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Mischa Varmuza

All people have vata, pitta, and kapha; one is usually primary, one secondary, and the third least prominent. A Balanced Life Just as everyone has an individual face or thumbprint, according to ayurveda, each person has a particular pattern of energy—an individual combination of physical, mental, and emotional characteristics—that is his or her constitution. This constitution is determined at conception. When all of the three doshas are properly proportioned, they nourish and build mental and physical health in a person.

The proper amount of vata promotes creativity and flexibility; pitta engenders. Disease is viewed as improper body functioning that is caused by an excess or deficiency of vata, pitta, or kapha as compared to the original balance of these doshas. This imbalance can be caused by any number of factors. Genetic or congenital traits may predispose a person to develop unhealthy habits such as overeating or smoking.

When this happens, the process of disease begins, as fear and anxiety can raise vata in a person. Too much or too little vata can produce fear and anxiety. Similarly, pitta can stir anger, hate, and jealousy, and kapha can lead to greed, attachment, and envy. Typical Ayurveda In times of health, when there are no dominant outside traumas or toxins afflicting a person, practitioners of ayurveda pay strict attention to diet and lifestyle.

This right lifestyle engages body, mind, and spirit—three distinct but interrelated aspects of each person—in a regimen of diet, breathing exercises, meditation, and physical activity. In times of illness, an ayurvedic physician must first determine which of the three basic constitutional types the patient is. Then the symptoms must be understood as to whether they are of vata, pitta, or kapha type. Vata heart pain is different from pitta or kapha heart pain. Accordingly, a battery of tests are applied, including taking the pulse, 6. Typically this involves the implementation of a different lifestyle with a new diet, exercise, and meditation plan.

In cases where disease can be attributed to toxins or other external stresses, the ayurvedic physician may prescribe additional herbal remedies, breathing exercises, and sun and massage therapies. Benefits and Risks Ayurvedic medicine is and has been practiced throughout the world for thousands of years. Its patients claim increased longevity and better health. Proper ayurvedic practice demands adherence to a strict, carefully planned lifestyle. Furthermore, many in the ayurvedic field have integrated Western medicine into their practices, acknowledging that different systems can complement each other.

For these reasons, anyone interested in pursuing ayurveda, particularly patients with preexisting conditions, should consult an established clinic or ayurvedic physician. Bellevue, WA Tel: Offers a program in ayurvedic medicine. Ayurvedic Foundation P. Also produces cassette tapes and provides ayurvedic counseling. Ayurvedic Institute Menaul N. Further Reading: Chopra, Deepak, M. Ageless Body, Timeless Mind. New York: Harmony Books, Perfect Health. Quantum Healing. New York: Bantam Books, Frawley, David, OMD.

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Ayurvedic Healing. Salt Lake City: Morson Publishing, Lad, Vasant, M. Ayurveda: The Science of SelfHealing. Albuquerque: The Ayurvedic Press, Rather than focusing on illness or specific parts of the body,. It emphasizes the connection of mind, body, and spirit. The goal is to achieve maximum well-being, where everything is functioning the very best that is possible.

How Holistic Health Developed Ancient healing traditions, as far back as 5, years ago in India and China, stressed living a healthy way of life in harmony with nature. Holistic concepts fell temporarily out of favor in Western societies during the twentieth century. Scientific medical advances had created a dramatic shift in the concept of health. Germs were identified as outside sources causing disease. Gaining health became a process of killing microscopic invaders with synthesized drugs.

However, for some conditions medical cures have proven more harmful than the disease. In addition, many chronic conditions do not respond to scientific medical treatments. In looking for other options, people are turning back to the holistic approach to health and healing. The holistic health lifestyle is regaining popularity each year, as the holistic principles offer practical options to meet the growing desire for enjoying a high level of vitality and well-being.

The Basic Principles of Holistic Health Holistic health is based on the law of nature that a whole is made up of interdependent parts. The earth is made up of systems, such as air, land, water, plants, and animals. If life is to be sustained, they cannot be separated, for what is happening to one system is also felt by all of the others. In the same way, an individual is a whole made up of interdependent parts, which are physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual. When one part is not working at its best, it impacts all of the other parts of that person. Furthermore, this whole person, including all of the parts, is constantly interacting with everything in the surrounding environment.

For example, when an individual is anxious about a history exam or a job interview, his or her nervousness may result in a physical reaction—such as acne or a stomachache. When people suppress anger at a parent or a boss over a long period of time, they can develop a serious illness—such as migraine headaches, emphysema, or even arthritis. The principles of holistic health state that health is more than just not being sick. A common explanation is to view wellness as a continuum along a line.

The line represents all possible degrees of health. The far left end of the line represents premature death. On the far right end is the highest possible level of wellness or maximum well-being. The center point of the line represents a lack of apparent disease. This places all levels of illness on the left half of the wellness continuum. The right half shows that even when no illness seems to be present, there is still a lot of room for improvement. Holistic health is an ongoing process. As a lifestyle, it includes a personal commitment to be moving toward the right end of the wellness continuum.

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No matter what their current status of health, people can improve their level of well-being. Even when there are temporary setbacks, movement is always headed toward wellness. The U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report that the key factors 8. Quality of medical care is only 10 percent. Heredity accounts for 18 percent and environment is 19 percent. Everyday lifestyle choices are 53 percent. The decisions people make about their life and habits are, therefore, by far the largest factor in determining their state of wellness. New cells are built from what is available.

Harmful substances or lack of needed building blocks in the body can result in imperfect cells, unable to do what is required to keep that person healthy. The majority of illnesses and premature deaths can be traced back to lifestyle choices. There are the wellknown dangers connected with drugs, alcohol, nicotine, and unprotected sexual activity. Less recognized is the impact of excesses in things like sugar, caffeine, and negative attitudes. Combined with deficiencies in exercise, nutritious foods, and self-esteem, these gradually accumulate harmful effects.

