An excellent instance of the rewarding results obtained by concentrating on texts and intertextual links is Cherchi's Polimatia di riuso: Mezzo secolo di plagio Rome: Bulzoni, Indeed E. Trask's translation for the Bollingen Series, first published in , while E. Auerbach's writings generated a new Dante scholarship through C. Singleton's school see R. Caputo, "Dante e l'America, Dante in America. Alle origini della critica dantesca americana contemporanea: Singleton e Auerbach," in Dante oggi, Convegno di studi, Latina, 18 maggio , Anzio: De Rubeis, , Auerbach's and Curtius's ideas were certainly absorbed by Cherchi, while he was still a graduate student at Berkeley, from the late Enrico De Negri's lectures on Dante and Romanticism, which were in line with the best German criticism.
Cherchi's point of departure, despite his initial infatuation with Gramsci, was similar to that of other American scholars, who later followed a different course under the influence of Jung's theory of archetypes and Kuhn's epistemology, both of which conspired to discredit traditional philology, supposedly based on the so-called "objective fallacy. Cherchi does not openly say why so many American scholars keep adopting ever new methods instead of dedicating all of their energies to solid research. This is certainly true. Let me add that Cherchi is atypical in the American scene, not because he lacks originality but because his colleagues, who are praised for theirs, lack the skills to do serious work.
Too many incompetent professors, able to read only English translations, have filled all the available positions and feed the market with their clones. It is not surprising that the situation of the humanities is precarious, since precious money is more profitably spent for scientific and technical purposes.
Following in the steps of eminent scholars such as Cesare Segre and Maria Corti, Cherchi guides the reader in a maze of different literary traditions. All the studies included in the book under review are of high intellectual level. We must be grateful to the editors and the subscribers who made possible the publication of this first-rate volume. Gustavo Costa, University of California, Berkeley.
Genova: Marietti, Through four main sections, each comprising numerous sub-chapters, Lollini effortlessly explores the problematic truth-value that emerges from the texts of an impressive number of philosophers, poets, and novelists. Focusing, in particular, on works by Serra, Gramsci, Levi, and Calvino, Lollini convincingly argues that they provide a viable alternative to the extreme poles of metaphysical idealism and symbolic skepticism. More specifically, these are works that, although traversed by the limits of representation, or, in the words of Serra, by the "vuoto della forma" that inhabits all symbolization, still render testimony to the traumatic events that have shaped private and public history.
By so doing, they ultimately come to exemplify a practice of writing as a necessary, but always limited and provisional quest for meaning and truth. The first section of the book, titled "Dalla stella della scrittura alla stella della redenzione," outlines the main objectives of the volume. In a clear and accessible manner, Lollini also revisits the ample territory of testimonial writing from antiquity to the modern era, thereby giving the reader a broad description of how such writing has evolved through the centuries. In the first chapter of this section, "Scrittura e testimonianza in Platone," Lollini addresses works by Plato.
He describes how the Platonic dialogues already foreground a paradoxical relationship to symbolization. While dialogues, such as Phaedo, emphasize the limits of writing, other works, particularly those dedicated to narrating the teachings of Socrates, assign a truth-value to philosophical and rationalist writing. Hence, Lollini concludes that the Platonic search for truth cannot be separated from an awareness of the inadequacy of any form of testimony.
The result of this condition is a mode of writing that, without abdicating the representation of experience and the quest for knowledge upon which such representation is predicated, also comes to reveal the absence of a full subject and of finite, absolute explanations. While the Platonic tradition establishes, from a philosophical and rationalist perspective, the problematic issues associated with testimonial writing, the Judaic one develops a prophetic concept of testimonial truth.
As Lollini argues in a second chapter of this section, "La Bibbia e Agostino," prophetic testimony cannot be rationally proven and needs to be accepted as a form of divine revelation. Close readings of selected passages from Luke, John, and Paul substantiate Lollini's claim. However, Lollini's analyses of Paul's Second Letter to the Corinthians reveal that even religious testimony, much like the philosophical one, comes to inscribe the inadequacy of writing.
Such inadequacy explains why the texts belonging to the tradition of biblical exegesis contain many references to the difficulty of translating the divine word and describing the divine glory. This chapter concludes by exploring an exemplary case of ineffability, notably the one included in the ninth book of Augustine's Confessions. The third chapter of this section is dedicated to Dante. Titled "Dante e la stella della scrittura," this chapter describes how Dante's development of a poetic-rationalist model of writing is the product of a synthesis between Greek and Christian notions of testimonial writing.
However, for Lollini, Dante also enriches the established tradition by placing emphasis on the role of the individual in acts of testimony. Lollini analyzes this role in his exemplary reading of the final vision of Paradiso, where Dante, vainly seeking to understand the mystery of Incarnation through the description of the human face of Christ, finally acknowledges the absence of adequate words to represent the sacred space.
While such absence gives truth-value to Dante's own, individual testimony, his desire to publicly relate his experience further suggests that a newly formed nexus between individuality and literary testimony has been established for Romance literatures. The importance of the individual in the act of testimony is also present in works by Petrarch and Galileo, which are analyzed by Lollini in the fourth and fifth chapters, respectively. The fourth chapter, titled "'In guisa d'uom che pensi et pianga et scriva': Petrarca," focuses on those moments where Petrarch voices the inadequacy of his own writing by foregrounding how the other, personified in the face of Laura, remains irreducible to the order of representation.
For Lollini, such inadequacy reveals why the description of Laura is not only developed through the formulae of conventional lyric poetry, but is often accompanied by an ethical reflection on how the experience of the individual always exceeds the boundaries of symbolization. The fifth chapter, titled "Galileo e la faccia della luna," addresses Galileo's Dialogo dei massimi sistemi. Here Lollini argues that the importance of the new science resides not only in having freed human observation from the prejudices of scholastic philosophy, but also in having assigned a truth-value to the empirical observations of nature carried out by the individual.
