, but especially the Holocaust , which destroyed most of Jewish life and culture in Europe.
Few scions of klezmer dynasties remained in Europe, one notable exception being Leopold Kozlowski of Poland. Undoubtedly, much has been lost of the repertoires played in various locations and social contexts—especially wedding repertoire, since although Jewish weddings could last several days, early recording technology could only capture a few minutes at a time.
1. Adler, Ayal, 1968-
Also, recordings specific to one area may not have represented klezmer repertoire from other parts of the region. A few older klezmorim—such as Leon Schwartz , Dave Tarras , and German Goldenshtayn —survived into the klezmer revival era and could recall some forgotten repertoire. Also, some transcriptions survive from the 19th century. Some ethnomusicological work from Jewish Eastern Europe is still available in print, notably the work of Soviet Jewish field researcher Moshe Beregovski.
In the 21st century, klezmer is typically learned from " fake books " and transcriptions of old recordings, although the music was traditionally transmitted and learned by ear. Most klezmer tunes are in several sections, sometimes with each in a different key. Many songs have alternating sections with major and minor keys. Klezmer music often uses "folk scales ," or scales commonly found in folk music, such as the harmonic minor and phrygian dominant. Instrumental tunes often follow the types of chord progressions found in Middle Eastern and Greek music, whereas vocal Yiddish songs are often much simpler, and follow a style and chord progressions similar to Russian folk songs.
Freylekhs are often in the form ABCB, which is rare in music. Having a third distinct section is a relatively unique aspect of klezmer music. A common ending for songs is an upwards chromatic run or glissando , followed by a slow staccato They may also end with a Coda, a new melodic line that is accompanied by a change in the percussion rhythm and an increase in tempo.
Klezmer is generally instrumental, although at weddings klezmorim traditionally accompanied the vocal stylings of the badkhn wedding entertainer. A typical 19th-century European orchestra included a first violin , a contra-violin or modified 3-stringed viola also called Groyse Fidl [Yid. Other instruments such as a piano or an accordion are used too. The melody is generally assigned to the lead violin, while the other instrumentalists provide harmony, rhythm, and some counterpoint the latter usually coming from the second violin or viola.
The inclusion of Jews in tsarist army bands during the 19th century led to the introduction of typical military band instruments into klezmer. The clarinet now often played the melody. Brass instruments—such as the French valved cornet and keyed German trumpet —eventually inherited a counter-voice role. The orchestration used by Joel Rubin —one of the most experienced and knowledgeable contemporary klezmer musicians—represents a historically justified link with that of contemporary ethnic music ensembles of Romania and Hungary. Percussion in early 20th-century klezmer recordings was generally minimal—no more than a wood block or snare drum.
The snare drum is the more "authentic" of the two. Wood blocks were introduced by modern klezmorim to imitate recordings from the early 20th century that replaced snare drums—which tended to overwhelm the recording equipment of the time—with quieter instruments. In Eastern Europe, percussion was often provided by a drummer who played a frame drum , or poyk , sometimes called baraban. A poyk is similar to a bass drum and often has a cymbal or piece of metal mounted on top, which is struck by a beater or a small cymbal strapped to the hand. In Bulgaria, Serbia, and Macedonia, sometimes the paykler drummer also played in the tapan style, i.
Some klezmer revival bands look to loud-instrument klezmer, jazz , and Dixieland for inspiration. Their bands are similar to a typical jazz band, with some differences. They use a clarinet , saxophone , or trumpet for the melody, and make great use of the trombone for slides and other flourishes. When a cymbalom sound is called for, a piano may be played.
There is usually a brass instrument ensemble, and sometimes a tuba substitutes for bass. Klezmer instrument choices were traditionally based, by necessity, on an instrument's portability.
Music being required for several parts of the wedding ceremony, taking place in different rooms or courtyards, the band had to relocate quickly from space to space. Further, klezmorim were usually itinerant musicians, who moved from town to town for work. Therefore, instruments held in the hands clarinet, violin, trumpet, flute or supported by a neck or shoulder strap accordion, cimbalom, drum were favored over those that rested on the ground cello, bass violin , or needed several people to move piano.
In America, this trend has continued into the present day, with hand-held or strap-held instruments like guitars, saxophones, and even harmonicas integrated into klezmer ensembles. For example, the typical American klezmer wedding band uses a portable electronic synthesizer, not a piano. The compositions of Israeli-born composer Ofer Ben-Amots incorporate aspects of klezmer music, most notably his composition Klezmer Concerto. The piece is for klezmer clarinet written for Jewish clarinetist David Krakauer ,  string orchestra, harp and percussion.
In its historic form, klezmer was live music designed to facilitate dancing. Hence, musicians adjusted the tempo as dancers tired or better dancers joined in. Tunes could drag to a near-halt during a particularly sad part, picking up slowly, and eventually bursting into happy song again. This is also a feature of many Rom and Russian folk songs. Like other musicians of their time, and many modern jazz performers, early klezmorim did not rigidly follow the beat.
Often they slightly led or trailed it, giving a lilting sound. Klezmer is usually played in shteygerim , prayer modes of the synagogue. They are closely related to Greek, Turkish, and other "co-territorial" modes of Southeastern and Central Europe. The following are the names of these modes; the names are taken from the names of familiar prayers that use that mode imagine an American composer referring to a piece as "a Grand Old Flag" instead of as "a march".
Ahavo Rabboh means "Abounding Love" in Hebrew, and refers to a prayer from the daily morning prayer service shacharis. It is built on the 5th degree of the harmonic minor scale, with a descending tetrachord to the tonic being the most characteristic final cadence. It is also called the " Freygish ", a Yiddish term derived from the German "Phrygisch", or Phrygian mode specifically, the Phrygian dominant scale.
It is considered the mode of supplication. It is similar to the Arabic Hijaz maqam. Much of klezmer music uses the Ahavah Rabboh scale such as Nigun Rikud, Tish Nigun and numerous freylekhs , although Mi Sheberach is prevalent as well. Mi Shebeirach means "He who blessed" in Hebrew, from the Mi Shebeirach prayer, recited after the honor of being called to the Torah reading. It is similar to the natural minor scale, but has raised fourth and sixth scale degrees, and is used often for the doina or dance pieces, like the Odessa Bulgar. Adoyn-y Moloch means "my Lord reigns" in Hebrew.
It is common in traditional synagogue services they are the beginning words of many of the Psalms. It is similar to the Western Mixolydian mode and can be thought of as a major scale with a lowered 7th, which is sometimes raised at cadences, but is generally avoided altogether. Mogen Ovoys means "our forebears' shield" in Hebrew. It is an older mode from the synagogue , derived from the Friday night prayers.
It is similar to the Western melodic minor scale. Yishtabach means "it shall become superb" in Hebrew from the daily morning services. It has a frequent lowering of the 2nd and 5th. It is related to Mogein Ovoys , above. Media related to Klezmer at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Style of Jewish music.