Quality of life, now and in the future, is actually being determined by a multitude of seemingly unimportant choices made every day. How Holistic Health Is Practiced While preventing illness is important, holistic health focuses on reaching higher levels of wellness. The right half of the wellness continuum invites people to constantly explore which everyday actions work for them and discover what is appropriate to move them toward maximum well-being. People are motivated by how good it feels to have lots of energy and enthusiasm for life, knowing that what they are doing.

When disease and chronic conditions do occur, the holistic health principles also can be applied. The term is usually changed to holistic medicine, and additional factors are added. The health care professionals using the holistic approach work in partnership with their patients. A holistic approach to healing goes beyond just eliminating symptoms. For example, taking an aspirin for a headache would be like disconnecting the oil light on the dash of a car when it flashes.

The irritation is eliminated, but the real problem still exists. In holistic medicine, a symptom is considered a message that something needs attention. So the symptom is used as a guide to look below the surface for the root cause. Then what really needs attention can be addressed. The Benefits of Holistic Health Holistic health supports reaching higher levels of wellness as well as preventing illness. People enjoy the vitality and well-being that results from their positive lifestyle changes, and are motivated to continue this process throughout their lives.

Box Anaheim, CA Tel: e-mail: ahha healthy. These free materials and a booklet, Wellness From Within: The First Step, which introduces the holistic approach to creating wellness, are available on the Internet or by mail. Vass, Ed. Bell wmich. Consists of 18 semester hours of study in holistic health care and related topics.

Can be taken as an independent certificate or can be used to supplement graduate training in related fields. Three main areas of holistic health care promotion, prevention, and treatment are addressed through a combination of education, research, promotion, training, administration, program planning, and program development efforts. Graduates are able to work.

Training in Holistic Health The conventional or allopathic medical model taught in most Western medical schools does not include the holistic principles. Complementary or alternative medical traditions, such as acupuncture, chiropractic, homeopathy, massage therapy, and naturopathy, include many of the principles of holistic medicine. Yet some medical doctors are holistic in how they deal with their patients, and some practitioners using complementary therapies are not holistic. Patients are learning to check for both technical expertise and whether a practitioner uses the holistic principles.

People interested in a career as a holistic practitioner must first become qualified in one or more methods of delivering health care, such as chiropractic, massage therapy, medicine, naturopathy, or psychology. Then they add on the holistic qualities and philosophy.

Further Reading: Collinge, William, Ph. New York: Warner Books, Gordon, James S. Holistic Medicine. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, Travis, John W. The Wellness Workbook. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press, By ingesting small, diluted doses of these substances, the body is stimulated to fight illness. In recent times, homeopathic practices have grown dramatically in popularity as people all over the world rediscover the inexpensive, natural remedies used to cure illnesses that do not respond to conventional treatment.

He was thin, delicate, and highly intelligent, with an interest in the natural sciences and languages. He established his first medical practice in Hahnemann was appalled by the William Cullen, that Hahnemann first conceived of his homeopathic method. He decided to experiment on himself with cinchona Peruvian bark , one of the drugs mentioned in that work. He noticed that when a healthy person took doses of cinchona, the substance from which quinine is derived, it produced many of the symptoms that it was intended to alleviate.

The official birth date of homeopathy is , when Hahnemann published an article in the Journal of Practical Medicine, in which he delineates three methods of healing: preventative treatment, which is the removal of the causes of illness; palliative treatment by the principle of contraria contraris, which means the healing by opposites; and the treatment of likes with likes, namely the prescribing of medicines that cause similar symptoms in healthy individuals.

Hahnemann coined the term Homeopathy, from the Greek words homois, similar, and pathos, meaning disease. The word homeopathic first appeared in print in an article he published in To this day it forms the foundation of homeopathy. The principle of similia similibus, first set forth in his essay of , was now expanded to similia similibus curentor— let likes be treated by likes—the core principle of homeopathy.

The reception of this work was lukewarm. Despite the apathetic reception Organon had received, he attempted to teach homeopathy through his newly formed Institute for the Postgraduate Study of Homeopathy. Not one person responded to his advertisement. In Napoleon was driven from Germany, and the war flooded the area with refugees, starvation, and no less than 80, dead and another 80, wounded. Hahnemann and other physicians were pressed into service trying to help the many who suffered not only from the battle but from an outbreak of typhus.

Armed with twenty-six homeopathic remedies, Hahnemann achieved remarkable results in treating typhus. He would later report that only two of the typhus patients he treated had died. In a group of envious physicians and angry pharmacists filed a court action against Hahnemann to prevent him from dispensing his own medicines in Leipzig, where he was living at the time. Although he subsequently won in the Appeals Court of Dresden, Hahnemann closed his practice and left Leipzig for the city of Kothen in Shortly after his arrival in Kothen, Hahnemann, through his political and social connections, procured permission from the authorities to practice homeopathy with total immunity.

First published in Dresden, in , it ultimately ran to five volumes by and totaled in excess of 1, pages. This work set forth another deep insight, that not only could patients be cured of acute conditions but that their patterns of acute conditions over the years allow for a classification of chronic tendencies toward types of disease. Hahnemann had intuited the basis for treating genetic disorders. In , a cholera epidemic swept Europe. The Hahnemannian protocol for treating cholera, which also included cleanliness, ventilation, and disinfection, resulted in a drastic reduction in mortality.

Records at that time indicate that under homeopathic treatment mortality was between 2 and 20 percent while conventional treatment carried a mortality of over 50 percent. Homeopathy began to spread to England and the United States. The first national medical organization in the United States, it was established to promote standardization of the practice and teaching of homeopathy.

This period in American homeopathy was its golden age. There were literally thousands of homeopathic books and journals published. There were no Estimates are that by the turn of the century there were about 15, homeopathic physicians in the United States. But instead, by the late s American homeopathy was well into a revival. Sales of homeopathic medicines have increased by 30 percent per year in the United States since There is a natural and universal scientific law of cure, namely, that likes can be cured by likes.

