Several thousand Protestants who had come to Paris for Henry's wedding were killed, as well as thousands more throughout the country in the days that followed. Henry narrowly escaped death thanks to the help of his wife and his promise to convert to Catholicism. He was forced to live at the court of France, but he escaped in early On 5 February of that year, he formally abjured Catholicism at Tours and rejoined the Protestant forces in the military conflict.
Catherine held the regency for nearly thirty years. Since Henry of Navarre was a Huguenot, the issue was not considered settled in many quarters of the country, and France was plunged into a phase of the Wars of Religion known as the War of the Three Henries. The third was Henry I, Duke of Guise , who pushed for complete suppression of the Huguenots and had much support among Catholic loyalists. Political disagreements among the parties set off a series of campaigns and counter-campaigns that culminated in the Battle of Coutras. However, the populace was horrified and rose against him.
The title of the king was no longer recognized in several cities; his power was limited to Blois, Tours, and the surrounding districts. The two kings were united by a common interest—to win France from the Catholic League. Catholic royalist nobles also rallied to the king's standard. With this combined force, the two kings marched to Paris. The morale of the city was low, and even the Spanish ambassador believed the city could not hold out longer than a fortnight.
The Catholic League, however, strengthened by support from outside the country—especially from Spain—was strong enough to prevent a universal recognition of his new title. The Pope excommunicated Henry and declared him devoid of any right to inherit the crown.
He set about winning his kingdom by military conquest, aided by English money and German troops. Henry's Catholic uncle Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon was proclaimed king by the League, but the Cardinal was Henry's prisoner at the time. When Cardinal de Bourbon died in , the League could not agree on a new candidate. In case of such opposition, Philip indicated that princes of the House of Lorraine would be acceptable to him: the Duke of Guise; a son of the Duke of Lorraine; and the son of the Duke of Mayenne. The Spanish ambassadors selected the Duke of Guise, to the joy of the League.
However, at that moment of seeming victory, the envy of the Duke of Mayenne was aroused, and he blocked the proposed election of a king. The Parlement of Paris also upheld the Salic law. They argued that if the French accepted natural hereditary succession, as proposed by the Spaniards, and accepted a woman as their queen, then the ancient claims of the English kings would be confirmed, and the monarchy of centuries past would be nothing but an illegality. Mayenne was angered that he had not been consulted prior to this admonishment, but yielded, since their aim was not contrary to his present views.
He was said to have declared that Paris vaut bien une messe "Paris is well worth a mass" ,    although there is some doubt whether he said this, or whether the statement was attributed to him by his contemporaries. Since Reims, the traditional location for the coronation of French kings, was still occupied by the Catholic League, Henry was crowned King of France at the Cathedral of Chartres on 27 February In he issued the Edict of Nantes , which granted circumscribed toleration to the Huguenots. Henry's first marriage was not a happy one, and the couple remained childless.
Henry and Margaret separated even before Henry acceded to the throne in August After Henry became king of France, it was of the utmost importance that he provide an heir to the crown to avoid the problem of a disputed succession. Henry's councillors strongly opposed this idea, but the matter was resolved unexpectedly by Gabrielle's sudden death in the early hours of 10 April , after she had given birth to a premature and stillborn son.
His marriage to Margaret was annulled in , and Henry married Marie de' Medici in For the royal entry of Marie into Avignon on 19 November , the citizens bestowed on Henry the title of the Hercule Gaulois "Gallic Hercules" , justifying the extravagant flattery with a genealogy that traced the origin of the House of Navarre to a nephew of Hercules ' son Hispalus. He and Sully protected forests from further devastation, built a system of tree-lined highways, and constructed bridges and canals.
He used one construction project to attract attention to his power. When building the Pont-Neuf , a bridge in Paris, he placed a statue of himself in the middle. The King restored Paris as a great city, with the Pont Neuf , which still stands today, constructed over the river Seine to connect the Right and Left Banks of the city. More than metres long and thirty-five metres wide, this huge addition was built along the bank of the Seine River.
At the time it was the longest edifice of its kind in the world.
King Henry IV
King Henry IV, a promoter of the arts by all classes of people, invited hundreds of artists and craftsmen to live and work on the building's lower floors. This tradition continued for another two hundred years, until Emperor Napoleon I banned it. The art and architecture of his reign have become known as the " Henry IV style " since that time. France laid claim to New France now Canada.
The conflict was not resolved until after the Thirty Years' War. During Henry's struggle for the crown, Spain had been the principal backer of the Catholic League, and it tried to thwart Henry. Under the Duke of Parma , an army from the Spanish Netherlands intervened in against Henry and foiled his siege of Paris. Another Spanish army helped the nobles opposing Henry to win the Battle of Craon against his troops in After Henry's coronation, the war continued because there was an official tug-of-war between the French and Spanish states, but after victory at the Siege of Amiens in September the Peace of Vervins was signed in This enabled him to turn his attention to Savoy, with which he also had been fighting.
Their conflicts were settled in the Treaty of Lyon of , which mandated territorial exchanges between France and the Duchy of Savoy. It was widely believed that in Henry was preparing to go to war against the Holy Roman Empire. The preparations were terminated by his assassination, however, and the subsequent rapprochement with Spain under the regency of Marie de' Medici.