The last chapter of this section, "La stella della redenzione: la nozione di testimonianza nella cultura neoebraica," contrasts the Western tradition of testimonial writing with the Judaic one. Lollini contends that, in Judaic culture, testimony is not the result of an intellectual quest or of a mystical vision but, rather, depends upon the obedience to a divine command. From here stems not only the importance of listening, as opposed to the act of seeing, but also the different notion of subjectivity developed by Judaic writers. Having thereby established the historical development and specificity of the Western paradigm of testimonial writings, Lollini dedicates the remaining two sections of his volume to an exploration of works from the 20th century.
While the second section, titled "Il testimone, la guerra e il carcere," is dedicated to Serra and Gramsci, the third section, titled "Etica della scrittura e testimonianza," focuses on Levi, Celan, and Calvino. In the first four chapters of the second section, Lollini discusses a number of works by Renato Serra and firmly establishes this writer's importance in a context shaped by Croce's metaphysics.
While, for Croce, writing is the manifestation of the ideal, Serra, through the philosophy of Kant and Shopenhauer, recognizes that there exist elements of experience that remain irreducible to narration. However, Serra's recognition does not bring him to a position of nihilism, but, rather, prompts him to accept the inevitability of both the limits and the necessity of writing. Close readings of Serra's Partenza di un gruppo di soldati per la Libia and Esame di coscienza di un letterato establish the validity of Lollini's claims.
Furthermore, these readings also reveal Serra's crucial role in anticipating some of the reflections of Gramsci. The discussion of Gramsci occupies the last two chapters of this section. In "L'importanza dell'ombra: il giovane Gramsci, Serra e la cultura del primo Novecento," Lollini argues that the influence of Serra on Gramsci's work is revealed in a number of Gramsci's early articles. As it is well known, this mode of writing will be concretized in Gramsci's own Lettere dal carcere, which is analyzed in the chapter "Il testimone invisibile: le Lettere dal carcere di Antonio Gramsci.
A cogent reading of Gramsci's notes on Dante's tenth canto of Inferno becomes Lollini's primary evidence of Gramsci's painful realization that no representation will ever be capable of expressing the trauma of the subject. This awareness might explain why Gramsci's project to tie politics to the ethical and personal dimensions of life in an autobiography was never realized. The issue of the subject in relation to testimonial writing is again addressed by Lollini in the third section of his volume.
Titled "Etica della scrittura e testimonianza," this section is dedicated to works by Levi, Celan, and Calvino. Such a process is brought to completion by collections such as Atemwende and Fadensonnen Here Celan's poetry renounces meaningful communication and begins to exhibit the aphasic expressions of an anti-writing. Nonetheless, as Lollini argues, despite the different visions that inform the work of these writers, Levi remained very interested in Celan's poetry. In fact, he not only sought to explore the reasons for Celan's obscurity, but detected a coincidence between the poet's abdication of communication and his desire for non-being, expressed not only by his writing, but also by his dramatic decision to commit suicide.
The remaining chapters on Levi are focused upon the relationship between science and literature. Lollini explores how Levi, despite a desire to communicate, was always skeptical of monological truths. Such truths encompassed, for Levi, not only literary, but also scientific knowledge. As in the case of Leopardi, for Levi, scientific knowledge increased the mystery of the world and forced the poetic vision into that state of radical uncertainty exemplified by Levi's "Plinio" and "Autobiografia.
Lollini not only suggests that the relationship between science and literature was also fundamental to Calvino's work, but he also argues that it developed according to the philosophical perspective of phenomenology. This perspective brought Calvino to reject the idealist division of subject and object upon which scientific inquiry from Descartes onwards depends.
Further, it also led him to acknowledge the irreducible opacity of the world. A discussion of Calvino's Palomar and Racconti per i cinque sensi complements Lollini's reading. However, as has been the case in other examples of testimonial writings discussed in this volume, in Calvino's work, the complexity of experience never coincided with a refusal of referential expression.
Rather, it developed into an ethics of writing, specifically into a meditation upon the relative and partial truth-value of human representation. Such truth-value was evident in Calvino's more autobiographical works, particularly in the short stories "La strada di San Giovanni" and "Ricordo di una battaglia" A fourth section, titled "Sintesi, conclusioni e aperture: verso un'etica del soggetto," reprises some of the most important arguments addressed earlier on, and provides a brief conclusion to the volume.
In summary, with his latest book, Lollini offers a clear and sophisticated account of very complex philosophical issues. While Lollini's description of testimonial writings from antiquity to the modern era establishes a solid historical paradigm, his analysis of 20th-century testimonies foregrounds the paradoxes of a mode of symbolization that, while revealing its inevitable inadequacy, also expresses its own compelling necessity.
Finally, then, thanks to Lollini's subtle discussion, not only do writers as diverse as Serra, Gramsci, Levi, and Calvino, converge in a shared ethical effort to provide some sense to the chaos of the world of personal and public history, but reveal that a position mid-way between the weak subjectivity of the deconstructionist project and the strong Subject of metaphysical idealism remains a viable possibility for future literature. An extremely intelligent book, Lollini's Il vuoto della forma will undoubtedly become an important addition to the existing bibliography on the topic.
Furthermore, because Lollini's solid philosophical analyses are always corroborated by insightful close readings, the volume will most certainly be a very valuable work for scholars of Italian literature and culture. The Rose in Contemporary Italian Poetry. Gainesville: UP of Florida, If De Sanctis takes up the rose in tracing "la splendida e sconcertante avventura dell'arte nell'amara stagione del declino" 9 from Lorenzo il Magnifico to Giambattista Marino, then Thomas Peterson, in his recent The Rose in Contemporary Italian Poetry, follows this most privileged flower in its many incarnations through a century of rapid evolution and innovation.
In the preface to the volume, Peterson recalls Walter Benjamin's temptation to write a book consisting entirely of citations, as well as the new method of "drilling" as opposed to "excavating" and the resulting "forcing of insights" such a project would entail. He goes on to liken his own study of the poetic rose to Benjamin's project: "To study a topos is also an act of critical drilling" vii. In keeping with this notion, Peterson's commentary, at times quite orthodox, at times provocative and corrective of other critics, is often intentionally restrained, the book's sense relying rather upon the "placement or dispositio" of the citations - as Hannah Arendt says of Walter Benjamin's project - "so as not to ruin everything with explanations that seek to provide a causal or systematic connection" vii.
