Thus, in the Wclscrs and Fuggers concluded an agreement with the Habsburgs - a collateral Ime of the Imperial German dynasty — wliich scivcd these commercial-political objectives. The centre of German tiaclc aacn? Yet it took an interminable time before independent trade relations with India could be established.
In , Emperor Charles VI C 91 initiated the purchase of a small station near Madras with a view also to improving the economy of the Austrian Netherlands. The head of the Imperial expedition was a French officer in the Imperial service, whose name was Goblet de la Mcrveille. On the advice of his chancellor, Count Philip Ludwig Sinzendorff, a man who was concerned with the French idea of a national state ratlier than with the idea of the universal-minded Empire, the Emperor founded the Ostend Trading Company in 1 with a founding capital of six million guilders.
A sharp accession speech by Gcrogc II two years later even led to the recall of tlie Imperial envoy in London and the British Ambassador being requested to leave Vienna. If the Imperial Company in Ostend had been exposed to fierce attacks by the English and Dutch, tlie Emden Company — set up in as the Asiatic Trading Company and maintained after 1 — appeared to be more fortunate. The Prussian court advisers and councillors of commerce who served as company directors authorized Messrs Heinrich, Thomas, Stuart and Co.
The ship put to sea from Emden in February docked there again on July 6th, But although liquidation began in , it was not completed until Nor did the Bengal Trading Company, which the King of Prussia had licenced in , fare much better. This second Prussian company had been established with a founding capital of one million Prussian thaler, but the Prussians rather mismanaged it.
In the course of seven years, six ships brought in a profit of only seven per cent on investment. There- fore, the company was shut down in , Renewed attempts to set up other trading companies between and failed, as well. Yet that period was marked by another German initiative. In spite of the alliance with England, relations between Lisbon and London were far from harmonious with regard to the colonies.
For this reason. It was the House Felix von Oldenburg, an international company with a major share in the Brazil trade, the international tobacco market and Latin American settlement. In the year 1 , this company was granted the monopoly of the Portuguese India trade. Hence, the Coromandel Coast and Bengal were expressly mentioned in tlie contract which even encompassed the China trade. In that way, the merchant House Felix von Oldenburg obtained a measure of power never before accorded to a private firm in the annals of Portuguese commerce.
But the singular privilege of this India monopoly was not to last. It almost seemed as though Nature herself were jealous. And if her father had relinquished, among other things, the India trade in the very effort to secure her the throne by means of Pragmatic Sanction, she wanted to revive it.
In she decreed the founding of a new company with its seat this time on the Mediterranean, in Trieste. He was Wilhelm Bolts, a native of Wcsel. This open-minded Rhinelander had held a leading position in the English East-India Company and was trying to escape the temptations of a life in those circles at that time. Indeed, he was the first to think of founding a newspaper in India. Natarajan commented on this G , 4 : It is significant, in this context, that the first attempt to start a newspaper in Calcutta was made in by Mr.
William Bolts who had resigned from the Company's service cailier that year after censure by the Court of Directors for piivate trade under the Company's authority. He was directed to quit Bengal and pioceed to Madras and fwm tlicie to take his passage to Europe. Now, tlic ti'catment accorded to the challenger of corruption, Wilhelm Bolts, against whom false chaiges were brought, is unfortunately no unusual case. But Maria Theresa, a ivoman ivho wanted to base even high pohtics on principles which are valid, or ought to be valid, in private life, lent the India traveller her car.
She entrusted him with setting up agencies in India, liotvever, she added one typical condition: tliese stations were to be mere trading offices and must not include armed garrisons. The first Imperial trading station -was opened near hladras. In Bolts established trading stations without the usual garrisons in tlircc more places. For this he had received special permission from Hydcr AU, the ruler of Mysore. Karwar, for one, was a big market for introducing German goods to Indian buyers. Ever since, the Andaman and Nicobar group have been a specially favoured region for research by the German- speaking nations.
In his footsteps, the curator of tlie Calcutta herbarium, Sulpiz Kurz of Munich, made further obsciwations of the plant life on tlie islands in General scientific researcli ivas conducted there in and by Ferdinand Stoliezka w'ho rvas also interested in prehistoric dwellings in tlie Andamans and Nicobars.
Modern ethnography was represented by Count Egon of Eickstedt who spent the winter of in the Andaman Islands with his wife, engaging in field work for his thesis on Indian-Southeast- Asian migration. Finally, mention should be made of Hugo A. Bernatzik, one of the last great explorers, who sought out associates for his ethnological studies among people of the rank of Theo Korner D 61 as a specialist reporting on the islands.
These were also described by W. Svoboda and R. An account by Johann Gottfried Haensel, one of tlie last missionaries to leave the Nicobars in , tells of the last years of this experiment. This account was published in book-form in in London under the title. Letters on the Xicobar Islands. Especially the zoologist Behn of Kiel and the business expert Nopitsch of Altona made major contributions to the success of the expedition in the scientific and technical fields.
Similarly the trip to the Nicobars of the Austrian frigate, Komra, gave the German geologist, Ferdinand von Hochstetter, the opportunity to carry out research in the islands. Just before the close of the century, in , the German deep-sea expedition under Carl Chun paid a visit to the islands. Wilhelm Bolts had returned home in , leaving the Resident of the Nicobars in charge.
Bolts retired from the service with the rank of colonel. He died in Paris. He had revised and expanded it in As long ago as the late 18th century, Carsten Niebuhr confirmed how much the Arab merchants, whose trade empire stretched from Bombay and Calcutta to Zanzibar and Mombasa, preferred the Maria Theresa Thaler to any other currency. Both the British and the Italians tried to dislodge it from their East-African colonies, but the traders of the Indian Ocean stubbornly clung to the currency of a non- colonial power, Bombay, which was the only mint in Asia, also struck the Maria Theresa Thaler which remained in circulation along with the products of a half dozen other minting places which also issued the com.
Even nowadays, the thaler can still be found side by side with the national notes and coins in parts of Africa and Asia. It is a strange, yet gratifying thought that in Africa and Asia one should so spontaneously have accepted the money of the woman who had approached the peoples of those continents in a human fashion and without ulterior motives. In the past, the trading stations of the Germans in India did not fare particularly well.
But that these efforts in no instance bore the stamp of military policy in an age of such widespread colonial expansion lends them a happy note. Well, Heinrich Heine once said that the trading stations of the mind had been tlie richer for that. The poets speak up only after the heroes are dead C , Then their works have the effect of tomb-stones of fame. There has been no German Camoes to give his people an equivalent of the Liisiads.
That is due to the fact that die Germans in the wake of the Conquistadors were followed by new generations dedicated to conquests of the mind. It is to be hoped that with respect to India this age of intellectual confrontation will continue for a long time to come.
Mot that we Christians do not have sujpcient rules of morality in the Holy Scriptures for us to learn them from mere heathens, but merely and solely to see to what extent a heathen, devoid of the Scriptures, and only by vhtue of natural enlightenment, can attain cognition of the law of moialiiy, and how those Malabarian heathens equal those former Latin and Greek heathens in this, nay even surpass them absolutely.
