Whereas Shelley had accepted death and changes in life in the first and second canto, he now turns to "wistful reminiscence [, recalls] an alternative possibility of transcendence".
From line 26 to line 36 he gives an image of nature. But if we look closer at line 36, we realise that the sentence is not what it appears to be at first sight, because it obviously means, so sweet that one feels faint in describing them.
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This shows that the idyllic picture is not what it seems to be and that the harmony will certainly soon be destroyed. A few lines later, Shelley suddenly talks about "fear" This again shows the influence of the west wind which announces the change of the season. Whereas the cantos one to three began with "O wild West Wind" and "Thou" 15, 29 and were clearly directed to the wind, there is a change in the fourth canto.
The focus is no more on the "wind", but on the speaker who says "If I Until this part, the poem has appeared very anonymous and was only concentrated on the wind and its forces so that the author of the poem was more or less forgotten. Pirie calls this "the suppression of personality" which finally vanishes at that part of the poem. It becomes more and more clear that what the author talks about now is himself. That this must be true, shows the frequency of the author's use of the first-person pronouns "I" 43—44, 48, 51, 54 , "my" 48, 52 , and "me" These pronouns appear nine times in the fourth canto.
Certainly the author wants to dramatise the atmosphere so that the reader recalls the situation of canto one to three. He achieves this by using the same pictures of the previous cantos in this one. Whereas these pictures, such as "leaf", "cloud", and "wave" have existed only together with the wind, they are now existing with the author. The author thinks about being one of them and says "If I were a.
Shelley here identifies himself with the wind, although he knows that he cannot do that, because it is impossible for someone to put all the things he has learned from life aside and enter a "world of innocence". That Shelley is deeply aware of his closedness in life and his identity shows his command in line There he says "Oh, lift me up as a wave, a leaf, a cloud" He knows that this is something impossible to achieve, but he does not stop praying for it. The only chance Shelley sees to make his prayer and wish for a new identity with the Wind come true is by pain or death, as death leads to rebirth.
So, he wants to "fall upon the thorns of life" and "bleed" At the end of the canto the poet tells us that "a heavy weight of hours has chain'd and bow'd" This may be a reference to the years that have passed and "chained and bowed" 55 the hope of the people who fought for freedom and were literally imprisoned. With this knowledge, the West Wind becomes a different meaning. The wind is the "uncontrollable" 47 who is "tameless" One more thing that one should mention is that this canto sounds like a kind of prayer or confession of the poet.
This confession does not address God and therefore sounds very impersonal. Shelley also changes his use of metaphors in this canto. In the first cantos the wind was a metaphor explained at full length.
Now the metaphors are only weakly presented—"the thorns of life" Shelley also leaves out the fourth element: the fire. In the previous cantos he wrote about the earth, the air and the water. The reader now expects the fire—but it is not there. This leads to a break in the symmetry. Again the wind is very important in this last canto.
At the beginning of the poem the wind was only capable of blowing the leaves from the trees. In the previous canto the poet identified himself with the leaves. In this canto the wind is now capable of using both of these things mentioned before. Everything that had been said before was part of the elements—wind, earth, and water.
Now the fourth element comes in: the fire. There is also a confrontation in this canto: Whereas in line 57 Shelley writes "me thy", there is "thou me" in line It is also necessary to mention that the first-person pronouns again appear in a great frequency; but the possessive pronoun "my" predominates. Unlike the frequent use of the "I" in the previous canto that made the canto sound self-conscious, this canto might now sound self-possessed. The canto is no more a request or a prayer as it had been in the fourth canto—it is a demand. The poet becomes the wind's instrument, his "lyre" This is a symbol of the poet's own passivity towards the wind; he becomes his musician and the wind's breath becomes his breath.
The poet's attitude—towards the wind has changed: in the first canto the wind has been an "enchanter" 3 , now the wind has become an "incantation" And there is another contrast between the two last cantos: in the fourth canto the poet had articulated himself in singular: "a leaf" 43, 53 , "a cloud" 44, 53 , "A wave" 45, 53 and "One too like thee" The last canto differs from that.
The poet in this canto uses plural forms, for example, "my leaves" 58, 64 , "thy harmonies" 59 , "my thoughts" 63 , "ashes and sparks" 67 and "my lips" By the use of the plural, the poet is able to show that there is some kind of peace and pride in his words.
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It even seems as if he has redefined himself because the uncertainty of the previous canto has been blown away. The "leaves" merge with those of an entire forest and "Will" become components in a whole tumult of mighty harmonies. The use of this "Will" 60 is certainly a reference to the future.
Through the future meaning, the poem itself does not only sound as something that might have happened in the past, but it may even be a kind of "prophecy" 69 for what might come—the future. At last, Shelley again calls the Wind in a kind of prayer and even wants him to be "his" Spirit: "My spirit!
Be thou me, impetuous one! Like the leaves of the trees in a forest, his leaves will fall and decay and will perhaps soon flourish again when the spring comes. That may be why he is looking forward to the spring and asks at the end of the last canto "If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?
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This is of course a rhetorical question because spring does come after winter, but the "if" suggests that it might not come if the rebirth is strong and extensive enough, and if it is not, another renewal—spring—will come anyway. Thus the question has a deeper meaning and does not only mean the change of seasons, but is a reference to death and rebirth as well.
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It also indicates that after the struggles and problems in life, there would always be a solution. It shows us the optimistic view of the poet about life which he would like the world to know.
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It is an interpretation of his saying, If you are suffering now, there will be good times ahead. Retrieved 11 October Archived from the original on Retrieved Mannheim: Bibliographisches Institut. The word was derived via French from ultimately Latin wikt:modus. Duden cites as first meanings " Brauch, Sitte, Tages-, Zeitgeschmack ". The primary modern meaning has shifted more towards "fashion". January Debatte — via theeuropean. Elliot Forbes. Thayer's Life of Beethoven. Gold October 31, The New York Times.
Autographed manuscript, circa The original meaning of Mode was "custom, contemporary taste". Problems playing this file? See media help. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ode an die Freude.