Peterson acknowledges that such an approach requires that readers "bring powers of inference to the poetry and sort through fertile ambiguities" ix-x. That the author allows the occurrences of the rose in contemporary Italian poetry to dictate the book's organization forces us to consider these poets from less common perspectives: alongside and very often in place of the traditional categories of Twilight, Futurist, Hermetic, and Neo-Hermetic poets, we hear also of poets of advent and of otium, as well as encyclopedic, apotropaic, and Anacreontic poets.
Consequently, names often collocated under, for example, the unwieldy term of Hermeticism find their way into fresh and thought-provoking categories Sinisgalli and Gatto, for instance, are by turns encyclopedic, Anacreontic, or exemplary of the characteristic of wonder or of the ironic reframing of traditional figures of the rose. The first chapter, "In the Garden of Italian Literature," serves as an introduction to the presence of the rose within the Italian and romance traditions, as well as to the critical approach informing the volume.
Peterson notes a crucial shift in poetic practices in the early twentieth century that profoundly altered the relation "between poetic form and content, between the facts of language and those of theme," and the consequent need for a criticism responding to this situation: "Given the nature of this transition, one cannot rely on a single semiotic, stylistic, linguistic, sociological means of exegesis.
Rather an 'endogenous' criticism is required that is sensitive to a poem's interpretive needs on a case-by-case basis" 2. This recognition, together with the desire to "minimize the importance of 'lines'" x , results in a broad selection of poets that incorporates many names often omitted from critical surveys of twentieth-century Italian poetry, not to mention an impressive sampling of dialect poets, such as Salvatore Di Giacomo, Giacomo Noventa, Achile Serrao, Biagio Marin, Franco Scataglini, and Abino Pierro.
Together with this extensive array of Italians are the names of several poets from the European poetic tradition. Rilke's prolific use of the rose introduces a discussion of "a host of Italian poets whose prayer, including secular prayer, engages the rose of sacrament as a votive object" , and Celan's rose "expresses a transformation of archaic religious objects, icons, and rituals into a form of spirituality that is negative and catastrophic" Laconic but Arcadian, the Anacreontic poet regales in the luxurious and exquisite, and possesses a heightened sense of the sensual and melic qualities of the poetic word" The use of figurative language, of course, touches on the problem of rhetoric, whose role is to persuade and lend coloring and conviction.
Or how, given the lexical nature of our study, does the evasion or deformation of a lexeme signal a change in literary sensibility? The poets under discussion respond to this situation in one of two ways: with a "rhetoric of rarefaction," or the "rarefaction of rhetoric. This recourse to the second-hand rose is an instance of what Harold Bloom has referred to as "the interpretive and revisionary power of a poetry perpetually battling its own belatedness" The imperative of having to position oneself with regard to an established literary culture is also keenly felt by writers familiar with the experience of marginalization.
Chapter eleven, "The Feminine Voice, and Other Alibis," examines the poets of the feminine voice, who aim at "creating an alibi or space apart from the coteries of the male-dominated literary world, and the 'pseudo-nature' of that world" The alibi, a "result not of a flight, but of dialogue and questioning" , situates the feminine voice "elsewhere" with respect to the assertive verbal armature of the masculine linguistic space.
Peterson begins his survey of the feminine voice, quite understandably, with Sibilla Aleramo, then turns to "an example of a male poet with a feminine voice" He finds in Diego Valeri Paolo Volponi, Roberto Sanesi also figure in Peterson's discussion of the feminine voice that lexical indeterminacy and contingency that allow him to resist "the rationalistic and formalistic tendencies of much twentieth-century verse" Amelia Rosselli appears not among the poets of the feminine voice, but in the concluding chapter, "The Otiose Rose," where Peterson looks at the rose in poems conceived of as contemplative, theoretical enterprises.
In his discussion of Rosselli, Peterson ties together a number of the strings that run throughout the volume, and demonstrates an outstanding sensitivity to the complex nature of the poet's work. Here the author himself eases the rapid pace maintained through much of the book, a pace determined by the range of material treated in a relatively small space.
Indeed, many poets are accorded little more than a brief paragraph, and consequently one often wishes Peterson were able to devote to them as much attention as he does to those few discussed at greater length. In citing Maria Luisa Spaziani's phrase, "nebuloso mistero da vincersi a ristroso" from the poem "Quell'uomo-stella" , as an "inadvertent description of the rose topos itself, which must be denied in order to be validated" , Peterson recognizes a fundamental trait of the modern relationship to topoi in general.
The phrase evokes as well what faces the critic engaged in clearing up the mysteries of textual interaction; and, in fact, the reader of The Rose in Contemporary Italian Poetry might wish that Peterson had ventured further in this direction, following the reverse path of influence and elaborating on the interrelations among texts. Many of the poetic fragments examined remain just that - isolated fragments - and the reader is left to formulate many of those "causal and systematic connection[s]" toward which Peterson professes a certain skepticism in his Preface.
Nevertheless, The Rose in Contemporary Italian Poetry is an extremely rich and challenging book, and goes a long way toward redeeming the study of literary topoi. It is both a welcome source and model for the scholar interested in such studies, as well as a "rosa dei venti" for the general reader on the high seas of twentieth-century Italian poetry. Viktor Berberi, Indiana University. Iannace, ed. Maria Vergine nella letteratura italiana. The Blessed Virgin Mary, or Mary of Nazareth, is a complex figure in the contemporary academic scene, subject to, and of, diverse interpretations.
For the traditional Catholic academic, she may be primarily a co-redemptrix, object of devotion as the earthly mother of Jesus Christ; for the Marxist or the atheist, she may be among the most visible and fertile symbols of the collective illusion of religion; for the liberal feminist, she may be a dangerous icon of patriarchal domination and female subordination to the role of mother and wife; for the feminist or liberation theologian or believer, she may be an example of full humanity achieved against all the odds of an oppressive, colonized context.