This means that small amounts of any substance that causes disease in a healthy person can be used to treat that same disease in a patient. The knowledge of the action of remedies is harvested from single- or double-blind experiments in which small doses are given to healthy subjects who later record their detailed reactions to the test substance. This is called a homeopathic proving.

The knowledge base for a particular substance or remedy is also determined from case histories of treatment with. Added to this is the information of symptoms produced by accidental poisonings with toxic substances. The proving, clinical, and toxicological data form the materia medica of the remedy. The ability of an organism to feel, sense, act, or achieve homeostasis or equilibrium is maintained by a non-material principle called the dynamis. It is a force that to date has eluded explanation or classification by the natural sciences.

Diseases, therefore, are not actual material things; rather they are descriptions or classifications of symptom patterns. A single remedy at a time is given. Single-remedy administration also allows a clear evaluation of its efficacy. A minimum dose must be used. Small doses of a substance stimulate healing, medium doses paralyze the patient, and large doses kill. Individualization of the treatment is essential. No two people are exactly alike in either sickness or health, and although homeopaths use classifications of disease types, finer, individual distinctions must always be made since, although the action of two remedies may often be similar, they are never exactly the same.

There is a distinction between acute or epidemic diseases and chronic disease patterns of patients. Preventative homeopathic care requires an understanding of these chronic patterns. Despite more than years of clinical efficacy, the way that these remedies work is still a mystery. Philosophically, homeopathy is holistic not merely alternative because the essential task is to understand the patient as a whole person. As a method, homeopathy is a synthesis of the natural science approach and the phenomenological or descriptive approach.

The physician must blend his or her natural science training in anatomy, physiology, pathology, biochemistry, physical diagnosis, etc. The challenge of homeopathy, even in the treatment of apparently purely physical conditions, is to select a few probable remedies from the thousand or more possible remedies. The process is highly individual. The homeopathic physician will be guided by certain principles of cure: healing occurs from above downward, from the center to the periphery, from more vital organs to less vital organs and in reverse order of the appearance of the original symptoms.

The patient is allowed to tell his or her story without interruption. Only after the patient is finished will the physician ask specific questions to understand the symptoms, namely how they vary according to time of day or season, rest or activity, temperature, bathing, position, eating, thirst, sleep, social intercourse, perspiration, external stimuli, emotions, etc.

The patient describes him- or herself. This process is often the most revealing. The physician uses these descriptions to generate an understanding of the patient. He or she also obtains a conventional medical and surgical history, and finally performs a physical examination.

The physician then attempts to rank various symptoms, modalities, and generalities by degree of intensity. A list of symptoms is generated and the symptoms are then repertorized, that is, they are cross-indexed with the remedies known to have caused or cured these same symptoms. This labor-intensive process was for centuries performed by hand, but is now done by computer. Having given a dose of the indicated remedy, the patient and physician must now wait. Depending on the patient, the nature of the problem and the potency of the remedy, a return visit is scheduled weeks or months after the initial dose.

While there have been miraculous homeopathic cures after just one dose, most chronic cases take months or years to cure. Benefits of Homeopathy Homeopathic treatment is appropriate and safe for all ages and is especially useful in childhood and during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period. Homeopathy has successfully treated patients with conditions such as otitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, migraines, hepatitis, pancreatitis, appendicitis, and cholecystitis.

Historically, homeopathy has been used to treat potentially dangerous infections such as cholera, influenza, syphilis, gonorrhea, scarlet fever, polio, measles, and tuberculosis. Chronic conditions such as arthritis, asthma, eczema, psoriasis, and chronic fatigue syndrome have all been alleviated by homeopathic treatments. It is reported that devastating diseases such as multiple sclerosis can be brought to remission if treated early enough. Historical homeopathic literature contains many references to cures of various types of cancer, though admittedly these are some of the most difficult for any system.

By it is estimated that 12 percent of homeopathic physicians were women. The Cleveland Homeopathic College was one of the first coeducational medical institutions in the country. Women auxiliaries raised large amounts of money to open many of the homeopathic hospitals, and it was women, in their role of family caretaker, who were the lay prescribers introducing homeopathy to many communities.

Roberts, Herbert. The Principles and Art of Cure by Homeopathy. Publishes monthly magazine entitled Homeopathy Today. Videotape: Winston, Julian. Further Reading: Cook, Trevor M. Samuel Hahnemann: His Life and Times. Middlesex, Eng. Coulter, Harris. Homeopathic Medicine. Louis: Formur, Hahnemann, Samuel.

Organon of Medicine. Los Angeles: J. Tarcher, New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers, Materia Medica Pura. Kent, James Tyler. Lectures on Homeopathic Philosophy. Weiner, Michael, and Kathleen Gross. The Complete Book of Homeopathy. Wright-Hubbard, Elizabeth. A Brief Study Course in Homeopathy. Louis, MO: Formur, A licensed doctor of naturopathy ND must graduate from a four-year program that specializes not only in naturopathic studies, but also basic medical science.

Practitioners are then qualified to provide primary care, perform diagnostic testing, and prescribe a course of treatment that draws from a long list of natural remedies and techniques. A few years after arriving, Lust was struck down with tuberculosis. In , Kneipp gave Lust permission to bring his treatments to America. Once By broadening the scope of his work, Lust and other Kneipp disciples developed what is now known as naturopathic medicine. In , California became the first state to recognize the new discipline by enacting regulatory laws regarding the practice of naturopathic medicine.

Popularity of naturopathy rose significantly early in the century, but began to decline with the improvement and accessibility of pharmaceutical drugs. Alternative methods of health care, including naturopathic medicine, have enjoyed a resurgence of interest as people rediscover that natural remedies are also valuable. Naturopathic physicians refer patients to other health-care practitioners, such as medical doctors M. Sometimes it is as simple as poor diet or sleeping habits.

Other times, more complex factors are responsible. A commitment to treating the whole person is an important principle of Illness is generally the result of many factors. How and what you eat, lifestyle habits, genetic tendencies, as well as social interactions are all important in assessing and treating health problems.