He who would be instructed in this in detail, might read the Biblothecam Malabaricam, com- posed by myself and now sent to Europe, likewise the other two little books of morals which I have translated from the Malabarian into the German and sent along at the same time. Bartholomaus Ziegenbalg was one of those missionaries whose names command i-espect also in die field of linguistics. He is the first of a number of Protestant missionaries and scholars in India who particularly chose the South as their sphere of action. In , the Danish King, Christian IV, had founded a trading company for the purpose of establishing economic relations with India and the neighbouring Asian states.
The newly founded company established links of friendship with Ceylon, maintaining friendly relations with the various princes on the island. This alarmed the Portuguese who quickly managed to shut Ceylon off from Danish influence, after the ruler of Ceylon had suffered painful defeat at the hands of the Conquistadors. He leased them the hamlet of Tranquebar G on the Coromandel Coast. A royal decree signed by Ragunatha on November 19th, , entided the Danish company to hoist the Danebrog over Tranquebar. Ninety years later, the first Protestant missionaries from Denmark came to this very place witli its small harbour.
In those days that meant they stood in the sign of missionary work. Indeed, the work of these envoys of the Christian faith from the Germanic countries was, above all, founded on the loving study of the spiritual treasures of those to whom they wanted to bring religious truth. In this respect, the Ladns adopted a more intolerant atdtude, as seen, for example, in the Portuguese approach to the ancient Thomas Chrisdans in South India. In fact, one of the first Portuguese prelates in Goa was moved by intolerance to burn as heretical die church literature of these old-estabHshed Chrisdans — one of the Syrian communides on the Malabar Coast, which went back to the apostoHc period — thereby depriving them of the chief constituent of their spiritual tradition.
To this day his work is acclaimed by specialists all over the world. Later Ziegenbalg transcribed a number of church hymns as well as the Bible up to the Book of Ruth. Being a missionary, he strove for the right to ordain ministers for the purpose of founding an indigenous caste of Protestant clei'gy.
Also, he laid the foundations of a Tamil dictionary and authored a Tamil grammar, a study on Malabax'ian deities and many translations of Tamil texts. In addition, this pupil of A. Francke of Halle not surprisingly laid the groundwork for a successful educational system. In he founded the first school for girls in India. Nowadays, how- ever, the term refers solely to the Western regions of South India.
With what zeal Ziegenbalg plunged into the study and cultivation of the Tamil tongue is apparent from the letters he sent to Europe. In one of these he stated C , : I have begun compiling a dictionary, and that in such a way as to write first of all each word in Malabarian chaiacters to which I immediately add Latin letters to show how it is to be pi onounced correctly, and after that its meaning.
One might wish that this language were taught and learned in Europe with as much diligence as other Oriental languages, inasmuch as the Malabaiians are a great and innumerable people who might thus be helped out of their heathenish blindness by the Grace of God, if all Protestant kings and potentates would assist in this and allocate sufficient funds.
I myself must confess that my year-old schoolmaster often asks me such questions as tell me clearly that in their philosophy things may not be quite so illogical as people at home are wont to imagine in the case of such heathens. They are so intelligent that, were they to hear the scholars in Europe discourse from the lectern on logics, rhetoric and metaphysics, they would laugh with derision and regard suck art as the greatest folly about the general misery that could ever have been invented in the world.
It bears the long-winded Latin title: Grammatica damulica quae per varia paradigmata, regulas et necessarium vocabulorum apparatum, viam brevissimam monslrat, qua Damulica sett Malabarica, quae inter Indos Orientales in usu cst, et hucusque in Europa incognita fuit, facile disci possit. Tamil Gi'ammar which shows on various examples, rules and the necessary vocabulary the shortest way of learning the Tamil or Malabarian language as it is spoken among the East Indians and which is as yet unknown in Europe.
In his grammar of the Tamil language B 20 , Hermann Bey than regrets tliat Ziegenbalg has received so little recognition for his penetration of the Indian spiritual sphere. Indology in Germany might have been a science older by one century; and a Tamil- German and German-Tamil dictionary might have been in existence for trv'o hundred years.
Further, Bey than B 20, and B , points out an important passage in the reports fiom Tranquebar: Tranqiwbar on the Coromandel Coast. Anno A Malabarian dictionaiy has been completed. The same thing was begun as long as two years ago, of which the letter A completed was sent to Europe: but because such practice consumed too much time and paper, one had to write it subsequently only on Malabarian palm-leaves.
Although one does not wish to advise anyone that such a language can be learned merely fiom dictionaries, but on the contrary from reading the books written in it, from which one must each time note down all used and unknown words and commit them to memory. Tranquebar owes its special fame to the work of Ziegenbalg. The present name of the place is a corruption of the Tamil Tarangambadi — i. Place of the Singing of the Waves. The place where the singing of the waves had been heard for milleniums. This is the work on Malabar heathenism D edited by W. Caland and published in by the Netherlands Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen.
In this work, Ziegenbalg reveals all aspects of South Indian Hinduism. Proceeding from the multitude of gods, he deals with questions of prayer, sin, pilgrimages, food and eating habits, cosmology and finally of art. In the eleventh of the eighteen chapters in the book, the scholar and missionary treats the subjects of poetry and poets.
The introduction to this chapter shows how closely involved Ziegenbalg was with the literary production of the Tamilian intellectual world; Among these heathens, no art is more common than poetry, because all their books on religion are written in verse, and everything that is sung in their community to this day must be poetic. Hence, the older boys learn poetry in all their schools, and each learns as much of it as he can comprehend. Tet those who have a bent for it, take up poetry afterwards professionally and seek to earn their living by it.
Table of contents
For this purpose they have various books in which the foundations of this art are expounded, such as 1. Tolkabiam in which all precepts of this art are treated in detail; 2. Diwagaram and Negendu, which are something like dictio- naries of poetry, in which copious words can be found; 3.
Nannul, which embodies instruction on how to handle letters, syllables and words and on how to deal with a brief theme by expanding it according to this art; 4. KArigei, in which the genders of the verses are explained, etc. However, their poetry is much more difficult than the poetry of other languages; for it consists almost entirely of foreign words and makes up quite a different language of which no Malabari can understand anything unless he has been somewhat trained and made himself familiar with the poetic words in schools. In verse these words deviate from the common construction and are inflected quite differently; this, too, causes much difficulty.
In their verses they distinguish 4. Pagum or kinds, the flrst is called Ashu and is the easiest kind which can be learned and understood flrst. The next kind is called Maduram, and of this kind of verse one can understand only half The third kind is called Chiddirum, which means such verses as, owing to their learned and unknown words and phrases, are understood by no one, not even properly by the present-day poets.
The fourth kind is called Wistarum and comprises such verses as expand brief themes; these, too, can be understood only little. In addition to these, they have 32 genders according to which they make up all their verses. To tliis day, some Protestant Tamils cultivate the German language too, such as the well-known Lutheran Tamil scholar, B.
The Fabricius dictionary was re-edited several times, being expanded in each edition. This Dictionary which contained about 9, words with a large collection of idiomatic phraseology, formed the basis of subsequent works by Drs.