Among these multiple figures, the first is the dominant one in the essays collected in Florinda Iannace's Maria Vergine nella letteratura italiana. These generally short pieces there are over thirty of them in the admittedly long volume were originally presented as lectures at a congress at Fordham University entitled "The Virgin Mary in Italian Literature. Tusiani, a surprising presence in the book, is an Italian-American poet who writes in English and comments as critic - he is the author of the essay on himself - on his own poetic production.
Moreover, there are some general survey essays on Mary in Catholic theology and in Italian literature. Several different interpretive methods are used in the essays: there are stylistic, psychoanalytic Jungian, Kristevan, and Lacanian , and historical approaches, as well as biographical and devotional readings.
Like the chronological frame and the interpretive methodologies, the quality of the essays is also wide-ranging: while some, more traditionally devout critics may find the pious tone used in many of the essays appealing, many readers will be put off by a heavy rhetoric likely to discourage not only non-believers "i critici miscredenti," as one of the contributors hastily describes them, , but also non-traditional believers like myself, from entertaining a dialogue with the critics. This hagiographic approach is what we read in the introduction to the volume, where we find no mention of a more simpatica Virgin Mary, the Mary of Nazareth evoked, for example, by some contemporary theologians.
Many of the essays abound in platitudes, others are not much more than an introduction to an author, a summary of texts, a compilation of quotations with minimal critical intervention. Let me also note, while I dwell on this negative paragraph, that the copy-editing of the volume leaves much to be desired, at times even impeding a clear reading of the text the year is placed for instance in the third century, That having been said, the volume includes several solid traditional literary readings - I am thinking, for example, of the essays on Dante by Walter Mauro and Giuseppe Di Scipio - as well as some veritable gems.
Although it bears no connection with the literature invoked in the collection's title, Father Avery Dulles's essay on the role of the Virgin Mary in Catholic theology is a useful, clear, and inclusive survey of Mary's interpretations in the second part of the twentieth century. I was happy to find it at the beginning of the book, and disappointed that many of the subsequent essays did not display an awareness of the breadth of interpretations so vividly presented by Father Dulles himself.
The most insightful of the three essays which pay attention to sexual difference, Rinaldina Russell's work on Vittoria Colonna, is a well-written and original piece which explores Colonna's connection with the spirituali through an analysis of her writings on the Virgin Mary. In these texts, "Mary becomes a figura of the possible coming together of the human and the divine" , a union central to Colonna's existential and poetic quest.
For Colonna, and for Torquato Tasso as well, Mary is a figure who above all else represents a point of juncture between humanity and divinity. This connecting role is highlighted in Giuseppe Mazzotta's contribution on Tasso's "Le lagrime della Beata Vergine," an absolutely brilliant piece, and all too short.
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In little over three pages, Mazzotta evokes, with a critical prose that is itself highly poetic, a meditation on Mary's tears as they incarnate the impossible desire to re connect the mother's body and the son's pain, maternity and death. Thus, Tasso's link between sorrow and thought is also the link between pain and philosophy, strikingly allegorized in Mary's tears. Gaetana Marrone's Lacanian reading of Elsa Morante's Aracoeli stands out in the collection for its theoretical sophistication, but unfortunately it mentions only very tangentially the Virgin; its inclusion in the collection left me baffled.
Finally, I found useful and engaging, as well as very well written, Alfredo Luzi's introduction to the presence of the Virgin Mary in twentieth-century Italian poetry. Because of the great chronological and interpretive spectrum, no one critic is likely to be engaged and profit by all of the essays in Iannace's collection. What I found annoying others may find inspiring, and vice versa. Therefore, I would recommend the volume to anyone interested in the topic evoked in the title, or, even more generally, in the connection between religion and literature, spirituality and textuality.
Cristina Mazzoni, University of Vermont. A History of Women's Writing in Italy. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, In these works, the authors sketch a broad historical and thematic introduction to women's writings, which is then followed by studies of the main themes present in the works of individual authors.
Panizza and Wood propose here an overview of seven centuries of women writing and the diverse genres in which they simultaneously participated. The book is divided into three major historical categories: the Renaissance, Counter-Reformation, and seventeenth century; the Enlightenment and Restoration; and the Risorgimento and modern Italy, The historical division allows for the inclusion of women's writings "beyond the conventional genres classed as literature" 1.
As Wood and Panizza point out in their introduction, writing literature in Italy has always assumed a classical education as well as one in Dante, Boccaccio, and Petrarch. Since women were largely self-taught and often did not adhere to fixed models or discuss certain themes prevalent in male writers, their writing has largely been underestimated if not ignored. The volume includes 19 essays written by women literature and history professors from the United Kingdom, North America, and Italy; six essays were translated from Italian. In addition to the essays, there is a useful bibliographical guide which gives a brief description of the writers discussed, followed by a short list of selected works and critical works.
All works cited in the essays are included in the bibliography that closes the volume and that, admirably, attempts to recognize criticism on Italian women writers from both sides of the Atlantic. It is not intended here to uncover a tradition of women's writing, a concept the editors deny.
Most of the articles are primarily expository in nature. The diverse essays are united by their focus on the principal historical and cultural features of the periods the book addresses and how they "impinged on what women wrote" 3. Hence, the chapter divisions by generic form i. Rather these rubrics enable each critic to group together diverse women who used the same form to negotiate those various yet ever recurring practical, social, and ideological obstacles to writing that made it necessary for each generation of women writers to define and defend themselves anew. The number of chapters in each section - six essays in Part 1; four in Part 2; nine in Part 3, including five chapters for the novel form alone - tells at a glance the ebb and flow of women's participation in writing across the centuries.
The first major "genre" women used was letter writing. Maria Luisa Doglio's fine article reviews classical references which attributed the invention of this literary form to a woman who either counseled her sons or spoke of waiting for a loved one. She then discusses Catherine of Siena's religious writings dictated to a scribe; Alessandra Strozzi's letters to her sons; Vittoria Colonna's more spiritual and intellectual letters; Veronica Franco's Lettere familiari ; and finally actress Isabella Andreini's Lettere printed in , three years after her death.