The final principle of naturopathic medicine is the emphasis on preventative medicine. Practitioners aim to lessen and even eliminate the chance of disease by encouraging patients to take a proactive role in their health care by implementing and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. A Visit to a Naturopathic Practitioner Naturopathic physicians are often primary caregivers.

This means they can be your family or general practitioner, except they use natural treatments. You might fill out some forms and then be invited to see the doctor. Your ND will take a lengthy medical history and perform a thorough physical examination.

Laboratory tests will be ordered as needed. An ND relies on both standard medical lab tests and specialized tests more fitting to a natural medical practice. Your ND then recommends treatment based on his or her investigation. Diet is discussed, and perhaps vitamins or other nutrient supplements suggested. Herbs are common medicines used by NDs as well as homeopathic remedies, which are specially prepared substances used to boost healing.

Various techniques like hydrotherapy, exercise, or ultrasound, just as physical therapists use, might be. And where appropriate, stress management or counseling is suggested. NDs are trained to perform minor surgery such as repairing superficial wounds, but will refer you to surgeons and other doctors for major operations. Some states allow qualified NDs to prescribe some drugs like antibiotics.

This should be done only under professional guidance to prevent potential problems. While all naturopathic doctors are trained in the basics of Oriental medicine, there are some who specialize in acupuncture, herbal medicine, and related therapies. Some NDs offer natural childbirth, including pre- and postnatal care, for pregnant women.

Benefits of Naturopathic Medicine Naturopathic medical care is suitable for all age groups and most acute and chronic conditions. Its whole-person, natural-care approach allows you to attain the best health possible in an effective and safe manner. Because naturopathic physicians are concerned with solving, not masking, symptoms, healing can take longer than with conventional treatment. Naturopathic medicine also requires that patients take an active role in their health care.

NDs take their role as teacher very seriously as they instruct their patients in how to stay healthy. As primary caregivers, NDs cooperate with other medical and health professionals. An ND, like any general practitioner, is the gatekeeper for your health care. He or she will consult with or refer you to other physicians and specialists when appropriate. A myriad of information on naturopathic medicine is also available. Bastyr University Juanita Dr. A Naturopathic Medical Career Before applying for naturopathic medical school, one must complete a minimum of three years of college, including specific prerequisite courses.

It takes four years of graduate-level study to earn the degree of Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine. Anatomy, pharmacology, gynecology, and radiology are just some of the medical sciences taught. Training in natural therapeutics is also included, as is time spent working in a clinical setting seeing patients.

While an ND degree specifically prepares you for naturopathic medical practice, there are other career opportunities. NDs also teach, do research, work for the natural health industry, write, lecture, and work as consultants. As natural medicine expands and grows, so does the potential for naturopathic medicine. Further Reading: Aesoph, Lauri. How to Eat Away Arthritis. Paramus, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Brown, Donald. Herbal Prescriptions for Better Health. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing, Kirchfeld, Friedhelm, and Wade Boyle.

Nature Doctors: Pioneers in Naturopathic Medicine. Murray, Michael, and Joseph Pizzorno. Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine. Murray, Michael. Ullman, Robert, and Judith Reichenberg-Ullman. Kent, WA: Pacific Pipeline, Contemporary shamanism encompasses a wide range of spiritual practices originating in civilizations in North and South America, Siberia, Indonesia, Australia, Southeast Asia, Japan, and Tibet. Throughout history, shamanic healers have been known by many names, including medicine man or medicine woman, witch, warlock, or in African-based vodoun religions— priest or priestess.

The word shaman was derived from the Asian word saman by nineteenth-century European scholars intrigued by the cultures and practices of ancient shamanism. Currently many Western medical researchers and psychologists are exploring shamanism, not as a curiosity, but as a creative and constructive way of viewing the world. The Early Shamans In ancient times, shamans served many roles in their societies.

They performed rituals to mark the migrations of the animals that their societies hunted. Hunters consulted shamans to learn where animals could be found. The shamans also designed and performed rituals to mark the changing of seasons, the migration of their people to different locations, and individual rites of passage such as birth, the transition from adolescence to adulthood, marriage, and death.

Early shamans were also teachers. Shamans were also healers. Since many societies believed that all illnesses had a spiritual source, the shamans were often chosen for their ability to communicate with the spirit world. Healing rituals designed to remove harmful spirits from individuals or communities often took place in sacred spaces such as caves or mountains and included wearing ceremonial clothing, using herbs, playing drums, rattles, and flutes, and dancing. The unseen world can be compared to the world of dreams, emotions, instincts, and intuition. Emotions, such as fear, joy, love, and grief, or human sexual drives, cannot be seen but are very real forces in human life.

Ancient shamanic cultures honored the forces of the unseen world in the form. Shamanism is founded on a belief that most diseases and grievances between individuals or nations are caused by an imbalance in the natural order of the seen and unseen worlds. A shaman interacts with the invisible world of forces and energies and restores the balance. His or her stories, rituals, and dances are used to subdue or stimulate feelings that may bring new hope, motivate a person to act, or simply increase energy for healing and change. For example, psychologists and hypnotherapists use hypnosis and mental visualization a traditional shamanic technique to help people stop smoking, control their appetite, Mental visualization is a process in which a person sets a goal by imagining himself or herself accomplishing it.

For example, a person who wants to calm his or her anxiety before delivering a speech may imagine getting up on the podium, confidently delivering a successful talk, and receiving a standing ovation. For many people these images can replace the old memories that caused the fear. There is also an increasing number of organizations teaching traditional shamanic practices throughout the world.

Courses are taught by anthropologists, psychologists, and shamans from Native American, African, Hawaiian, South American, Australian, or other traditions. Shamanic counseling is available today in many parts of the United States. This consists of burning a small amount of dried sage, often mixed with other herbs such as sweet grass and cedar.