Virtual International Authority File
The revision of the present edition was commenced by the late Rev. Pakyam Pillay, Headmaster of the same institution. While in Tranquebar the names of tlie German scholars are spoken with propiietary pride, they are known throughout South India. Johann Peter Rottler, a native of Strassburg, came to Tranquebar in He immediately immersed himself in the systematic study of Tamil and also proved to be a gifted botanist.
He had applied for the Indian missionary service together with his friend, Gerlach. He was able to preach in tlie Tamil tongue already after being only twelve months in the country. He wrote and corresponded widely on philological- philosophical themes. In 1 tlie University of Erlangen granted him an honorary Ph. Yet in the meantime he had made an almost bigger name for himself as a botanist. He sent specimens of South Indian plant-life to European institutes and universities; and several of the collections in Central and Western Europe were begun on his initiative. When Lord Nortli was appointed as the first British Governor of Ceylon in , he wanted a scholar well versed in botany to accompany him on a trip of the island.
Rottler was approached and went along. In , tliis collection was transferred to Kew. Such travel accounts, which betrayed the born botanist, earned Rottler a reputation all over Europe. When the German missionary Paezold left Vepery, his missionary base, to become professor of Tamil in Calcutta, Rottler temporarily took over his work. In the Church of St. Mattliew in Madras, a plaque commemorates the versatile scholar who yet was, first and foremost, a dedicated minister of the church.
Five years later he founded a Protestant community in the so-called Black Town district of Madras. Later he was active in Palamcotta and Tinnevelly. His work. The Essence, or the True Veda, is proof of his effort to interpret religious points of view with tolerance. He translated parts of the Bible into Tamil. Kahl in Tranquebar in Like Johann Peter Rottler, Dr.
Bernhard Sclimid combined the work of a missionary with a devotion to botany and philology. Schmid primarily observed cryptogamous non-flowering plants. After his health had deteriorated in the plains of Tamilnad, he moved to the Nilgiris mountains, setting up his home in Ootacamund. There he translated Tamil writings into German, and German works into Tamil. Those studies gave a powerful impulse to Indian botany; and when Schmid died in Calicut at the age of 70, his death was mourned as a loss to Indian and German science alike. Another who by far transcended the sphere of missionary work was Christian Friedrich Schwartz , who also worked in the region of Tranquebar.
With his fellow missionaries from Halle, Polzenhagen and Hiittemann, he had arrived in and remained for over a decade until he felt drawn farther into the mainland. The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge ofiered Schwartz work in Tiruchirapalli-Trichinopoly, where he founded a school and a church in When Schwartz left Trichinopoly to visit Tanjore, the ruler of the country, Raja Tulagee, wished to meet him. A casual visit developed into a deep friendship, and the Raja even offered the German missionary to build a church in Tanjore. After his arrival in Madras he was requested to exchange his cassock temporarily for the gown of a British envoy to the most powerful ruler in Southern India, Hyder Ali of Mysore.
Since peace in the Dravidian area was at stake, the surprised missionary agreed. For three months he remained at the court of Hyder Ali, being treated as a friend and honoured guest. When he left, the ruler, who was generally known as a stickler for etiquette, gave him the sum of three hundred Rupees for travelling expenses, a highly unusual move indeed. Nor were the officers of the troops escorting Schwartz back willing to take the money back. Finally Schwartz made use of it to build an orphanage in Tanjore. His mission of peace had brought a breathing spell to the tense atmosphere prevailing in the South.
After the death of Hyder Ali towards the end of , his successor became Tipoo Sultan. Not long after, the British once more dispatched their missionary envoy to the new ruler. Yet Schwartz was such an eloquent advocate of peace as to pave tlie way for a new treaty between the belligerents. The Treaty of Mangalore of confirmed the end of hostilities.
Schwartz returned to Tanjore, where he constructed a new church. In , Schwartz introduced a new educational scheme which provided European education in addition to the native languages, especially in the English Imgua franca. After all, his modern education scheme for Tamilnad was planned and implemented half a century heforeT. Macaulay published his Minnie on Education in The enlightenment prevailing in Tamilnad, tliat ancient cultural land of India with its tradition going back to a mytliical prehistory, may in no small measure be due to the work of Christian Friedrich Sclnvartz.
Schwartz went to court on behalf of Serfojee and, after protracted litigation, won his case. By now his name had become a myth. When Schwartz died, he was buried beside his church. Yet the greatest monument, both literary and human, arc the verses later composed in English by Serfojee and dedicated to the gi'cat deceased. These are cut into tlie stone of the tomb and mark the first attempt of an Indian at composing poetry in English.
They deserve to be repeated here along with the introduction to the epitaph: Sacred to the memory of The Reverend Christian Frederic Schwartz, Missionary to the Honourable Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge tn London; who departed this life on the 13th of February aged seventy-one years and four months.
Comfort in sorrow of every sort. Wisheth and prayeth thy Serfojee. In the series of German Tamil grammars, that of Hermann Beythan B 20 should in conelusion be mentioned here. This excellent, scientifically systematic Avork, as well, is pervaded by the air of Tranquebar. Filled by missionary ideals as it was, his life was equally marked by scholarly zest.
That was the last his friends ever heard of him. Of the listed languages, Tamil is the one whose wiitten lecords take us back faithest into the Dravidian past. The treasure of presemed Tamil ivriiings is many centuries older than that of their neighbours. It was preceded by more centuries of liteiary activity, whose fruits aie unhappily lost. However, the earliest pieseived works set in at an astonishing level of perfection. Therefore, anyone wishing to know the essence of the Dravidian type of language can only begin with Tamil.
Dravidian languages are spoken by at least 80 million people who have so far largely been regarded as a uniform race and listed as such in the atlasses. Nonetheless, there is no such uniform racial type as canier of the Dravidian family of languages. Those who speak them belong to vaiious distinct races. The language boundaries are hardly anywhere identical with the boundaries of race.
Those who speak Tamil are mostly members of this race. Let us once more quote Beythan B 20, who emphasizes — after shedding some light in passing on the Tamils living abroad, in Burma, Malaya, South and East Africa — that despite its wide distribution, Tamil scarcely suffers any disparity of dialect even in the motherland. At the same time, he regards Malayalam as a dialect form of Tamil; Malayalam may be described as an old dialect of Tamil.
Madura, the capital of the ancient Pandya kingdom, is considered to be the centre of classic Tamil. In almost mythical days, Madura was the seat of the legendary Sangha, an academy of poets or royal chamber of literature, whose most highborn membei was none less than Siva himself. This academy applied stringent rules in deciding who might bear the title of poet and who might not. As the historical nucleus of the legend, a definite surviving factor is the particular cultivation of literature under the benevolent aegis of the Pandya kings. Commentaries , without much consideration for the speech of the people.