Despite the differences in tone and content of all these letters, Doglio finds that "by writing to instruct, women demolish the barrier of submission founded on the age-old ban forbidding women to teach" In a brief chapter, Letizia Panizza examines the work of women humanists who wrote in Latin, such as Laura Cerati and Cassandra Fedele. Although she finds it "hard to trace a continuity between these women humanists writing in Latin and their successors writing in Italian in the next and later centuries," the arguments in defense of women, such as those of Isotta Nogarola who questioned the Church's blaming of the fall of man on women since "where there is less intellect and less constancy, there is less sin" 27 , introduce a theme that will be repeated in almost every essay, that is, the need for Italian women writers of all generations to defend or deny their sexual difference since they experienced the Biblical paradigm for women not only as an account of a fall from innocence but as a definition and limitation of their creative abilities.
Giovanna Rabitti's chapter on lyric poetry from to discusses Vittoria Colonna again, along with Veronica Gambara, Gaspara Stampa whose "titillating" poetry has received perhaps "an excess of critical attention"  and ends with Isabella Andreini Her essay makes it appear that there was a Renaissance for women in the realm of lyric poetry brought about by "a shared experience" According to Virginia Cox in "Fiction, ," after the s the main model for women's writing was the Petrarchan lyric in its "amatory and spiritual variants" and the lettere familiari.
Cox argues that women's writing flourished in a rather "long sixteenth century," since the privileged literary idiom of Petrarchism was paradoxically amenable to assimilation by women. The Counter Reformation's moral repression "allowed for the return of pious and decent women on stage" in courtly pastoral dramas and for women to write historical poemi eroici. In her chapter, "Polemical Prose Writing, ," Letizia Panizza shows how the writings of women such as Moderata Fonte, Lucrezia Marinella, and Angela Tarabotti shifted the focus of participation in disputation in dialogues on love and friendship between men to defenses of women's moral character and against, as in the case of Tarabotti, social and legal injustices.
In the same time frame, as Gabriella Zarri writes in the concluding chapter of this section, women were also active in religious and devotional writing. Although these writings were not published, and so their influence was limited, they did reflect the Church's favorable attitude towards women engaged in mysticism and prophetic sanctity. Cox finishes her essay saying that at the beginning of the Seicento women seemed headed for the mainstream. However, the 18th century provided no mainstream for women's writings.
The literary genres in which their writing had flourished were no longer viable. Luisa Ricaldone's essay on the Enlightenment and the Restoration explains the sparse participation in writing by women of this era, and the oblivion into which the works of previous women writers fell. Moral treatises assigned literature a role in women's education, if it was kept at an "amateur level" Few Italian women earned their living by writing or engaging in cultural activities Even fewer wrote novels: Giuseppina di Lorena-Carignano wrote some prose romances, but she wrote them in French.
Verina Jones discusses women's entry into the field of literary journalism, ladies' magazines, and political journalism. Adriana Chemello introduces another new genre, literary criticism. Women went from participating in debates on the "excellence and dignity of women" to debates on whether or not they should be admitted to the study of the arts and sciences.
Chemello also discusses the work of Luisa Bergalli who, among other things, wrote an anthology of women's writing published in Venice in The final section begins with Silvana Patriarca's informative essay on women's increased participation in journalism. After , new outlets appeared for women, such as the periodical press for which women and men from the petite bourgeoisie could write As usual, women joined in debates on the role and function of women's education, and the first "feminist" journal, La donna, was founded by Gualberta Alaide Beccari in Patriarca reviews not only the "feminist" views of Beccari, Maria Mozzoni, and Jesse Mario White, but also the works of Cesare Lombroso's daughter, Paola, who published ethnography studies on the mentality of the lower classes along with children's books, whom she contrasts with Ida Baccini, a prolific author of articles for literary journals and the director of a popular girl's journal, Cordelia.
If Baccini's work exudes the values of the patriotic middle classes love of order, industriousness, etc. She quotes Delfina Dolza to defend Lombroso who, "like the other women, even when they appeared to be writing and sharing male opinions, was shaped by a sensitivity to the social context of women's subordination which made the author subvert some of the very convictions of her intellectual milieu" Lombroso's concern with a lack of civic spirit or participation in a democracy by people who were uneducated is looked upon as a sort of subversion of the same values of submission she openly espoused.
The essays on women's fictional writings - Lucienne Kroha's "The Novel, "; Anna Laura Lepschy's "The Popular Novel, "; Lucia Re's "Futurism and Fascism"; and Ann Hallamore Caesar's "The Novel, ," - deal as well with how to interpret the overt antifeminism of many women writers and their participation in conservative and Fascist genres. Paradoxes abound.
Re writes how Futurism's iconoclasm was appealing to many women writers. Under Fascism more women's works were published than ever before. Fascism was "contradictory, 'imperfect,' and flexible enough to tolerate a wide spectrum of relatively emancipated social and cultural modes of behavior and expression" But even women as different as Serao and Aleramo still "felt that there was something illegitimate about their writing as if it constituted the invasion of a masculine terrain and a betrayal of femininity for which they had to constantly apologize" These women are seen as open to more international influences, namely European modernism, through their interest in translations Yet these women writers were denounced by feminism's first authors, who threw literature and its compromising structures out.
Adalgisa Giorgio, in "The Novel, ," focuses on how the writing in her time frame "parallels the shift in Italian feminism from the political phase of emancipation and reality to the more cultural phase of affirming female difference in the imaginary psychic and symbolic linguistic and intellectual structures of society" Starting with Francesca Sanvitale, Maria Corti, and Alice Ceresa as writers who launched an inquiry into the role of gender in literature as well as the theme of female genealogies, Giorgio also includes writers from the s, thus making this essay a much needed supplement to the one done by this reviewer 11 years ago "From Margins to Mainstream: Some Perspectives on Women and Literature in Italy in the s," Contemporary Women Writers in Italy: A Modern Renaissance, ed.