A person may also journey to the unseen world for him- or herself. The person may then be told to close his or her eyes, relax, and imagine the journey that he or she is about to make. With the. He or she may use a rhythm similar to the human heart beat—between fifty-five and seventy beats per minute. This rhythm puts the person into a light trance, allowing him or her to relax and enter a dreamlike state.

Upon entering the trance state, the person might meet and work with an inner guide or adviser. During the journey, the person might ask his or her guide questions, listen for answers, and possibly carry on a dialogue for several minutes or more. After returning, there might be further discussion with the shamanic counselor to help the person interpret the meaning of the journey. But the eagerness with which his company was sought after was too keen not to be sometimes indiscreet; they would, without perceiving it, enjoy him at the expence of himself.

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Scarce had the news of the danger which he was in spread abroad, but it became the object of the conversation and anxiety of the public. His house was never empty of persons of all ranks who came to enquire about his health, some out of real affection, others to have the appearance of it or to follow the crowd. His majesty, penetrated with the loss which his kingdom was about to sustain, enquired about him several times; a testimony of goodness and justice which does equal honour to the monarch and the subject.

Oppressed with cruel pains, far from a family that was dear to him, and which had not the comfort of closing his eyes, surrounded by some friends and a great crowd of spectators, he preserved to his last moments a calmness and tranquility of soul. In a word, after having performed with decency every duty, full of confidence in the Eternal Being whom he was about to be re-united with, he died with the tranquility of a man of worth, who had never consecrated his talents but to the improvement of virtue and humanity. France and Europe lost him the 10th of February, , aged sixty-six.

All the public news-papers published this event as a misfortune. We may apply to M. To so many honourable suffrages in favour of M. The seventeenth of February, the French academy, according to custom, performed a solemn service for him, at which, notwithstanding the rigour of the season, almost all the learned men of this body, who were not absent from Paris, thought it their duty to assist. They ought, at this melancholy ceremony, to have placed the Spirit of Laws upon his coffin, as heretofore they exposed, opposite to that of Raphael, his last picture of the transfiguration.

This simple and affecting ornament would have been a fine funeral oration. Hitherto we have only considered M. He had, in company, a sweetness and gaiety of temper always the same. His conversation was spirited, agreeable, and instructive, by the great number of men and of nations whom he had known. It was, like his stile, concise, full of wit and sallies, without gall, and without satire.

Nobody told a story in a more lively manner, more readily, or with more grace and less affectation; he knew that the conclusion of an agreeable story is always the point in view, he therefore made dispatch to come at it, and produced the effect without having long promised it. His frequent absence of mind only rendered him more amiable: he always awoke from it by some unexpected stroke which re-animated the languishing conversation; besides, these were never either frolicsome, shocking, or troublesome.

The fire of his genius, the great number of ideas with which it was furnished, gave rise to them; but this never Edition: current; Page: [ xxx ] happened in the midde of an interesting or serious conversation; the desire of pleasing those, in whose company he was, made him attentive to them without affectation and without constraint. The agreeableness of his conversation not only resembled his character and his genius, but even that kind of method which he observed in his study.

He was sensible to glory, but he did not wish to attain it but by deserving it. He never endeavoured to augment his own by those underhand practices, by those dark and shameful methods, which dishonour the character of the man without adding to that of the author. Worthy of every distinction and of every reward, he asked nothing, and he was not surprised that he was forgot; but he has adventured, even in delicate circumstances, to protect at court men of letters, who were persecuted, celebrated, and unfortunate, and has obtained favours for them.

Though he lived with the great, whether out of necessity, or propriety, or taste, their company was not necessary to his happiness. He retired whenever he could to his estate in the country; he there again with joy met his philosophy, his books, and his Edition: current; Page: [ xxxi ] repose. Surrounded, at his leisure hours, with country people, after having studied man, in the commerce of the world, and in the history of nations, he studied him also in those simple people whom nature alone has instructed, and he could from them learn something: he conversed chearfully with them; he endeavoured, like Socrates, to find out their genius; he appeared as happy, when conversing with them, as in the most brilliant assemblies, especially when he made up their differences, and comforted them under their distress by his beneficence.

Nothing does greater honour to his memory than the method in which he lived, which some people have pretended to blame as extravagant, in a proud and avaricious age, extremely unfit to find out, and still less to feel, the real benevolent motives of it. He transmitted to his children, without diminution or augmentation, the estate which he received from his ancestors; he added nothing to it but the glory of his name, and the example of his life. He had married, in , dame Jane de Lartigue, daughter of Peter de Lartigue, lieutenant-colonel of the regiment of Molevrier: he had two daughters and one son by her, who, by his character, his morals, and his works, has shewn himself worthy of such a father.

Those who love truth and their country will not be displeased to find some of his maxims here. He thought,. That every part of the state ought to be equally subject to the laws; but that the privileges of every part of the state ought to be respected when their effects have nothing contrary to that natural right which obliges every citizen equally to concur to the public good: that ancient possession was in this kind the first of titles, and the most inviolable of rights, which it was always unjust, and sometimes dangerous, to want to shake.

That magistrates, in all circumstances, and notwithstanding whatever advantage it might be to their own body, ought never to be any thing but magistrates without partiality and without passion, like the laws which absolve and punish without love and hatred. In a word, he said, upon occasion of those ecclesiastical disputes which have so much employed the Greek emperors and Christians, that theological disputes, when they are not confined to the schools, infallibly dishonour a nation in the eyes of its neighbours: in fact, the contempt, in which wise men hold those quarrels, does not vindicate the character of their country; because, sages making every where the least noise, and being the smallest number, it is never from them that the nation is judged of.

The importance of those works, which we have had occasion to mention in this panegyric, has made us pass over in silence less considerable ones, which served as a relaxation to our author, and which, in any other person, would have merited an encomium. The most remarkable of them is the Temple of Gnidus, which was very soon published after the Persian Letters. It is no more the despotic love of the East which he proposes to paint, it is the delicacy and simplicity of pastoral love, such as it is in an unexperienced heart which the commerce of the world has not yet corrupted.

