However, Lucas instead poured more men and material into his tiny bridgehead, and strengthened his defences. Winston Churchill was clearly displeased with this action. He said: "I had hoped we were hurling a wildcat into the shore, but all we got was a stranded whale". Lucas' decision remains a controversial one.
ANZIO BEACHHEAD (22 January May ) [Illustrated Edition]
Noted military historian John Keegan wrote, "Had Lucas risked rushing at Rome the first day, his spearheads would probably have arrived, though they would have soon been crushed. Nevertheless he might have 'staked out claims well inland. Also, he could certainly argue that his interpretation of his orders from Clark was not an unreasonable one. With two divisions landed, and facing two or three times that many Germans, it would have been reasonable for Lucas to consider the beachhead insecure. But according to Keegan, Lucas's actions "achieved the worst of both worlds, exposing his forces to risk without imposing any on the enemy.
Kesselring was informed of the landings at 3 a. January Although the landings came as a surprise, Kesselring had made contingency plans to deal with possible landings at all the likely locations. All the plans relied on his divisions each having previously organised a motorized rapid reaction unit Kampfgruppe which could move speedily to meet the threat and buy time for the rest of the defenses to get in place.
In addition, he requested that OKW send reinforcements, and in response to this they ordered the equivalent of more than three divisions from France, Yugoslavia , and Germany whilst at the same time releasing to Kesselring a further three divisions in Italy which had been under OKW's direct command. The German units in the immediate vicinity had in fact been dispatched to reinforce the Gustav Line only a few days earlier. Elements of eight German divisions were employed in the defence line around the beachhead, and five more divisions were on their way to the Anzio area.
Liberty ships , which were never intended as warships, were involved in some fighting in the Battle of Anzio. Evans was under repeated bombardment from shore batteries and aircraft throughout an eight-day period. It endured a prolonged barrage of shrapnel, machine-gun fire and bombs. The gun crew fought back with shellfire and shot down five German planes.
Further troop movements including the arrival of U. While one force was to cut Highway 7 at Cisterna before moving east into the Alban Hills, a second was to advance northeast up the Via Anziate towards Campoleone. Allied forces by this time totalled 76, including the recently arrived British 56th Infantry Division , under Major-General Gerald Templer , which arrived complete on February Some hours after the attack started the coherence of the front line had been completely shattered, and the fighting for the salient had given way to small unit actions, swaying back and forth through the gullies.
Even though the base of the salient was nearly broken, Lucas was able to bolster the British 1st Division's defenses with the newly arrived th Brigade from the 56th Division, containing 1st Battalion, London Irish Rifles , 1st Battalion, London Scottish , 10th Battalion, Royal Berkshire Regiment. They held the line all day, taking heavy casualties, but were eventually ordered to pull back and made a fighting retreat at 5pm to the Factory with the aid of artillery, and a successful assault launched by the London Scottish, of th Brigade,  supported by the 46th Royal Tank Regiment 46 RTR.
They overran the th Brigade , of the recently arrived 56th London Division, and virtually destroyed X Company of the 8th Battalion, Royal Fusiliers , which was reduced from around down to a single officer and 10 other ranks and Y Company was down to one officer and 10 men. Numerous attacks were launched on 1st Battalion, Loyal Regiment 2nd Brigade and they lost a company, overrun, and the day after had suffered casualties. During Fischfang the Germans had sustained some 5, casualties, the Allies 3, Both had suffered nearly 20, casualties each since the first landings,  and it was "far the highest density of destruction in the Italian campaign, perhaps in the whole war".
Churchill had continued to bridle at Lucas' perceived passivity.
Read More From Anon
They are negative and lacking in the necessary drive and enthusiasm to get things done. They appeared to have become depressed by events. I am afraid that the top side is not completely satisfied with my work They are naturally disappointed that I failed to chase the Hun out of Italy but there was no military reason why I should have been able to do so. In fact there is no military reason for Shingle. Both sides had realised that no decisive result could be achieved until the spring and reverted to a defensive posture involving aggressive patrolling and artillery duels whilst they worked to rebuild their fighting capabilities.
In anticipation of the following spring, Kesselring ordered the preparation of a new defence line, the Caesar C line , behind the line of beachhead running from the mouth of the river Tiber just south of Rome through Albano , skirting south of the Alban Hills to Valmontone and across Italy to the Adriatic coast at Pescara , behind which 14th Army and, to their left, 10th Army might withdraw when the need arose.