This has led to the necessity of always accompanying the texts by a commentary — and frequently a complete transcript — since the non-specialist, the non-Pundit, would otherwise have made little or nothing of these archaic and partly artificial forms. The effect of the poetry on the people was thus diminished. This has helped to bring about a state wheie at any rate some knowledge of the forms and words of High Tamil is widespread among the people. Whenever a village schoolmaster, peasant or barber composes an occasional verse in poetic form, he never fails to aim for the closest possible approach to centamil.
From such sources, quotations, manners of speech and forms pass into the modern vernacular so that it has appeared necessary to acquaint the student of this grammar at least with the most customary forms of High Tamil. The country, or rather the literature, of the Tamils inspired yet another German, Friedrich Ruckert. In , he began to compile a German-Tamil Dictionary of his own. This work was not completed until Unfortunately though, the manuscript has never been printed.
Once more, mention should be made of the name of Karl Graul, the first German to begin a broadly conceived Bibliotheca Tamulica. Unhappily, his early death prevented this Tamil library from exceeding three volumes. However, they furnish characteristic evidence of German interest in the Tamil tongue and the culture of Tamilnad, Karl Graul was the head of the Protestant-Lutheran Mission Institute in Leipzig which had taken over the old Danish-Halle Mission stations after tlie abolition of the Danish trading stations.
How seriously Graul took his vocation is evidenced by his intense study. In Volume 1 of his Bibliotheca Tamulica, he refeired to D 37, XIII-XIV the scope and importance of his first exciting presentation from Dravidian India: Just because Sanskrit and Tamul literature complement each other most closely and significantly in the sphere of philosophy, I wanted to fill this first volume of my Tamul library with such writings, namely from the orthodox Vedanta school.
This, too, was published by natives several years ago and printed on the Dindigal press. Ui fortunately, the edition is replete with mistakes. I possess an additional manuscript which does not come off much better in that respect. By careful comparison of the two I have succeeded, I hope, in most cases in arriving at the true meaning. As the translation of this text is mainly to serve the further clarification of the first manuscript, I have felt entitled to make single omissions and abridgements, especially in the first chapter, occasionally luilh affixation of the dialogue form.
The case of the third little manuscript will best be understood by the reader f tom what is written on page I have included it in this volume primarily out of consideration for those who wish to orientate themselves above all by a biief outline of the Vedanta philosophy. As the Sanskrit text is probably accessible to only few in Europe, I have tianscribcd it from the Telugu characters in which I obtained it to Roman letters, and have had it printed, as well.
I have added the most important variants of the Hdberlin text, which, obviously, is generally not as excellent, to each verse. The work, ICural, to which the first scholars dealing with Tamil culture had drawn attention in Germany, was presented by Karl Graul as the third and last volume of his Bibliotheca Tamulica. The Kural found an enthusiastic reader also in Albert Schweitzer. He regarded it Schweitzer called it KuiTal as a paean to a natural life pervaded by love and born from the idea of ethical deeds.
Repeatedly he placed it even above the usually lavishly celebrated Gita B , : That in Indian folk ethics the idea of active love emerged in fairly early times is knoion to ns from a number of narratives which we come across in literature, and above all from the ethical apothegms to be found in the hurral, a work probably dating from the second century cf our era. The Ktirral is a collection of apothegms, or adages, in distich form, attributed to the weaver Tiruvalluvar.
Kurral means brief stanza. Tiruvalluvar is not a name in the proper sense but a title borne by religious teachers working among the lower castes in Southern India. The work is composed in the Tamil tongue. What a difference between the Kurral and the Dharma Shastra of Alanu which originated some four centuries earlier! Governed by the Brahmin spirit, the Dharma Shastra of Manu just about tolerates the affirmation of world and life side by side with the negation of world and life.
In the Kurral, the negation of world and life is no more than a distant cloud in the sky. In maxims forming the close of the book, temporal love is praised. Later ages interpreted them — because they found them offensive — allegorically as the sotds' love of God. The path of virtue is recommended because it leads to better reincarnation or to liberation from reincarnation. Side by side with this, one also finds the naive view — so accentuated in Chinese ethics — that ethical behaviour results in earthly prosperity, unethical in misfortune.
Nonetheless, ethics in the Kurral is not so completely governed by the idea of reward as in Brahminism, in Buddhism and in the Bhagavad-Gita. Already one finds here the perception that good is to be done for its own sake. This perception is manifest in some of the maxims. Whereas the Bhagavad-Gita motivates perseverance in active life in a forced and cold manner by intimating that it is in keeping with the order of the world, the Kurral — what progress! Work and livelihood enable man to do good. The force of the affirmation of world and life in the Kurral is evidenced by maxims on joy in work which one would scarcely expect to hear from an Indian mouth.
Like Buddha and the Bhagavad-Gita, the Kurral demands inner freedom from the world and a philosophy of non-hatred. Like them, it adopts the commandment not to kill and not to harm. It has adopted all valuable ethical results of the negation of world and life. And to this spiritual ethic it moreover adds the living ethic of love. It speaks on the most varied questions relating to mans conduct towards himsC-lf and towards the world in a manner both sensitive and sensible. Scarcely can so much lofty wisdom be found in any collection of aphorisms in the world's literature.
The first scientific activity had begun in the Franconian region half a century before. This legend-wreathed time has been described at length by W. Code, Commemoration Volume. Graefe placed the climax of the Sangam age in the sbeth to tenth centuries. In , Graefe completed anodier manuscript embodying a literary document of Tamil literature in the German tongue; Ifannul.
Thus, Tamil research has long had a home in Germany. Again and again, Avoi'ks transcending the ordinary indicate hoNV fniitful this research has been. In tins analytical study tlie work of Ziegcnbalg and Graul found a worthy continuation. Yet in addition to Tamil, German research into South Indian themes focused also on the other Dravidian languages. Heyer who arrived in Guntur in what is now Andhra Pradesh m In a lifetime he never neglected linguistics despite his religious tasks.
He penetrated the spirit and essence of this Dravidian idiom to the point where he wrote and composed poetry with a facility equalling that of a native writer. The first German scholar to have demonstrably engaged himself with Malayalam, was Johann Ernst Hanxleden Thus it was Protestant and Catholic missionaries who concerned themselves with the spiritual treasures of the land between the Himalayas and Cape Comorin.
Hanxleden was a Catholic missionary whose name is remembered in India, notably in Kerala, to this day. Between and , Hanxleden lived in Kerala, earning himself particular respect in the country by his poetry written in Malayalam. Reference has just been made to Paulinus a Sancto Bartholomaco. In he went to Rome to enter the Holy Orders. Having long wanted to study Oriental languages, he travelled in to the land of his dreams, the Malabar Coast. There he remained for fourteen years. Later, he wrote a travel book which he dedicated to the Pope. Interesting movie. The only thing that bothers me is that they lied.
- New Perspectives on Modern Germany.
- Handbook of Water and Wastewater Microbiology.
- Babcock, Winnifred Eaton.
- Browse By Author: B - Project Gutenberg!
When it comes to "were tied together by a thin cotton rope". Well it was and the blemish of cannabis hasn't reached out so far that the people were willingly give up their good tear-proof nature-fiber hemp. Never the less there are beautiful pictures been shown and the story has been good transcript-ed. So in the end you should have at least seen this movie once and if just for the pictures that has been taken for it. So when you see this grab it and you can at least expect fantastic pictures taken from the highest point of the earth.