The author, fearing, perhaps, that a picture so opposite to our manners should appear too languid and uniform, has endeavoured to animate it by the most agreeable images. He transports the reader into inchanted scenes, the view of which, to say the truth, little interests the lover in his happiest moments, but the description of which still flatters the imagination, when the passions are gratified. Inspired by his subject, he hath adorned his prose with that animated, figurative, and poetic, stile, which the romance of Telemachus gave the first example of amongst us.

We do not know why some censurers of the temple of Gnidus have said upon this occasion, that it ought to have been written in verse. The poetic stile, if we understand, as we ought by this word, a stile full of warmth and images, does not stand in need of the uniform march and cadency of versification to be agreeable; but, if we only make this stile to consist in a diction loaded with needless epithets, in the cold and trivial descriptions of the wings and quiver of love, and of such objects, versification will add nothing to the merit of these beaten ornaments; in vain will we look for the life and spirit of it.


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However this be, the temple of Gnidus being a sort of poem in prose, it belongs to our celebrated writers to determine the rank which it ought to hold: it is worthy of such judges. We believe, at least, the descriptions in this work may with success stand one of the principal Edition: current; Page: [ xxxiv ] tests of poetic descriptions, that of being represented on canvass. But what we ought chiefly to observe in the temple of Gnidus is, that Anacreon himself is always the observer and the philosopher there.

In the fourth canto the author appears to describe the manners of the Cyberites, and it may easily be perceived that these are our own manners. The preface especially bears the mark of the author of the Persian Letters. When he represents the Temple of Gnidus as a translation from a Greek manuscript, a piece of wit which has been so much disfigured since by bad imitators, he takes occasion to paint by one stroke of his pen the folly of critics and the pedantry of translators. We look upon that particular interest which M. All men of letters ought, as he thought, eagerly to concur in the execution of this most useful undertaking.

He gave an example of it, with M. Perhaps the opposition which this work has met with, and which reminded him of what had happened to himself, interested him the more in our favour. He prepared for us an article upon taste, which has been found imperfect among his papers. We shall give it to the public in that condition, and treat it with the same respect that antiquity formerly shewed to the last words of Seneca. Death prevented him from giving us any farther marks of his beneficence; and, joining our own griefs with those of all Europe, we might write on his tomb,.

IF, amidst the infinite number of subjects contained in this book, there is any thing which, contrary to my expectation, may possibly offend, I can at least assure the public that it was not inserted with an ill intention, for I am not naturally of a captious temper. Plato thanked Heaven that he was born in the same age with Socrates; and, for my part, I give thanks to God that I was born a subject of that government under which I live, and that it is his pleasure I should obey those whom he has made me love.

I beg one favour of my readers, which I fear will not be granted me; this is, that they will not judge by a few hours reading of the labour of twenty years; that they will approve or condemn the book entire, and not a few particular phrases. If they would search into the design of the author, they can do it no other way so completely as by searching into the design of the work. I have first of all considered mankind; and the result of my thoughts has been, that, amidst such an infinite diversity of laws and manners, they were not solely conducted by the caprice of fancy.

I have laid down the first principles, and have found that the particular cases apply naturally to them; that the histories of all nations are only consequences of them; and that every particular law is connected with another law, or depends on some other of a more general extent. When I have been obliged to look back into antiquity, I have endeavoured to assume the spirit of the ancients, lest I should consider those things as alike which are really different, and lest I should miss the difference of those which appear to be like. I have not drawn my principles from my prejudices, but from the nature of things.

Here a great many truths will not appear till we have seen the chain which connects them with others. The more we enter into particulars, the more we shall perceive the certainty of the principles on which they are founded. I have not even given all these particulars; for who could mention them all without a most insupportable fatigue!

The reader will not here meet with any of those bold flights which seem to characterise the works of the present age. I write not to censure any thing established in any country whatsoever. Every nation will here find the reasons on which its maxims are founded; and this will be the natural inference, that to propose alterations belongs only to those who are so happy as to be born with a genius capable of penetrating into the entire constitution of a state. It is not a matter of indifference that the minds of people be enlightened. The prejudices of the magistrate have arisen from national prejudice.

In a time of ignorance they have committed even the greatest evils without the least scruple; but, in an enlightened age, they even tremble while conferring the greatest blessings. They perceive the ancient abuses, they see how they must be reformed, but Edition: current; Page: [ xxxix ] they are sensible also of the abuses of the reformation. They let the evil continue if they fear a worse; they are content with a lesser good if they doubt of a greater. They examine into the parts to judge of them in connection; and they examine all the causes to discover their different effects. Could I but succeed so as to afford new reasons to every man to love his duty, his prince, his country, his laws; new reasons to render him more sensible, in every nation and government, of the blessings he enjoys, I should think myself the most happy of mortals.

Could I but succeed so as to persuade those who command to increase their knowlege in what they ought to prescribe; and those who obey, to find a new pleasure resulting from their obedience; I should think myself the most happy of mortals. The most happy of mortals should I think myself, could I contribute to make mankind recover from their prejudices. By prejudice, I here mean, not that which renders men ignorant of some particular things, but whatever renders them ignorant of themselves. It is in endeavouring to instruct mankind that we are best able to practise that general virtue which comprehends the love of all.

Man, that flexible being, conforming in society to the thoughts and impressions of others, is equally capable of knowing his own nature, whenever it is laid open to his view, and of losing the very sense of it, when this idea is banished from his mind. Often have I begun and as often have I laid aside this undertaking. I have followed my Edition: current; Page: [ xl ] object without any fixed plan; I have known neither rules nor exceptions; I have found the truth only to lose it again. But, when I had once discovered my first principles, every thing I sought for appeared; and, in the course of twenty years, I have seen my work begun, growing up, advancing to maturity, and finished.

If this work meets with success, I shall owe it chiefly to the grandeur and majesty of the subject.