Even before Henry's accession to the French throne, the French Huguenots were in contact with Aragonese Moriscos in plans against the Habsburg government of Spain in the s. It granted numerous advantages to France in the Ottoman Empire. During the reign of Henry IV, various enterprises were set up to develop trade with faraway lands. No ships were sent, however, until Henry IV proved to be a man of vision and courage.
As king, he adopted policies and undertook projects to improve the lives of all subjects, which made him one of the country's most popular rulers ever. Henry is said to have originated the oft-repeated phrase " a chicken in every pot ". If God keeps me, I will make sure that no peasant in my realm will lack the means to have a chicken in the pot on Sunday!
This statement epitomises the peace and relative prosperity which Henry brought to France after decades of religious war, and demonstrates how well he understood the plight of the French worker and peasant farmer. This real concern for the living conditions of the "lowly" population—who in the final analysis provided the economic basis for the power of the king and the great nobles—was perhaps without parallel among the kings of France.
Following his death Henry would be remembered fondly by most of the population. He was also a great philanderer , fathering many children by a number of mistresses. Henry was nicknamed "the Great" Henri le Grand , and in France is also called le bon roi Henri "the good king Henry" or le vert galant "The Green Gallant", for his numerous mistresses.
Henry's coach was stopped by traffic congestion related to the Queen's coronation ceremony, as depicted in the engraving by Gaspar Bouttats. Henry was buried at the Saint Denis Basilica. The reign of Henry IV was long remembered by the French people.
A statue was erected in his honour at the Pont Neuf in , four years after his death. When the Revolution radicalized its positions and came to altogether reject Monarchy, Henry IV's statue was torn down along with other royal monuments — but it was the first to be rebuilt, in , and it stands today on the Pont Neuf. In addition, when Princess Caroline of Naples and Sicily a descendant of his gave birth to a male heir to the throne of France seven months after the assassination of her husband Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry , by a Republican fanatic, the boy was conspicuously named Henri in reference to his forefather Henry IV.
Henry IV's popularity continued when the first edition of his biography, Histoire du Roy Henry le Grand , was published in Amsterdam in An English edition was published at London in Patrilineal descent governs membership and succession in many royal and noble houses. Henry was a scion of the House of Bourbon , which was a branch of the Capetian dynasty , which sprang from the Robertians. Louis was the direct descendant of Hugh Capet , who became King of France in and made the crown hereditary.
It is one of the oldest royal patrilines in Europe. Historians have been making the assertion that Henry IV was a convinced Calvinist , only changing his formal religious allegiance to adjust, suit or achieve his political goals. In , after the massacre of French Calvinists, he was forced by Catherine de' Medici and other powerful Roman Catholic royalty to convert. In , as he managed to escape from Paris, he abjured Roman Catholicism and returned to Calvinism.
In , in order to become King of France rather than by his own beliefs, he converted again to Roman Catholicism. Although a formal Roman Catholic, he valued his Calvinist upbringing and was tolerant toward the Huguenots until his death in , and issued the Edict of Nantes which granted many concessions to them. None ; not baptized yet Roman Catholic ; at baptism  Reformed ; raised Calvinist  Roman Catholic ; forced conversion to Roman Catholicism  Reformed ; returned to Calvinism  Roman Catholic ; converted to Roman Catholicism for coronation  .
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On 18 August , Henry married his second cousin Margaret of Valois ; their childless marriage was annulled in His subsequent marriage to Marie de' Medici on 17 December produced six children:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Henry IV disambiguation. For other uses, see Henry of Navarre disambiguation.
For the film, see Henri 4 film. Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Edit Cast Episode cast overview, first billed only: Alun Armstrong Northumberland Joe Armstrong Hotspur John Ashton Sheriff Will Attenborough Gloucester Conrad Asquith Bracy Simon Russell Beale Falstaff David Beames Traveller Jim Bywater Hotspur's Servant Alex Clatworthy Lady Mortimer Ian Conningham Peto Jolyon Coy Blunt David Dawson Poins Drew Dillon Drawer Michelle Dockery Kate Percy Henry Faber Language: English Welsh.
Runtime: min. Sound Mix: Stereo. Color: Color. Edit Did You Know? Trivia The scene where Hal and Falstaff take turns pretending to be the king to amuse themselves and the patrons of the tavern is one of the most famous in the play. It doesn't demand that the actor playing Hal tries to sound like the actor playing his father, but it is arguably funnier if he does.
Tom Hiddleston, who is known to enjoy making of impressions of fellow actors, revealed in an interview that ahead of filming, Jeremy Irons had recorded himself doing the speech that Hal makes pretending to be his father in the tavern, to help Hiddleston practice his impression of the king. Add the first question. User Reviews More colour and passion helps the delivery but still lacks edge and meaning 8 September by bob the moo — See all my reviews.
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It was prophesied that he would die in Jerusalem but as it was he was taken ill while praying at St Edward's Shrine in Westminster Abbey and died in a room in the Abbot's House called the Jerusalem Chamber. Aged 14 he was married at Arundel Castle to Mary de Bohun in about His second wife was Joan of Navarre whom he married at Winchester on 7th February Henry IV was crowned on 13th October He had two coronation processions, one from Westminster to the Tower of London on the eve of the coronation and then from the Tower back to Westminster on the afternoon of the next day.
SparkNotes: Henry IV, Part 1
His queen Joan of Navarre was crowned in He died on 20th March of a stroke and by his own wish was buried at Canterbury cathedral near the Shrine of St Thomas a Becket. This image can be purchased from Westminster Abbey Library. Designed by.