Catherine O'Brien divides women poets into three major groups: those influenced by symbolism, those influenced by the hermetic movement, and finally those who "have advanced the case of women's poetry by achieving equality and recognition," although their work does not differ thematically or stylistically from that of their male counterpart The collection closes with Sharon Wood's essay on critical theory, which "seeks to place women's thinking about contemporary aesthetics and cultural practice, theoretical considerations on women and literature, and by necessary extension on women and language, within a historical or philosophical context" Since Wood dealt with these issues in Italian Women Writers, there might have been more of an advantage here if she had tried to outline some of the new directions for criticism and theory that these essays, with their wealth of information, have now made possible.
The few misspellings and bibliographical omissions e. The genre and time divisions work well to show the diversity in women's writings across the ages as well as to highlight the recurring similarities in themes and cultural debates. And the information included here makes it possible for future scholars to realize the volume's goal, which is, in Wood's words, to "not only rewrite the history of Italian women's writing, but to reshape our reading of Italian literature itself" Carol Lazzaro-Weis, Southern University.
La scrittura e l'interpretazione. Palermo: Palumbo, These two tomes comprise the second half of Luperini and Cataldi's work, of which the first two volumes cover Italian literary history respectively up to and from the Counter-Reformation. The last years are thus accorded as much space as the previous six centuries.
This reflects escalating literary productivity, but also privileges modernity and contemporary relevance, to the extent, for instance, that not much less space is given to "il classico del secolo" Montale 41 pages , than to Petrarch 43 pages. This is partly the effect of not very closely considering earlier Italian literature written in Latin, but more largely springs from the pedagogical intent of the work, which is implicitly aimed at students in the licei and in the early years of university.
For these, it is an excellent guide, and it will also be extremely useful to their teachers and, indeed, to academics wishing to home in or update rapidly on unfamiliar areas, as well as presenting a reader-friendly introduction to the general lover of Italian literature. For such pedagogical and informative purposes, it is admirably laid out. Each "Part", covering a historical period, opens with a long chapter mapping out broad socio-economic, intellectual and cultural developments in the western world and in Italy. The subsequent chapters respectively cover literary movements and debates within the same period, followed by each of the main literary sectors - poetry, narrative, discursive writing, and theatre.
For each sector, there is a gradual zoom-in from developments in Europe and the Americas to those in Italy. Major non-Italian writers - Baudelaire or Tolstoy, T. Eliot or Kafka - as well as all the major Italian writers have an individual chapter devoted to them, and there are also primi piani - chapters devoted to individual works of outstanding importance, whether Italian or not.
Approximately a third of the text is thus given over to things other than Italian literature, in keeping with the principle enunciated in the introduction to the whole work, that Italian literature must be seen in the context of western culture generally, especially now that the role of the "national" literature in shaping the Italian nation-state has been historically superseded. This cultural contextualization is aided by rich pictorial and photographic illustration in somewhat muted colours , but popular or mass culture is referred to mainly as a threat to "high" literature and culture.
The work's pedagogical project is also furthered by numerous chronological tables and explanatory windows of schede e informazioni on historical and cultural phenomena , passato e presente on shifting debates , itinerario linguistico on specific terms , testi e studi bibliographies. There is a single index of these for the whole work, as also of titles, whereas personal names are indexed separately in each volume. The work as a whole is thus very close to being the hard copy of a hypertext which could be made available in the electronic medium with a much more powerful system of cross-referencing by key terms.
However, these take the reader to useful but limited micro-essays on the topic concerned, and do not bring together very many of the writers or works that deal, say, with the Great War, or industry, or psychoanalysis. There is no lead to women in Italian literature though there are some useful discussions, e. Likewise, there is no lead to interesting topics such as the figure of the impiegato, clerk or scrivener, or Darwinism, though, again, these topics are usefully discussed in connexion with specific authors including Bersezio, De Marchi, Svevo, and Tozzi for the former and Verga, De Roberto, Fogazzaro, and Svevo for the latter.
Other topics not indexed include: the South, Naples, Sicily, Regionalism. For a ready but more demanding approach to such dimensions, the student will still have to resort to the Einaudi Letteratura Italiana directed by Alberto Asor Rosa. The two tomes reviewed here are divided into four parts 11 to 14 , taking the account from Unification to , then to , next to , and then on to the present.
The periodization is validated in cultural and literary terms Naturalism and Symbolism; the avant-gardes; "Ermetismo, Antinovecentismo e Neorealismo"; and Experimentalism, Neo-Avantgardes and the Postmodern , but predicated in terms of developments in the world economy and successive industrial revolutions and class transformations. Thus the year is the only one of the chronological divides in this periodization since Unification which also coincides with major events of political history.
The perspectives and emphases are usually powerful and interesting, though, curiously, the period from to is cosily assigned to "peaceful coexistence," with little hint of the arms race or M. The authors take joint responsibility for the whole text, with Cataldi being the main author for the chapters on poetry and poets though he also takes on Gadda, while Luperini does Montale , while the chapters on non-Italian and some Italian subjects are the work of other specialists.
The negative perspective climaxes in the last major close-up of a writer, devoted to Pasolini and also done by Cataldi. Given that Pasolini died in , there is a chronological paradox in treating him so close to the end of a work that brings us right up to date. Placing Pasolini in one of the last chapters appears to be justified by assigning him to the category of public intellectual and discursive writer - of which he is presented as a highly suspect, ambiguous, and somewhat histrionic and self-advertising exemplar. While this is not in itself simply wrong, it seems to serve the purpose of signalling a critical emptiness in Italian intellectual life, and masks the inadequate treatment given of Pasolini as poet, novelist and playwright his film-making being less pertinent to a history of literature.
A straightforward concluding chapter on the present scenario in Italian writing might have been a better option. It might also have occasioned a discussion as to whether belletristic writing has - perhaps temporarily - been ousted from its once central position as arbiter of values by more specialized writing in philosophy and the social sciences, economics and the natural sciences, or how it may cope with the tide of consumerism.
This does not amount to an objection, however, against the quality, value, and usefulness of this work by Luperini and Cataldi and their colleagues. The skill with which the work as a whole is planned and the information and discussion contained in its component parts are presented, is generally admirable. There is a certain amount of repetition, expanding a concept sometimes up to three times in the treatment of a major author or work, but this can be accepted as part of the pedagogical imperative; and there are occasional inaccuracies for instance, the persistent myth that Svevo became a bank clerk because of his father's financial difficulties.
