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For specific weights for each mission, see the individual mission articles. The ascent stage contained the crew cabin with instrument panels and flight controls. It contained its own Ascent Propulsion System APS engine and two hypergolic propellant tanks for return to lunar orbit and rendezvous with the Apollo command and service module.

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It also contained a Reaction Control System RCS for attitude and translation control, which consisted of sixteen hypergolic thrusters similar to those used on the Service Module, mounted in four quads, with their own propellant supply. A forward EVA hatch provided access to and from the lunar surface, while an overhead hatch and docking port provided access to and from the Command Module.

Internal equipment included an environmental control life support system; a VHF communications system with two antennas for communication with the Command Module; a unified S-band system and steerable parabolic dish antenna for communication with Earth; an EVA antenna resembling a miniature parasol which relayed communications from antennas on the astronauts' Portable Life Support Systems through the LM; primary PGNCS and backup AGS guidance and navigation systems; an Alignment Optical Telescope for visually determining the spacecraft orientation; rendezvous radar with its own steerable dish antenna; and an ice sublimation system for active thermal control.

Electrical storage batteries, cooling water, and breathing oxygen were stored in amounts sufficient for a lunar surface stay of 48 hours initially, extended to 75 hours for the later missions. During rest periods while parked on the Moon, the crew would sleep on hammocks slung crosswise in the cabin. The descent stage's primary job was to support a powered landing and surface extravehicular activity.


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When the excursion was over, it served as the launch pad for the ascent stage. Octagonal, it was supported by four folding landing gear legs, and contained a throttleable Descent Propulsion System DPS engine with four hypergolic propellant tanks. A continuous-wave Doppler radar antenna was mounted by the engine heat shield on the bottom surface, to send altitude and rate of descent data to the guidance system and pilot display during the landing.

Almost all external surfaces, except for the top, platform, ladder, descent engine and heat shield, were covered in amber, dark reddish amber, black, silver, and yellow aluminized Kapton foil blankets for thermal insulation. The number 1 front landing leg had an attached platform informally known as the "porch" in front of the ascent stage's EVA hatch and a ladder, which the astronauts used to ascend and descend between the cabin to the surface. The footpad of each landing gear contained a inch-long 1.

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The probe was omitted from the number 1 leg of every landing mission, to avoid a suit-puncture hazard to the astronauts, as the probes tended to break off and protrude upwards from the surface. Equipment for the lunar exploration was carried in the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly MESA , a drawer mounted on a hinged panel dropping out of the lefthand forward compartment. Besides the astronaut's surface excavation tools and sample collection boxes, the MESA contained a television camera with a tripod; as the commander opened the MESA by pulling on a lanyard while descending the ladder, the camera was automatically activated to send the first pictures of the astronauts on the surface back to Earth.

A United States flag for the astronauts to erect on the surface was carried in a container mounted on the ladder of each landing mission. An external compartment on the right front panel carried a deployable S-band antenna which, when opened looked like an inverted umbrella on a tripod.

The Quest to Explore the Moon from Lunar Orbit (1967)

This was not used on the first landing due to time constraints, and the fact that acceptable communications were being received using the LM's S-band antenna, but was used on Apollo 12 and A hand-pulled Modular Equipment Transporter MET , similar in appearance to a golf cart, was carried on Apollo 13 and 14 to facilitate carrying the tools and samples on extended moonwalks. On the extended missions Apollo 15 and later , the antenna and TV camera were mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle , which was carried folded up and mounted on an external panel.

One proposed Apollo application was an orbital solar telescope constructed from a surplus LM with its descent engine replaced with a telescope controlled from the ascent stage cabin, the landing legs removed and four "windmill" solar panels extending from the descent stage quadrants. This idea was later transferred to the original wet workshop design for the Skylab orbital workshop and renamed the Apollo Telescope Mount to be docked on a side port of the workshop's multiple docking adapter MDA.

Apollo 11 Flight Log, July 21, Launching from the Moon | Space

When Skylab changed to a "dry workshop" design pre-fabricated on the ground and launched on a Saturn V, the telescope was mounted on a hinged arm and controlled from inside the MDA. Only the octagonal shape of the telescope container, solar panels and the Apollo Telescope Mount name were kept, though there was no longer any association with the LM.

This technique was intended to deliver equipment and supplies to a permanent crewed lunar base. As originally proposed, it would be launched on a Saturn V with a full Apollo crew to accompany it to lunar orbit and guide it to a landing next to the base; then the base crew would unload the "truck" while the orbiting crew returned to Earth. The development and construction of the lunar module is dramatized in the miniseries From the Earth to the Moon episode entitled "Spider".

This is in reference to LM-3, used on Apollo 9, which the crew named Spider after its spidery appearance. Apollo 15 landing on the Moon seen from the perspective of the Lunar Module Pilot. Starts at about feet. Apollo 15 Lunar Module lifts off the Moon. Apollo 17 Lunar Module liftoff. View from TV camera on the lunar rover. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Apollo Applications Program. Moon portal Spaceflight portal s portal. Apollo by the Numbers PDF.


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    New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. September Retrieved Retrieved June 26, Apollo: Where are they now? Retrieved 27 December Brooks; James M. Grimwood; Loyd S. Swenson September 20, Retrieved June 7, Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on NASA History. Retrieved January 16, Memorandum from Project Designation Committee, June 9, Apollo expeditions to the moon. Swenson Archived from the original on 9 February May , "6. Moon landing conspiracy theories List of lunar probes List of artificial objects on the Moon List of missions to the Moon.

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    Apollo program hardware. US UK. Now as a valued customer Apogee is proud to offer these beautiful replicas to add to your collection of Apogee Space Books. Each book comes with an accurate replica of the original 's cover and the pages are set out in the same sequence as the originals. Almost pages of in depth detail about the Apollo spacecraft in the exact words of the contractors who built them. Scott P. With this book readers can become acquainted with the Apollo spacecraft in detail and learn the story of its design and construction. The Apollo 11 mission that carried him and his two fellow astronauts on their epic journey marked the successful culmination of a quest that, ironically, had begun in Nazi Germany thirty years before.

    The Command Module CM was the control center for the Apollo spacecraft, providing living and working quarters for the three-man crew for the entire flight, except for the period when the Lunar Module descended to the Moon for landing and return. The cone-shaped CM was the only part of the spacecraft that returned to Earth from space. The cylindrical Service Module SM was designed to support the command module and its crew, housing the electrical power subsystem, reaction control engines, part of the environmental control system, and the service propulsion subsystem including the main propulsion engine for insertion into orbit around the Moon, for return from the Moon, and for course corrections.

    The foot long SM was attached to the command module until just before Earth entry, when it was jettisoned. Vast archives of important data that might otherwise remain inaccessible are available for instant review no matter where you are. The e-book format makes a great reference work and educational tool.

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    There is no other reference book that is as convenient, comprehensive, thoroughly researched, and portable - everything you need to know, from renowned experts you trust. Our e-books put knowledge at your fingertips, and an expert in your pocket! About Publish Join Sign In. Readers Benefits of registering Where are my ebooks?

    Ask it above. Every major component and system on the incredibly successful LM is covered in detail.