Especially interesting when you plan to climb this mountain. It's certainly not the toughest to climb and with the tourism up there you would rather perish by cold waiting for the man in front of you to climb on. Explore popular and recently added TV series available to stream now with Prime Video. Start your free trial. Find showtimes, watch trailers, browse photos, track your Watchlist and rate your favorite movies and TV shows on your phone or tablet! IMDb More. Keep track of everything you watch; tell your friends.
Full Cast and Crew. Release Dates. Official Sites. Company Credits. Technical Specs. Plot Summary. Plot Keywords. Parents Guide. External Sites. User Reviews. User Ratings. External Reviews. Metacritic Reviews. Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. Rate This. Director: Anthony Geffen. From metacritic. What Is Cobie Smulders Watching? Best to Worst: Alan Rickman Films. Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Learn more More Like This.
Miracle on Everest After the operation at 20 years of age, Erik begins learning to be a man. Seven years later, he is happily married and the father of a daughter, Claire. The film tells of the narrowness that plays out behind the scenes of peak performance sports like the women's downhill - and the uphill battle of one person, who found the way to himself, in spite of it.
The film is a richly photographed journey through old and new worlds across much of Central Europe, with lands known as Bohemia, Transylvania, Dalmatia, Galicia and many more. Through music, stories, anecdotes and legends, turn-of-the-century guidebooks and newspaper clippings, scenes from today, and films and photographs from the early s a collage emerges of real people struggling, surviving, and living their lives between the worlds of tradition, change and upheaval.
This film takes a look at the various ways poisons have been used throughout history, using dramatic reconstructions of some of the most infamous poisonings. But the film doesn't stop there. Using advanced computer animation, we travel inside the bodies of a victim of the Borgias, as well as Cleopatra, Hannibal, Socrates, Emperor Leopold and a host of other unfortunate victims, to witness from the inside how they died. The film follows humanity's macabre search over thousands of years for the perfect poison.
A poisoner needs a poison that is tasteless and colorless, and therefore won't be noticed by the victim. It needs to work in low doses, so a poisoner doesn't have to feed his victim large quantities. And it needs to be reliably and quickly lethal. Finally, it needs to be undetectable after the event, so the poisoner leaves no trail of guilt. In fact, for preference it should mimic the symptoms of a disease, so no-one even suspects poisoning. Not surprisingly, such a perfect poison is not easy to find or make, and the search has occupied some of humanity's finest minds.
Erich Leinsdorf / Eine Kleine Nachtmusik – Posthorn Serenade – Six German Dances
Despite this, his love for the city of his birth, Istanbul, remains undiminished. In this film the author explains his heartfelt relationship to Istanbul, a city which, more than any other, spans the divide between modern Europe and mystical traditions of the Orient. He gives exclusive insights into his life and work and leads us through the vibrant and culturally flourishing metropolis on the Bosporus.
Charrin, who is now 86 years old, continues to suffer from these traumatic memories and remembers with horror those years of longing, homesickness and indignity. This touching film examines the fate of Philibert Charrin as well as other survivors and their families who were left to deal with their traumata on their own once they returned home. The history of the development of the most powerful mountain range in Europe that attracts more than 45 million tourists every year was not well researched until fairly recently.
Using lavish computer animation, this production relates the astonishing genesis of the Alps - the slow, gigantic transformation from an ancient land-locked sea into one of the most majestic mountainous regions of the earth. The arid sand deserts of Peru have been preserving mummies and burial artefacts over many millennia.
Starting out from these finds, the movie goes in hot pursuit of what happens at and around the excavation sites of Peru. On the one hand there's Peruvian archaeologist Sonia Guillen, who has dedicated her life to the proper scientific investigation of her country's heritage. Her efforts are frequently frustrated by grave looters: entire villages make their living by digging up ancient burying places to get at artefacts which earn the huaceros a few dollars but which bring enormous wealth to international smuggling networks.
Quite often it is the grave robbers who put scientists on the tracks of new discoveries - yet every devastated site is another irredeemable loss of our heritage. The documentary illuminates the criminal entanglements of the international antique market and follows the famous FBI art cops in reconstructing the spectacular robbery of one of the most. Born into the royal family of the South African Xhosa people, but without any chance of claiming the throne, the young Nelson Mandela sought his fortune in Johannesburg.
With racial segregation becoming more and more infl exible, he got involved with the resistance and in was sentenced to life imprisonment. Stripped of his identity and reduced to a number, Mandela spent the next 27 years in jail before he was fi nally released in February The beginning of a triumphant return culminating in the Nobel Peace Prize and, a year later, the South African presidency. This documentary gives us a portrait of a man, who, more than any other, has become a shining light in the Dark Continent and, ultimately, a modern PR phenomenon.
On December 21st the world witnessed the most spectacular terror attack of the decade. This documentary retraces the dramatic hours claiming three victims and its aftermath by reports of eyewitnesses and reenactments. Christiaan Barnard transplanted the first heart in Pictures of Barnard were circulated in the world's press, and so did his numerous love affairs. It was the Third Reich's first declaration of war. Those who didn't correspond to the Nazi ideal of Aryan supremacy were categorised as subhuman and pursued, tortured and murdered. This documentary focuses on the dual racial ideology of National Socialism and shows the method and perfidious perfection of its extermination machine, while also telling the stories of the suffering of its victims.
Johann Strauss the Elder, one of the original fathers of the Vienna Waltz, celebrated his th anniversary in March He was the genius of music to revolutionize 19th century light music in collaboration with Josef Lanner, leaving thus an imprint on the spirit of the Biedermeier period. The famous paintings of Rubens and Belotto are turned into a three-dimensional experience, so that the viewer feels almost a part of the interplay between farmers and bankers, between reasons of state and a Baroque lust for life.
In addition to depicting personal stories and important moments in European history, Prince Hans Adam II gives exclusive insights into the life of his family. In on her way to school, year-old Natascha Kampusch is abducted by Wolfgang Priklopil, imprisoned and isolated for more than eight years. After years of presumed dead she finally manages to escape from the hands of her tormentor in Piece by piece, this documentary reconstructs this hideous crime and provides answers to questions left open.
What kind of pressures did Priklopil apply to prevent his victim from escaping? How does the young woman manage her way back into normal life today?
Without a doubt, it holds a unique position within the museums of the world. Vienna's Natural History Museum is a collection of natural treasures - from meteorites to stone age artefacts, from dinosaur bones to fossils trapped in amber. But how did these jewels find their way into this temple of knowledge? Every piece has its own story which leads out of the museum into the remotest corners of the world - and beyond. For the first time, this documentary will unfold the history of this traditional Viennese museum as well as explore the museum's contribution to science across the world.
Endless deserts which test the endurance of righteous men and provide a perfect hiding place for outlaws. Rapid rivers, on the other side of which, a new and better life awaits. But what 'westerns' tell us about the west is only a part of the story and most of the time it's just fiction - especially the landscape and the wildlife.