The objective of the plan was to fully engage Kesselring's armies with a major offensive and remove any prospect of the Germans withdrawing forces from Italy to redeploy elsewhere. Dispersed among German battalions, the German commanding officers later gave the Italians companies favourable reports. The next few weeks saw many changes in divisions on both sides. The U. Also in March the U. The Guards Brigade had suffered devastating casualties nearly 2, of an initial strength of over 2, in just less than two months at Anzio.
By late May, there were some , Allied troops in the bridgehead,  including five U. The Germans were well dug into prepared defenses, but were weak in numbers of officers and NCOs and, by the time of the late May offensive, lacked any reserves which had all been sent south to the Gustav fighting. Operation Turtle on the other hand foresaw a main thrust to the left of the Alban Hills taking Campoleone, Albano and on to Rome.
- Reward Yourself.
- Related information.
- Operation Shingle!
- Join Kobo & start eReading today.
However, Clark was determined that VI Corps should strike directly for Rome as evidenced in his later writing: "We not only wanted the honor of capturing Rome, but felt that we deserved it Not only did we intend to become the first army to seize Rome from the south, but we intended to see that people at home knew that it was the Fifth Army that did the job, and knew the price that had been paid for it.
Truscott's planning for Buffalo was meticulous: British 5th Division and 1st Division on the left were to attack along the coast and up the Via Anziate to pin the German 4th Parachute, 65th Infantry and 3rd Panzergrenadier in place whilst the U. May 23, , 1, Allied artillery pieces commenced bombardment. Forty minutes later the guns paused as attacks were made by close air support and then resumed as the infantry and armour moved forward. Mackensen had been convinced that the Allies' main thrust would be up the Via Anziate, and the ferocity of the British feint on May 23 and 24 did nothing to persuade him otherwise.
These were, in effect, to implement Operation Turtle and turn the main line of attack 90 degrees to the left. I was dumbfounded. This was no time to drive to the north-west where the enemy was still strong; we should pour our maximum power into the Valmontone Gap to insure the destruction of the retreating German Army. I would not comply with the order without first talking to General Clark in person. On the 26th the order was put into effect.
To be first in Rome was a poor compensation for this lost opportunity. Climbing the steep slopes of Monte Artemisio they threatened Velletri from the rear and obliged the defenders to withdraw. Raising the pressure further, Clark assigned U. On June 2 the Caesar Line collapsed under the mounting pressure, and 14th Army commenced a fighting withdrawal through Rome. On the same day Hitler, fearing another Battle of Stalingrad , had ordered Kesslering that there should be "no defence of Rome".
He ensured the event was a strictly American affair by stationing military police at road junctions to refuse entry to the city by British military personnel. Although controversy continues regarding what might have happened if Lucas had been more aggressive from the start, most commentators agree that the initial plan for Anzio was flawed. They question whether the initial landing of just over two infantry divisions, with no supporting armour, had the strength to achieve the objectives: of cutting Route 6 and then holding off the inevitable counterattacks that would come, as Kesselring redeployed his forces.
Volume 5 of Churchill 's The Second World War is riddled with implied criticism of Lucas blaming the failure on his caution. After the war, Kesselring gave his evaluation:. It would have been the Anglo-American doom to overextend themselves. The landing force was initially weak, only a division or so of infantry, and without armour. It was a halfway measure of an offensive; that was your basic error. Furthermore, Field Marshal Sir Harold Alexander , in his Official Dispatch, stated, "The actual course of events was probably the most advantageous in the end.
Churchill defended the operation  and believed that sufficient forces were available. He had clearly made great political efforts to procure certain resources, especially the extra LSTs needed to deliver a second division to shore, but also specific units useful to the attack such as with the th Parachute Infantry Regiment. He argued that even regardless of the tactical outcome of the operation, there was immediate strategic benefit with regard to the wider war.
That obviously benefited the upcoming Operation Overlord. Churchill also had to ensure the British-dominated forces in Italy were contributing to the war at a time when the Soviet Red Army were suffering tremendous losses on the Eastern Front. Because of Clark's change of plan, Operation Diadem during which the U. Fifth Army and the British Eighth Army sustained 44, casualties failed in its objective of destroying the German 10th Army. It also condemned the Allies to another year of bloody combat in Italy, notably around the Gothic Line from August through March The greatest loss was that if the U.