But these are very slight blemishes in a generally imposing work. Many of the primi piani have striking analyses and theses. Luperini's study of the chronotope of La bufera is one example. Petroni's study of transgressive freedom in La coscienza di Zeno is another. In keeping with the character of the work as a literary history, and the aim stated in the introduction of tracing the shifts and changes in the literary canon and the role of reading practices hence the "interpretazione" in the title , there is always a strong focus on literary movements and debates and on the overall movement consistently downward, it would seem in the status of writing and of the writer.
This can lead to interesting chronological displacements. Thus the more "modern" Svevo is placed later than his younger but less advanced contemporaries, d'Annunzio and Pirandello. This is a particular instance or three instances of a fully defensible revision of the canon compared to, say, half a century ago, and, indeed, it goes a great deal further. Luperini's and Cataldi's - and most people's - view of the Italian literary pantheon of the first half of the last century would be unrecognizable in Alfredo Galletti's Il Novecento of the old Vallardi series.
Where now is the epic poetry of Ettore Cozzani? It rightly goes unmentioned by Luperini and Cataldi, while the accademico d'Italia Alfredo Panzini gets no more than a dismissive aside. One might perhaps only remark that more might have been offered in a work of this type on the reading public and its tastes as is done occasionally, e. This leads to a more problematical consideration. Heedless of Gramsci, Luperini and Cataldi take a line similar to Spinazzola's regarding popular literature, which is dismissed as merely consumeristic.
Thus, no attention is paid to Guareschi or Fallaci, who have been among the most widely read of Italian writers, both inside and outside Italy. They are implicitly excluded from "the literary". Even works such as Il gattopardo and writers such as Bassani are belittled, with less than justice done to the debates that have surrounded them.
This aristocratic exclusiveness is most massively evident in the treatment of women writers, who are given little space. Even if a claim could be sustained which I do not concede that as individual writers Italian women rank low in the literary league-table, there is at least a case for assessing their collective contribution as a category and the feminist critique whether explicit or oblique which they mount against the male hegemony.
Although, early on, we read: "Il progetto di emancipazione femminile [ Other omissions seem less significant in a work that cannot possibly aim at exhaustive comprehensiveness. Gallina and Bertolazzi do get usefully, if briefly, discussed, but we need not be surprised at not finding Pompeo Bettini, or even Ettore Cantoni, while the job of selection of course becomes harder still with the numerous writers that have surfaced in the last quarter of a century. This guide is, I think, a must for the library of every university that has students of Italian, and is a good buy also for serious individual students and teachers.
A Life in Works. New Haven: Yale UP, The most striking feature of this brilliantly structured volume is Hollander's ability to condense, in an erudite and at the same time communicative manner, the complexities surrounding Dante's works, their genesis, and dating. While not taking anything for granted and not assuming any preconceptions of Dante's production on the part of the reader, Hollander embarks upon a journey of discovery in which the two main fils rouges can be identified as the following: Dante's experimentalism, and the way in which the so-called minor works prepare the path for writing the Commedia and contribute to understanding it.
If we are to accept, as Hollander does, Petrocchi's dating for the Paradiso ; and if we respect the internal evidence provided by Monarchia In fact, Dante's masterpiece incorporates elements of his writings that had appeared, albeit in varying degrees, at times because of their interruption, in his early works Vita nuova, Convivio, De vulgari Eloquentia or his later output, mainly in Monarchia. Hollander follows the unfolding of such production through a series of approaches that are stimulating and challenging for both the uninitiated and those who, although not daring to call themselves Dante scholars, are reasonably familiar with Dante's oeuvre.
One such approach is evident from the very first pages, where Hollander highlights the importance of the Vita nuova and Dante's experimentalism by looking also at the poems that the author eventually did not include in his first major work; among those poems, one should certainly pay attention to the series of poems Dante exchanged with Dante da Maiano, in which casuistic love is analysed. The figure of Beatrice in the Vita nuova is evidenced by Hollander in a chapter rich with scholarly exegesis and cross references to other scholars' contributions.
Particularly essential are the notes in this and subsequent chapters, since they not only contain a plethora of information but are also an invaluable up-to-date bibliographical resource. Hollander does not shun tackling some of the more contentious issues, such as that regarding the donna gentile and the function of consolation for Dante's loss of Beatrice, both in verse VN 38, v. The connection is anticipated with a discussion of Dante's "meravigliosa visione" , which finds a parallel in the context expressed by the "quasi rapito" of Convivio Thus, chronologically, Hollander turns to the incomplete Convivio, where, as in the Vita nuova, prose and poetry combine to express the author's ideas.
The question of style, which anticipates the digression on the historical validity of a work of fiction in Inferno 16, is certainly of paramount importance, and Hollander treats it also by referring to Purgatorio 24 ca. At that juncture, Dante looks back from this vantage point and declares that his "style" began when he composed "Donne ch'avete," around Hollander sustains that this declaration "makes it clear that there was no group of poets who adopted the style before that time - if there was such a group at all.
But all generations abide, floating in the oily channel of words. The ships have departed. Yet the dialect plumbs the depths of their wakes. There my ship of fools finds its in-and-expiration, its intonation, song, farewell. As long as I have the oxygen to take leave in my Aria dei mati. Il volo. Slate-scrape of my nails rising to my fingertips from deep deep inside. By dawn, by dusk with this scraping in a heart bursting in its musk. Ah, my love made of water, ah, my love made of salt ah, pigeon in the chestnut leaves dying! Il canale. One more blot upon the void. I come full circle when the rank, persisting life within me seems itself to feel repugnance.
La voce. Then, in , his Dona de pugnai was issued by the Italo Svevo Press of Trieste; likewise, there, in , his Crature del pianzer crature del rider appeared with e Edizioni. With Roberto Damiani he composed the dialect play A casa tra un poco , various texts for radio, and the anthology, Poesia dialettale triestina Edizioni Italo Svevo, 1st ed. In , his plaquette 9 Poesie scritte a Trieste , preface by G.