In the Wild West, it's only a day's ride from the desert to the river, whereas in reality the landscapes are often thousands of miles apart. Not only did they use riders to double for actors they also used bogus rivers to double for the real thing. The famous Rio Bravo is mentioned in the title of more than a hundred westerns, but it's so dried up that in a western it's normally replaced by the Colorado or the San Juan River.
Nothing is strange to him: From the cavalry, whose legend is bigger than reality, to the myths of the relentless burning hot desert. He proves at least on celluloid that it's possible to kill and roast a turkey within five seconds. In this documentary, the American actor, Joe Dimmick, plays the role of the Man without a name. Remember me. Forgot password? In the years from to , hunger was a constant companion. The First World War had to be won not only at the front, but also in civilian life. And so kitchens became the battleground for women.
Hunger was not an easy enemy to fight. Wartime cookbooks were written, recipes printed on travel tickets and substitute foodstuffs were made available. Stinging nettles instead of spinach, chicory coffee or dried dandelion roots instead of ground coffee and barley flour instead of wheat flour. Now women were supposed to work wonders with these generally bad quality ingredients. In a small group of women risks everything in the struggle for self-determination, fair wages and the right to vote. They are ridiculed, ostracized, even arrested - but never disheartened.
Soon more women - and some men - join them, and by they have succeeded: Austriaa and Germany introduce the vote for women. Most European countries will follow later. It's combined effort by the feminist movements of both countries, and a shared victory.
Two different approaches - principle on the one hand, pragmatism on the other - together achieve a single aim: new and better gender relations. Marking the centenary of the Women's Vote in Germany and Austria, this film traces the long and rocky road to success via the lives of three courageous women who broke with tradition for a better and more equal society.
Clara Zetkin in Germany and Austrian feminist Adelheid Popp are the most famous leader fo the labour movement, while Hildegard Burian - known for her tireless social work in Austria - was born to a liberal middle-class family in Germany. To achieve women's rights and gender equality, these three pioneers were willing to risk their livelihood and their future, as well a their reputtaions.
They're not just heroines we can readily identify with a hundred years on, they're still inspiring women all over the world. Viktoria Savs, a young woman disguised as a man, fought on the Italian front in the First World War, was badly injured, lost a leg and after the war ended fought to get a prosthetic leg, which was eventually given to her by Adolf Hitler. During the Nazi era she also wanted to go to war but was prevented from doing so by the strict gender roles laid down by the ideology of the National Socialist State.
So she had to content herself with being a barracks typist. Victoria - the iconic Queen of England turns ! This documentary attempts to live up to Hermann Nitsch' total work of art in celebration of his 80th birthday. The fall between the ordinary daily life in the region of the Weinviertel and the orgiastic actions with international presence is being revealed: in the universe of Nitsch both lives can't be separated from each other. Moreover, the film points out the importance of Nitsch in contemporary art in Austria and Europe and its ongoing development.
The artist himself explains his own universe, his art, his ideas, his motivation, and wishes. Based on the comprehensive archival footage, the film classifies his different creative periods but also his creative fields. Interviewing companions complete the image of the political, societal and artistic range from the s until today. The Habsburgs and St Stephen's Cathedral always had a special relationship. The cathedral was the perfect backdrop for the dynasty's great religious events.
The Habsburgs tried for centuries to control and exploit the cathedral. In , the Austro Hungarian Empire began a gigantic trans alpine railway construction project - the Transalpina. The aim was to integrate the Danube Monarchy's key naval base, Trieste, into the Austrian rail network as rapidly as possible.
An ambitious goal, requiring the construction of 5 alpine railway lines within a very short timescale. Part 4 of the Tracking the two headed eagle series traces the development of this mammoth project. August At Vienna South Station, a tall man is bundled into a car by Soviet soldiers. Shortly afterwards they board a plane with him, bound for Kiev. He is interrogated for weeks and then months. Precisely one year later, he is dead. Just who was this Wilhelm of Habsburg, who wanted to be King of Ukraine and is venerated there as Vasyl Vyshyvanyi to this day?
Robert Bernardis is one of many people history has forgotten: Born in in Innsbruck, Bernardis was the only Austrian national directly involved in the assassination attempt of Hitler on July 20, Executed soon thereafter, his life became an example of how a loyal officer can become Hitler's greatest threat by experiencing the inhumanity of his warfare.
Eine Politik, die tiefe Spuren in der Gesellschaft und Familien hinterlassen hat. Im Jahr wurde diese in Folge des sogenannten "Anschlusses" verboten. Wer es dennoch wagte weiterhin Slowenisch zu sprechen, wurde bestraft. Im Zentrum des Filmes stehen die Menschen selbst - wie sie die damalige Zeit erlebten und damit umgingen, dass ihre Muttersprache zu einem Politikum wurde.
In the crisis years of the First World War, women had to step into the shoes of the men who were at the front. That meant not only greater involvement with dangerous jobs but also managing shortages - both of raw materials and of everyday products. The greatest enemy back then was hunger. But these trials also offered the opportunity women had long demanded at a political level - the opportunity for women to participate equally in public life alongside men.
Zumindest laut offiziellen Sterbeurkunden. Wer in der Familie wusste davon und mit welchem Zweck? Nun gibt es ja zwei Familien, wie es auch zwei "Ernst Beschinskys" gibt, die auf der jeweils anderen Seite dieser Katastrophe diesen Namen in Verbindung mit ihrer Familiengeschichte bringen.
Es bedurfte jahrelanger akribischer Recherchen, bis Filmemacher Lev endlich Klarheit in diese verstrickte Geschichte brachte. Dabei entstand ein Dokumentarfilm, dem es eindrucksvoll gelingt, den menschlichen Dschungel nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg bis ins Detail zu durchdringen. Long before women's emancipation was conceivable, Maria Theresia was the first woman to change the history of the Habsburg Empire: her era was the monarchy's golden age. Austria had never been as modern, glorious or prestigious as it was during her reign.
This year, for the th anniversary of her birth, director Georg Riha reveals his perspective on the Austrian icon. He dives right into the regent's late baroque period to tell her extraordinary story through fantastic imagery. The takeover by the Communist Bolsheviks changed the world for ever and with it the lives of millions of people.
This is also reflected in the lives and work of three great Russian composers of the 20th century: Dmitri Shostakovich, who never escaped the control of the Soviet state, returnee Sergei Prokofiev, who claimed to have recognised too late the challenges of the changed situation, and Sergei Rachmaninoff, who took the opportunity of a concert tour to Sweden to flee Russia and never saw his homeland again. The lives and work of all three are all closely interwoven with the history of their country, but in different ways.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, known as "Mahatma," was assassinated by a Hindu fanatic 70 years ago, on 30th January Today, Gandhi is considered the embodiment of non violent resistance. His great words have also taken hold in the Western World: "Ahimsa"- non violence, "Satygraha" - insistence on truth, "Swaraj" - self governance.
