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Norman Housley

Though the subject is based on historical documents and facts, what emerges is a surreal and mythical atmosphere that blends drama and cynicism, telling a story of remote events that could hardly be more topical today.

Rhodes: The Land of Knights at The Age of Crusaders

The musical composing is driven by the traditional pearl fishing Bahraini music. The actual filming takes place in White Desert Western Desert, Egypt and in Marseille, using tailor made marionettes, precisely hand crafted in glass and ceramic with handmade costumes crafted in lace, cotton, velvet and silk Cabaret Crusades: The Path to Cairo is a mythic interpretation of the second phase of religiously sanctioned military expeditions by Western Christianity toward Jerusalem and the Holy Land.

The film elaborates the historical period when the Middle Eastern political power was shifting from many different cities to conclude in Cairo by the end of Second Crusade. The plot goes back and forth on the historical timeline from the 7th century to the 12th century.

The film begins with the story of Noureldin Al Zenki, where the second part had ended.

Fourth Crusade - Ancient History Encyclopedia

For the last 12 years, we pushed ourselves and consequently the entire club to its limits physical, mental, financial and every other kind. In many occasions we managed to cope. And we knew that saturation would eventually come at some point. But we never thought to "lift our foot from the pedal" in order to postpone it for a few years. There is nothing in life, which requires so much effort, focus, so much tenacity and patience; there is nothing in life, which does not consume so much energy and does not wear you out, no matter how much you love it.

And saturation is meant to bring about deterioration. Somewhere at that point, the vast majority of the Bayern Athens Club members decided that, after the completion of this over successful year journey, owed to itself not to live moments of decay. There were alternatives. For example, we could reduce the number of activities. We could lower our high standards. That is what a mediocre Fan Club would do. But not us!

The last crusade - a Athens AAR

Bayern Athens Club would never do that. We came with the "gas pedal floored" and we will step out the same way. Due to the idiosyncrasy and the DNA of Bayern Athens Club, we could never have settled with anything less than what we were used to in all those years. So, with this post, Bayern Athens Club announces the suspension of its operation.

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Maybe it is hard for someone, who is not aware of the philosophy and the mentality of our Fan Club, to understand, but for us that decision was inevitable, but necessary. Bayern Athens Club decides to close down now, while it is still in its prime, active and proud, as it has been for all those years. The operation of this Fan Club is coming to an end, but all of its work and the mark that it left to the fans of FC Bayern, are so vivid that will stay forever! The Pope was not best pleased to hear the news that Christian Zara had been sacked on 24 November CE, and he promptly excommunicated the Crusaders and the Venetians.

The ban was later lifted for the former, otherwise, they would not have been much use as Crusaders, one supposes.


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It is also true that many of the Crusader leaders, notably Simon of Montfort, had actually refused to attack Christian Zara and a significant number of men had even left the Crusade over the issue. Historians continue to debate the exact reason why the Crusaders then turned on Constantinople instead of Jerusalem, but one crucial ingredient in the troublesome mix of mutual suspicions between the western powers and Byzantium was the Republic of Venice and one man, in particular, the Doge Enrico Dandolo r. Intent on winning Venetian domination of the trade in the east, Dandolo well remembered his undignified expulsion from Constantinople when he had served there as an ambassador.

This seemed as good an opportunity as ever to install a new sympathetic emperor. Alexios IV Angelos r. This would permit Venice to get several steps ahead of long-time trade rivals Pisa and Genoa in cornering the trade market within the Byzantine Empire. It may, then, have been the goal of Dandolo and the Crusaders to merely pass through Constantinople, put a new emperor on the throne and then carry on to Jerusalem with their ships resupplied and their coffers refilled.

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Given the recent history of rebellions and takeovers in Byzantium, this was perhaps a rather simplified view of possible events. Certainly, things turned out to be a whole lot more difficult for everyone involved. In addition to material gains for Venice, another possible motivation for targeting Constantinople is that the Pope might achieve the supremacy of the western Church once and for all over the eastern Church.


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Meanwhile, the Crusader knights would not only gain revenge on the duplicitous Byzantines for their unhelpful support of previous Crusades but also surely pick up some glory and handsome booty in the process. It may not, as some conspiracy-theory historians have claimed, have all been so cynically planned beforehand by all parties, but in the end, it is exactly what happened with the exception that the Fourth Crusade ended with the fall of the Byzantine capital and Jerusalem was left for a later date. The force consisted of around 4, knights and their squires, up to 14, infantry, and 20,, Venetians.

The first target was the Byzantine garrison at nearby Galata on the other shore of the Golden Horn. The pair were deeply unpopular with the Byzantines, largely thanks to sustained propaganda against them by their successor, the departed Alexios III, and the obvious threatening presence of the Crusader army camped outside the capital.

Consequently, with the throne now effectively empty and with the support of both the people and the army, a usurper stepped in, one Alexios V Doukas, nicknamed 'Murtzurphlus' for his bushy eyebrows. Doukas promised to defend the city at all costs against the Crusaders and he seized the throne after executing his predecessors, father and son together, in January CE. The Crusaders, with diplomatic avenues exhausted, their supplies dangerously low, and their ships in need of vital repairs and maintenance, had now little option but to try and take the city.

They launched an all-out attack on the morning of 9 April CE, but the Byzantines repelled it. Then, on 12 April, the Crusaders attacked the weaker sea walls of the harbour and targeted two towers in particular by lashing their ships together and ramming them repeatedly. Citizens were raped and massacred, buildings were torched, and churches desecrated.

Doukas fled to Thrace, and three days of looting followed where artworks were destroyed, precious goods were melted down, and religious relics were taken back to Europe. Thus, Venetian control of Mediterranean trade was now almost total. The Byzantine Empire would be re-established in CE, albeit a shadow of its former self, when forces from the Empire of Nicaea , the centre of the Byzantines-in-exile CE , retook Constantinople. Perhaps understandably, the shocking fall of Constantinople has grabbed almost all the attention of the Fourth Crusade, but there was a small contingent of western Crusaders, led by Renard II of Dampierre, which did fulfil the original purpose of the expedition and reach the Middle East, better late than never, in April CE.

The knights were too few to ever consider attacking well-fortified Jerusalem, or any other important city for that matter, but they did manage to assist the Latin states in perpetuating their precarious existence in the Muslim-dominated Middle East. Editorial Review This Article has been reviewed for accuracy, reliability and adherence to academic standards prior to publication.

Timeline of the Ottoman Empire After the Crusades

We're a small non-profit organisation run by a handful of volunteers. Become a Member. Cartwright, M. Fourth Crusade. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Cartwright, Mark. Last modified September 03, Ancient History Encyclopedia, 03 Sep This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.

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