However, I do not think that I have been totally deficient in point of genius. When I have seen what so many great men both in France and Germany have written before me, I have been lost in admiration, but I have not lost my courage; I have said, with Corregio, And I also am a painter. LAWS, in their most general signification, are the necessary relations arising from the nature of things. They who assert, that a blind fatality produced the various effects we behold in this world, talk very absurdly; for can any thing be more unreasonable than to pretend that a blind fatality could be productive of intelligent beings?

There is then a primitive reason; and laws are the relations subsisting between it and different beings, and the relations of these to one another. God is related to the universe as creator and preserver: the laws by which he created all things are those by which he preserves them. He acts according to these rules, because he knows them; he knows them, because he made them; and he made them, because they are relative to his wisdom and power. Since we observe that the world, though formed by the motion of matter, and void of understanding, subsists through so long a succession of ages, its motions must certainly be directed by invariable laws: and, could we imagine another world, it must also have constant rules, or it would inevitably perish.

Thus the creation, which seems an arbitrary act, supposeth laws as invariable as those of the fatality of the atheists. It would be absurd to say, that the Creator might govern the world without those rules, since without them it could not subsist. These rules are a fixed and invariable relation.

In bodies moved, the motion is received, increased, diminished, lost, according to the relations of the quantity of matter and velocity: each diversity is uniformity; each change is constancy. Particular intelligent beings may have laws of their own making; but they have some likewise which they never made. Before there were intelligent beings, they were possible; they had therefore possible relations, and consequently possible laws.

Before laws were made, there were relations of possible justice. To say that there is nothing just or unjust, but what is commanded or forbidden by positive laws, is the same as saying that, before the describing of a circle, all the radii were not equal. We must therefore acknowledge relations of justice antecedent to the positive law by which they are established: as for instance, that, if human societies existed, it would be right to conform to their laws; if there were intelligent beings that had received a benefit of another being, they ought to shew their gratitude; if one intelligent being had created another intelligent being, the latter ought to continue in its original state of dependence; if one intelligent being injures another, it deserves a retaliation; and so on.

But the intelligent world is far from being so well governed as the physical: for, though the former has also its laws, which of their own nature are invariable, it does not conform to them so exactly as the physical world. This is because, on the one hand, particular intelligent beings are of a finite nature, and consequently liable to error; and, on the other, their nature requires them to be free agents.

Hence they do not steadily conform to their primitive laws; and even those of their own instituting they frequently infringe. Whether brutes be governed by the general laws of motion, or by a particular movement, we cannot determine. Be that as it may, they have not a more intimate relation to God than the rest of the material world; and sensation is of no other use to them, than in the relation they have either to other particular beings, or to themselves. By the allurement of pleasure they preserve the individual, and by the same allurement they preserve their species.

They have natural laws, because they are united by sensation; positive laws they have none, because they are not connected by knowledge: and yet they do not invariably conform to their natural laws: these are better observed by Edition: current; Page: [ 4 ] vegetables, that have neither understanding nor sense. Brutes are deprived of the high advantages which we have; but they have some which we have not.

They have not our hopes; but they are without our fears: they are subject, like us, to death, but without knowing it: even most of them are more attentive than we to self-preservation, and do not make so bad a use of their passions. Man, as a physical being, is, like other bodies, governed by invariable laws.

As an intelligent being, he incessantly transgresses the laws established by God, and changes those of his own instituting. He is left to his private direction, though a limited being, and subject, like all finite intelligences, to ignorance and error: even his imperfect knowledge he loseth; and, as a sensible creature, he is hurried away by a thousand impetuous passions. Such a being might every instant forget his Creator; God has therefore reminded him of his duty by the laws of religion.

Such a being is liable every moment to forget himself; philosophy has provided against this by the laws of morality. Formed to live in society, he might forget his fellow-creatures; legislators have, therefore, by political and civil laws, confined him to his duty. In order to have a perfect knowledge of these laws, we must consider man before the establishment of society; the laws received in such a state would be those of nature.

The law, which, impressing on our minds the idea of a Creator, inclines us toward him, is the first in importance, Edition: current; Page: [ 5 ] though not in order, of natural laws.

Malazan Book of the Fallen by Steven Erikson

Man, in a state of nature, would have the faculty of knowing before he had acquired any knowledge. Plain it is that his first ideas would not be of a speculative nature: he would think of the preservation of his being before he would investigate its original. In this state, every man, instead of being sensible of his equality, would fancy himself inferior: there would, therefore, be no danger of their attacking one another; peace would be the first law of nature.

The natural impulse, or desire, which Hobbes attributes to mankind, of subduing one another, is far from being well founded. The idea of empire and dominion is so complex, and depends on so many other notions, that it could never be the first which occurred to the human understanding.

Next to a sense of his weakness, man would soon find that of his wants. Hence, another law of nature would prompt him to seek for nourishment. Fear, I have observed, would induce men to shun one another; but the marks of this fear, being reciprocal, Edition: current; Page: [ 6 ] would soon engage them to associate. Besides, this association would quickly follow from the very pleasure one animal feels at the approach of another of the same species. Again, the attraction arising from the difference of sexes would enhance this pleasure, and the natural inclination they have for each other would form a third law.

Beside the sense or instinct which man possesses in common with brutes, he has the advantage of acquired knowledge; and thence arises a second tie, which brutes have not. Mankind have therefore a new motive of uniting, and a fourth law of nature results from the desire of living in society. AS soon as mankind enter into a state of society, they lose the sense of their weakness; equality ceases, and then commences the state of war.

Each particular society begins to feel its strength; whence arises a state of war betwixt different nations. The individuals likewise of each society become sensible of their force: hence the principal advantages of this society they endeavour to convert to their own emolument; which constitutes a state of war betwixt individuals. These two different kinds of states give rise to human laws. Considered as inhabitants of so great a planet, which necessarily contains a variety of nations, they have laws relative to their mutual intercourse, which is what we call the law of nations.