Gandhi was and remained a Hindu, but engaged intensively with other religions. He took the Baghavad Gita and the Sermon on the Mount as the spiritual basis for his political actions. His concept of renunciation of violence and loving one's enemies therefore also had a strong influence on Christians, for instance the American Civil Rights movement and Martin Luther King. The years between and were one of the highlights in the history of Austria.
But it is only men who are known as the pioneers of this movement. And yet this era also saw appreciable advances in women's emancipation. Many female artists were part of the dawning of the modern age, managing to assert themselves in the art world despite the hostile environment. An above average proportion of these female artists came from assimilated Jewish families.
Some of them took their place in art history, but many others have - unjustly - been consigned to oblivion. National Socialist times saw a succession of flamboyant and talented inventors and pioneers, who on the one hand took advantage of the opportunities under the Nazis, and on the other hand were exploited by the Nazis for their own purposes. Mostly before and during the First World War, they began to explore new ideas and technologies for tanks, engines and aeronautics that were far ahead of their time. The Habsburg Dynasty had ruled large parts of Europe and the world for years.
When Charles I inherited Franz Joseph's throne in November , he embarked on a single-handed mission to make peace. He offered France control of Alsace-Lorraine - a betrayal of his greatest ally and brother-in -arms, Germay. The so-called "Sixtus Affair" destroyed the last chance for peace in Europe - and sealed the fate of the Habsburg Dynasty and the Austro-Hungarian Empire itself. Charles I would go down in history as the last emperor of Europe. He was a man driven by the ideals he was prepared to implement at any cost, and his reforms completely changed the face of Turkey. He was inspired by the idea of nationalism, the implementation of fundamental rights and the separation of state and religion.
His countless private notes, diaries, and the handwritten comments he added to his books offer us a behind-the-scenes look at the most powerful man at the dawn of the Turkish Republic, as well as insights into his personality. He was a brilliant military strategist and political operator, the founder of modern Turkey, a ladies' man, and an educator of the people. In addition, he was a revolutionary profoundly influenced by Western ideas. His private library contained the most significant works of the European Enlightenment.
This has earned him lasting fame and admiration among many Turkish people to this day. The last great religious armed conflict in Europe, the Thirty Years' War, began years ago, in Ostensibly a battle between Catholics and Protestants, the war was in fact the result of a complex mixture of competing interests and a thirst for power and territory which involved the entire continent, but which caused particular destruction in Germany. Today's conflicts in the Middle East remind many of the Thirty Years' War, as they involve weakened state structures, ruthless warlords and foreign players who encourage division among religious denominations.
Is the Islamic world currently experiencing a wide-ranging conflict similar to that which tore Europe apart four centuries ago? The docu-drama Thirty Years of War focuses on the individual fates of five different characters from all walks of life: people who lived and suffered through the conflict, people who waged war or financed it. From the banker to the mercenary, all these people actually existed. The film documents their lives in detail, based on their own journals and other historical sources, and brings their experiences to life in powerful, moving narrative scenes.
He is a Catholic hardliner who believes the war serves a sacred purpose. Hans de Witte, a merchant from Prague, finances the imperial campaigns. His world is centred around the stock exchanges of Frankfurt, London and Amsterdam. He intentionally encourages an increase in inflation and eventually uses an intricate credit system to support the rise of General Albrecht von Wallenstein.
Incredibly, de Witte is actually a Calvinist - a member of a denomination persecuted by the emperor throughout the empire. Like most of the region's other farmers, she is a Protestant.
Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and America Bibliography
When she is twenty years old her farm is destroyed by passing troops. Soon after, violence flares when efforts are made to convert the country to Catholicism by force. Her husband is killed in a farmers' rebellion, but she refuses to give in to her anguish. She passes on her faith in secret, thereby contributing to the continued existence of Protestants in Austria to this day. He is one of the few to survive the entire war. Largely uninterested in the ideological motivations driving the conflict, Hagendorf fights for the spoils of war, his pay and survival.
He travels more than 22, kilometres in the course of the war, occasionally accompanied by his wife and children. When peace is declared in , he is at a loss - he has never known anything but fighting. From this point on she is responsible for ensuring the survival of her small sisterhood, a task made more difficult by the alternating attacks by the Swedish and imperial troops who loot and pillage the monastery. It takes Klara, a strong and wise woman, years to rebuild her destroyed abbey. An innovative narrative approach will serve to bring the historical events closer to the viewer: similar to modern-day news reporting, an off-camera journalist will ask the individual characters questions and they will talk openly to camera about their hopes, fears and convictions.
In Austria, the renowned actor Adele Neuhauser is in negotiations to assume this role. This narrative device allows for each country to define their own "reporter": it could be a nationally respected journalist, an actor or other important, trusted figure. As the film travels back in time to the 17th century, it will also journey through the modern-day regions of Germany and Austria that were battlefields during the war.
This establishes a fascinating visual contrast between the past and the present. The experts will also help to place the year-old war in a modern context: can the Thirty Years' War, this tangle of warring states, rebellions and religious conflicts, be compared to the situation in the Middle East of the present day?
Is the Islamic world currently experiencing a similar disaster to that suffered in Europe centuries ago? This is a divisive issue: while some experts warn against drawing easy comparisons, others look to the Peace of Westphalia for diplomatic solutions that may be applied to secure peace in the Middle East. This film focuses on the architect, urban planner and designer Otto Wagner's amazing world and builds a bridge between his early Historicist works and his Jugendstil masterpieces.
The goal is to paint a truthful picture of the artist's life and work until he became the modernist architect we all know and love. This true story conveys the hopes and dispair of an artillery soldier and a war photographer on the front line of the First World War. The first holiday goers were rich. Very rich. And they chose to take the prestigious southern train to luxurious weekends by the Adriatic Sea.
Even the Emperor's family used to take it. Its renovation is under way to bring it back to its former glory. Northern Italy's rivers carry both goods and memories. Its picturesque landscape still bears marks of its History as part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the entire lagoon-city which is Venice is a constant physical reminder of what these rivers are capable of. Field Marshall Radetzky was the hero the declining empire needed. But his life wasn't that simple, and not as luxurious as one might think. Forrest Fenn is very, very rich. But when he found out he had cancer, he decided to spark the sense of adventure in people across the world.
He stuffed a chest with many valuable treasures and buried it in the Rocky Mountains. He gave away nine clues in a poem he published and five more in interviews, but the chest is yet to be found. If it's still out there, why wouldn't two Austrian kids stand a chance? The Adriatic Sea became the upper class' most prestigious summer destination of the 19th century.
These rich and powerful holiday seekers took the southern train to places such as Opatija, Lovran, Losinj, Rijeka, and Portoroz which, until then, were still largely unknown, almost as fast as it does today. In this new production, we track down the imperial charm and lifestyle of the time. The spirit of this glossy era, during which summer tourism was invented, lives on in many historical hotels and cafes. The Habsburg-Lothringen family was, for centuries, one of the most powerful dynasties in the world; their empire was once so big, it was said that the sun never set on it.