Army VI Corps main effort had continued on the Valmontone axis from May 26, Clark could probably have reached Rome more quickly than by the route northwest from Cisterna. The VI Corps could also have cut Highway 6 and then put much more pressure on the 10th Army than it actually did. Alan Whicker who as a war correspondent with the British Army's Film and Photo Unit, and who was present during the fighting, later said:.
After breaking out of Anzio, Alexander's plan was for the Fifth Army to drive east to cut Kesselring's escape route to the north and trap much of his Tenth and Fourteenth Armies.
American Forces in Action Series
The operation started well, but then suddenly, when leading troops were only six kilometers from closing their trap at Frosinone , the Fifth Army was re-directed and sent north towards Rome. The trap was left open. General Mark Clark was so eager that the world should see pictures showing him as the liberator of Rome, that he allowed the armies of a delighted Kesselring to escape.
He had ignored the orders of Field Marshall Alexander in a decision as militarily stupid, as it was insubordinate. This, vain-glorious blunder, the worst of the entire war, lost us a stunning victory, lengthened the war by many months and earned Mark Clark the contempt of other American and British generals. They saw an operation that could have won the war in Italy, thrown away at the cost of many Allied lives, because of the obsession and vanity of one man. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Italian Campaign. The Winter Line and the battle for Rome. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Further information: Anzio order of battle. Allied naval commanders for Operation Shingle. Main article: Battle of Monte Cassino. Further information: Operation Diadem order of battle. However, these plans were scrapped on 20 January, apparently because of the high losses during the airborne assaults at Sicily.
The th PIR was then assigned to land by sea. World War II Facts. Retrieved 21 January Archived from the original on Retrieved Retrieved 3 August L'operazione Shingle vista dai tedeschi: documenti e diari di guerra della Retrieved 5 September Retrieved July 21, Retrieved December 18, Atkinson, Rick The Liberation Trilogy. Blaxland, Gregory Alexander's Generals the Italian Campaign Clark, Lloyd Anzio: The Friction of War. Italy and the Battle for Rome Headline Publishing Group, London. Colville, John Fifth Army troops, put fully on the defensive for the first time, rose to the test.
Harry Yeide. Bob Carruthers. Nigel Cawthorne. David Bennett. Fields of Fire. Terry Copp. Peter G.
George S. Steven J. Arnhem A bridge Too far? Battle of the Bulge: Hitler's Alternate Scenarios. Battle Story: Battle of the Bulge Andrew Rawson. Hugh M. Higgins David R. Bolt Action: Armies of Germany. Warwick Kinrade. Operation Dragoon. Anthony Tucker-Jones. Operation Nordwind Victory in Europe, Charles B. Battle of the Bulge. Operation Cobra and the Great Offensive. Bill Yenne. Gazala Ken Ford. The Diners Out Handbook. Alfred H.
- Shelf Items!
- Deleuze & Guattari: Emergent Law (Nomikoi Critical Legal Thinkers).
- Anzio Beachhead (22 January - 25 May 1944) Part 3!
- The Sundays Trilogy.
Armoured Warfare in the Battle for Normandy. Armoured Campaign in Normandy, June-August, Stephen Napier. Battle of the Bulge 2. Hell's Highway. Tim Saunders. The Falaise Pocket. Major Braden DeLauder. Caen Charles Brown MacDonald. The Battle of the Bulge. John R.
Michael Green. Battle Story: El Alamein Pier Paolo Battistelli. Colonel David M Glantz. Colonel Ralph M. Battle of the Bulge 1. Liam McCann. Sicily Eisenhower's Thorn on the Rhine. Nathan Prefer. Central pacific The U. Clayton R. Martin Blumenson. Germany Wins! Tad Holtsinger. Battle for Sicily.
Between the Covers
Ian Blackwell. The Lorraine Campaign. Hugh Cole. St Mihiel David Bonk. Bravo Two Zero. Andy McNab. D-Day 1. Salerno Angus Konstam. Chris Martin. Command Missions. Lucian K. Chosen Soldier. Dick Couch. Major James Bliss. Donovan's Devils. Albert Lulushi. Apache Dawn. Damien Lewis. Panzer Divisions — Gentlemen Bastards. Kevin Maurer. Gordon Harrision. Generalleutant Fritz Bayerlein a. Soldier Dogs. Maria Goodavage. The Regiment. Michael Asher. The Art of Betrayal. Gordon Corera.
The Battle of Sicily. Samuel W. Mitcham Jr. Big Boys' Rules. Mark Urban. US Armored Divisions. Kasserine Pass Lorraine The Bremer Detail. Frank Gallagher. Age of Assassins.