As members of a society that must be properly supported, they have laws relative to the governors and the governed; and this we distinguish by the name of politic law. They have also another sort of laws, as they stand in relation to each other; by which is understood the civil law. The law of nations is naturally founded on this principle, that different nations ought in time of peace to do one another all the good they can, and in time of war as little injury as possible, without prejudicing their real interests.

The object of war is victory; that of victory is conquest; and that of conquest, preservation. From this and the preceding principle all those rules are derived which constitute the law of nations. All countries have a law of nations, not excepting the Iroquois themselves, though they devour their prisoners; for they send and receive ambassadors, and understand the rights of war and peace. The mischief is, that their law of nations is not founded on true principles.

Besides the law of nations relating to all societies, there is a polity, or civil constitution, for each, particularly considered. No society can subsist without a form of government. The general strength may be in the hands of a single person, or of many. Some think that, nature having established paternal authority, the most natural government was that of a single person. But the example of paternal authority proves nothing: for, if the power of a father be relative to a single government, that of brothers after the death of a father, and that of cousin-germans after the decease of brothers, refer to a government of many.

The political power necessarily comprehends the union of several families. Better is it to say, that the government most conformable to nature is that which best agrees with the humour and disposition of the people in whose favour it is established. The strength of individuals cannot be united without a conjunction of all their wills. Law in general is human reason, inasmuch as it governs all the inhabitants of the earth; the political and civil laws of each nation ought to be only the particular cases in which human reason is applied.

They should be adapted in such a manner to the people for whom they are framed, that it is a great chance if those of one nation suit another. They should be relative to the nature and principle of each government; whether they form it, as may be said of political laws; or whether they support it, as in the case of civil institutions. They should be relative to the climate of each country, to the quality of its soil, to its situation and extent, to the principal occupation of the natives, whether husbandmen, huntsmen, or shepherds: they should have a relation to the degree of liberty which the constitution will bear, to the religion of the inhabitants, to their inclinations, riches, numbers, commerce, manners, and customs.

In fine, they have relations to each other, as also to their origin, to the intent of the legislator, and to the order of things on which they are established; in all which different lights they ought to be considered. This is what I have undertaken to perform in the following work. These relations I shall examine, since all these together constitute what I call the Spirit of Laws. I have not separated the political from the civil institutions; for, as I do not pretend to treat of laws, but of their spirit, and as this spirit consists in the various relations which the laws may have to different objects, it is not so much my business to follow Edition: current; Page: [ 9 ] the natural order of laws, as that of these relations and objects.

I shall first examine the relations which laws have to the nature and principle of each government: and, as this principle has a strong influence on laws, I shall make it my study to understand it thoroughly; and, if I can but once establish it, the laws will soon appear to flow from thence as from their source.

I shall proceed afterwards to other more particular relations. THERE are three species of government; republican, monarchical, and despotic. This is what I call the nature of each government: we must now inquire into those laws which directly conform to this nature, and consequently are the fundamental institutions. WHEN the body of the people is possessed of the supreme power, this is called a democracy.

When the supreme power is lodged in the hands of a part of the people, it is then an aristocracy. In a democracy the people are in some respects the sovereign, and in others the subject. The laws, therefore, which establish the right of suffrage, are fundamental to this government. And indeed it is as important to regulate, in a republic, in what manner, by whom, to whom, and concerning what, suffrages are to be given, as it is, in a monarchy, to know who is the prince, and after what manner he ought to govern.

It is an essential point, to fix the number of citizens who are to form the public assemblies; otherwise it would be uncertain whether the whole or only a part of the people had given their votes. At Sparta the number was fixed to ten thousand. The people, in whom the supreme power resides, ought to have the management of every thing within their reach: what exceeds their abilities must be conducted by their ministers. But they cannot properly be said to have their ministers, without the power of nominating them: it is therefore a fundamental maxim, in this government, that the people should choose their ministers; that is, their magistrates.

They have occasion, as well as monarchs, and even more so, to be directed by a council or senate. But, to have a proper confidence in these, they should have the choosing of the members; whether the election be made by themselves, as at Athens; or by some magistrate deputed for that purpose, as on certain occasions was customary at Rome. The people are extremely well qualified for choosing those whom they are to intrust with part of their authority.

They have only to be determined by things to which they cannot be strangers, and by facts that are obvious to sense. They can tell when a person has fought many battles, and been crowned with success; they are therefore very capable of electing a general. These are facts of which they can have better information in a public forum than a monarch in his palace. But are they capable of conducting an intricate affair, of seizing and improving Edition: current; Page: [ 12 ] the opportunity and critical moment of action?

No; this surpasses their abilities. As most citizens have sufficient abilities to choose, though unqualified to be chosen, so the people, though capable of calling others to an account for their administration, are incapable of conducting the administration themselves. The public business must be carried on, with a certain motion, neither too quick nor too slow. But the motion of the people is always either too remiss or too violent. Sometimes, with a hundred thousand arms, they overturn all before them; and sometimes, with a hundred thousand feet, they creep like insects.

In a popular state the inhabitants are divided into certain classes. It is in the manner of making this division that great legislators have signalized themselves; and it is on this the duration and prosperity of democracy have ever depended. Servius Tullus followed the spirit of aristocracy in the distribution of his classes. Solon divided the people of Athens into four classes. As the division of those who have a right of suffrage is a fundamental law in republics, the manner also of giving this suffrage is another fundamental. The suffrage by lot is natural to democracy, as that by choice is to aristocracy.

The suffrage by lot is a method of electing that offends no one; but animates each citizen with the pleasing hope of serving his country. Yet, as this method is in itself defective, it has been the endeavour of the most eminent legislators to regulate and amend it. Solon made a law, at Athens, that military employments should be conferred by choice; but that senators and judges should be elected by lot.

The same legislator ordained, that civil magistracies attended with great expence should be given by choice, and the others by lot. When the time of their magistracy was expired, they were obliged to submit to another judgement in regard to their conduct. Persons utterly unqualified must have been extremely backward in giving in their names to be drawn by lot. The law which determines the manner of giving suffrage is likewise fundamental in a democracy.

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