Their rule and their impact on the world still echo through architectural masterpieces and countless gardens and parks. We think we know "our Steffl" from the top of the tower to the bottom of the catacombs. A digital simulation shows how the cathedral would have looked like with its intended north tower and we will proceed to explain why the tower ended up on the south side. This south tower holds a bizarre secret. There is an exciting theory about the figure of Master Pilgram: has the architect really carved his own figure six times in the cathedral's walls?
But even the patron saint, Stephen, remains a riddle. The Italian town of Caorle also claims to hold the real relic of Saint Stephen. Hochosterwitz Castle, Landskron Castle and the Kraig Castles are just some examples from the long list of imposing castles and aristocratic stately homes in Austria's southernmost state. The Middle Ages are particularly visible in Friesach: there aren't just three very diff erent castles all within sight of each other here.
The town is also indulging in a 'new' castle that has been under construction since , using exclusively medieval construction techniques. The project is more than just a laboratory for 'experimental history'; it has also become a tourist magnet. The construction of Siegfriedstein Castle is used by the fi lm's director Gernot Stadler, as a starting point for a journey through Carinthia's castle landscape and a nostalgic trip into the past - everyday castle life complete with medieval cooking. Needless to say, these marriages were largely unsuccessful. Watch as Maria Theresia struggled to balance dynastic responsibility and motherly love.
Maria Stromberger, who was born in in Metnitz, lived in Vorarlberg before she voluntarily reported to Auschwitz to serve as a nurse in the SS infirmary. Maria Stromberger took up her duties in Auschwitz on 1st October She would carry out the mission she had undertaken and only narrowly escape the henchmen of the Gestapo, as Stromberger smuggled pamphlets out of the camp and attempted to save people. From the days of the Habsburg monarchy, the Adriatic coast, the Salzkammergut, Lakes Garda and Worthersee, and the Dolomites were the most exclusive destinations for upper classes and nobility.
People travelled to the countryside with all the amenities of the city, and combined the benefits of well-tended natural surroundings and urban conviviality as if they were attending an outdoor parlour. Writers, actors and composers were inspired by the orchestrated natural idyll. Franz Joseph's rule lasted 68 years, making him the longest reigning Habsburg monarch. Not long after the passing of Emperor Franz Joseph on 21st November , the dynasty, which had endured for centuries, collapsed. He became the symbol of the Habsburg Monarchy, a multi-ethnic state with all of its potential and problems.
One of the greatest challenges for the dual monarchy was to unite the 11 nationalities and even more ethnic groups. This documentary off ers a glimpse of the person behind the political fi gure, showing a man caught between power and powerlessness. Wie definiert sich ihre Relevanz, ihr gesellschaftlicher Mehrwert, aber auch ihre moralische Verantwortung? Luis Trenker is a legend. This documentary shows the highs and lows of a long life, the delicate balance between Hitler and Mussolini, adaptation and resistance, box office success and cinematic art. Was he a Nazi collaborator or opposed to the Regime?
Or simply an amoral survivor who never ceased moulding his own image? Southern Carinthia: For many decades, Slovenes and German-speaking Carinthians have been living here side by side. Ditches or "grape" -- that's what they call the side valleys in Southern Carinthia. And ditches divide the inhabitants like trenches to this day, sometimes even within families.
The Slovenian peasants lived in the ditches, while the Germans were tradespersons and factory owners in the main valley. During and after the war, the coexistence turned into enmity. After the war, the hostility between the two ethnic groups petrified. Distrust, defiance, and ignorance conceal deep wounds on both sides. The guerrilla war of the Slovenes was the only armed resistance against the Nazi regime in Austria.
- Related Albums?
- Full text of "India And The Germans Years Of Indo-german Contacts"?
- Concert Reviews;
Now, in "The Ditch," the cultural associations of both groups are working together for the first time to overcome the last years. With the method of "participatory reenactments," contemporary witnesses' stories are filmed with original props at the actual locations. In the microcosm of the Vellach Valley, where perpetrators and victims were and are neighbors, and these roles often even reversed, history comes alive.
That is why many concealed the identity of their sons' or daughters' father; others cleared their conscience only shortly before death. Some children thought their father had died in the war. For the first time, we will hear the life and fate of children who were fathered by members of the Wehrmacht in territories occupied by Germany during World War II. And the children illicitly conceived with prisoners of war also gain the opportunity to speak in the documentary.
In the new part of the documentary series we take the way west. The Arlberg Railway, opened in , enabled smooth passenger and goods traffic to Vorarlberg. The film delves deep into the history of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the early days of European railways. For many centuries, Salzburg and the Archbishop occupied a unique special position. Unlike all the other bishops, the Archbishop even today wears scarlet, like a cardinal.
Until the 20th century, he was elected by the cathedral chapter, completely independent of the Pope. Like a Pope, he could even appoint bishops. Until , he ruled the second-largest church state in the world - second only to Rome. The documentary takes viewers back to a time when the Archbishopric, City and State of Salzburg were a political, religious and artistic centre of European importance.
Even towards the end of the 19th century, aristocrats and the prosperous upper middle class traveled to the Austrian Riviera to spend their vacations in the fashionable seaside resorts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In luxury train compartments, the posh travelers flooded to the sea and enjoyed themselves in the idyllic seaside resorts. The Quarnaro, or Kvarner, as the Croats call their Adriatic coast today, was synonymous with the term "Austrian Riviera.
Whoever could afford it at all went to the Adriatic Sea once a year. With the progress of railroad construction, particularly Abbazia experienced an unprecedented construction and tourism boom, quickly morphing into one of the most attractive seaside resorts of Europe in the midth century. Full Steam Ahead to the Austro-Hungarian Riviera tells of the journey of the affluent society to the Austrian Riviera in the 19th century.
He's the most notorious of all Roman emperors. Heburned Rome, he engaged in incest, and killed hismother, his wife and thousands of Christians. Hewas a psycho. But suppose it was all lies? Supposehis enemies decided to trash his reputation,and succeeded for two thousand years? Was Neroactually a hero, who took from the rich and gave tothe poor? Historians, psychologists, criminologistsand toxicologists are brought in as this documentaryreopens a cold case. Together they reveal a complexweb of lies, deflections and intrigues. Flashbacksand re-enactments encourage the viewer toexplore theories that are suddenly undermined byunexpected twists.
The result: a reassessment ofRoman history. It's time to re-examine the NeroFiles. Their entertaining and fascinating stories lead through the impressive architecture and the spectacular buildings constructed along one of the most beautiful boulevards in the world. Short Version: 45 min. Long Version: 52 min. She survived agonising years in Gestapo prisons in Vienna, and in the process witnessed the mercilessness of Nazi justice. The film focusses on Sasso's activities and her imprisonment from to , during which time she came to know the most important protagonists of Austria's resistance movement.
As times harden in the Arab world, people have begun to recall the greatest diva of all time: Asmahan, the Syrian princess who emigrated to Egypt in the twenties and became an entertainer. Today, traces of the Cairo that Asmahan once loved are difficult to find in the blanket of apathy that weighs on the city. Today, many Arabs go to Vienna in search of the dream whispered to them by the greatest diva. But things are not quite that simple.
Asmahan is not the angel everyone imagines her to be.