The texts published here come from Crature. In this idiom there is rooted a fragmented, raw, passionate poetics, straining with obscure regrets, outrageous prophecies, overbearing resentments, repentance, violence. This poetry is virtually blood-stained, suffered, contorted, anxious. At the same time, it is plastic, symbolic, concise and, often, metaphysical. His themes come from everyday life, but they burn like hot pepper in a sweetly consuming fire of multiply interwoven tongues of flame, and in subliminal crackles. This poet is audacious in his juggling of syntax and in his forcing of words to say exactly what he wants them to.
His aim is to create a sense of rhythm where informing variations on metrics predominate. What abides in his autobiographical sketch resembles the bones of a fish whose flesh barely clings to a durable structure. Brevini, introduction to Crature. Bibliography R. Damiani, in Poeti dialettali triestini Trieste: Lafanicola, Svevo, Tesio, presentation of 9 Poesie scritte a Trieste. Previously he had written, in Italian, the novella La bomba La Battana, —and subsequently other novellettes of his appeared: Il parco di Villa Marin Udine: Doretti, and Andar per pavoncelle Marka , At the same time he published two long poems in Italian, both in Alfabeta and He is editor of the quarterly Diverse Lingue Udine: Campanotto.
His literary dialect is native to his place of birth. Therefrom, the author has continued to plow in ruts of twentieth century poetic tradition and to struggle to disinter himself, via the use of dialect, from the crepuscular movement. And this imagery enfleshes landscapes of swamps, an unstable condition between land and water—in an expressionistic way that becomes psychic.
His vitalism pushes his words to the edge of screams, grimaces, delirium, inebriate see Schers. All hanging over the abyss of nothingness. In the 16 compositions of this dissonant suite, the poet condenses a tension of a journey that evanesces and, then, essentializes. At the core of his dilemma is a Saturnine indecision: the insecurity and fear of being. Herein, we encounter his typical symbols and warnings, fraternal and frankly cowardly relationships with his fellow humans, his self-denigrations and solitary denunciations, his desperate need of some kind of reward for his suffering, his bitterness, frustrations, murky fears, self-destructive tendencies.
But then a miracle occurs. From the doldrums of ancient prayers and petrified shrieks and age-old defeats, light emerges. Nazzi, Dizionario biografico friulano Udine: Ribis, Nel grembo di Saturno. This barbaric hope that has made you live in the belly of being belly of Saturn, has you, green snake, slipping down cracks, sick shadow, August cat Fire and ash, hot caress on quake of bones, drive each day to try to begin Ti ha uccisa la luna.
Blind, bent over, I drag myself through clefts looking for light. Stiamo qui oggi. That silence away down there— is it the edge of a field? I wobble in mist; you, my arm, take me to the light! Conta le olive sulla tavola. Make me bitter, moon, count me with the olives. The only leaf-quake that I see are these sheets of mine in gold-stained shadows. Translated by Dino Fabris Cu la lenghe crevade Con la lingua crepata. Rosis grivis di gjambe sutile ti fasin murae intal siump, si fasin presinsis Recitativo del vagabondo. Schema for thought— pleated gold over trees, dying moon throbbing on necessary steps Anticipation filled with faces; shrouds like flags unfurled whitening the horizon; all around glass-imbedded walls lying in wait, fashioned to hew hands, exposed knuckles Will you, knight without ensigns, knowing yourself unsure, carry your acrid figure to where acid meats and tough solitudes pulverize teeth?
Is forgetfulness your end? Serious, slender-stemmed roses form a wall in dreams, make themselves felt Give over to these respites? Drown in the honey of these tropes? She published two books of poetry in Italian: La porta dipinta and Interrogatorio Tore Barbina and A. Ciceri Nicoloso, eds. The texts anthologized here are previously unpublished. For the latter, so distant by now, can do us no harm. I repeat, these women are recreating Friulan poetry—not as a male-female dialectic, but as the truth of all human consciousness es.
This is my point: Cantarutti first and foremost, then Maria Forte, Buiese and Vallerugo, have all contributed, via their heightened sensibility, to the reshaping of our poetic language. Ultimately, they have made it the language of a people. Ciceri Nicoloso, Scrittrici contemporanee in Friuli , cit. Colonnello, G.
Mariuz and G. Pauletto, eds.
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Ultimo luogo. Cosa lo ha spinto? Last Place The last place in the world, the world a station if it has a station, however small, the name vanished, two tracks, the service track aside with cars sealed for centuries that, more from precaution than fear, no one opens. An eternity like this. One day he got lost in the desert going just beyond that bend where the tracks are burnished gold in the setting sun. What drove him?
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Who brought him back and laid him across the tracks? Yes, it was plain the desert moved, the tracks were covered again as quickly as the sand was swept away. A cola. Il sogno. Il marito si accorse in tempo. The Dream Maybe by now the snow outside has buried the earth melancholy Hiroshima landscape. On the Sydney bridge the wind lifts your black hair loose from its pins.
The ships pass slowly by, sounding their horns they head for open sea, gone already. Your pensive mother passes by in deep water. From that window the bridge is a single arc, a flight Before you my Regina stops her rush. She falls. She awakened among the dead.
Her husband realized it in time. Veniva e viene ancora appeso alle travi del soffitto. Il suo nome varia da zona a zona e non ha un nome corrispondente in italiano. Being with you who are no longer with us is so much more than living among the busy lives who take away my breath that peace I need for being cursed the way I am.
Being with you always grape by grape my aurec hung on my slender rafter in this room with the painted outside door where a famished child has not eaten the bunch clenched in his hands because the grapes are numbered It was and still is hung from the rafters in the attic. The dried grapes were eaten in winter. Its name varies from place to place and has no equivalent in Italian. Here, the Aurec is my deceased grandmother.
He teaches elementary school. Then, in collaboration with L. Vit writes in southern Friulan, the language of Bagnarola. But his insights herein transcend the socio-political causes of this oppression. His alliterations develop in relief: e. Walter Belardi and G. No sta vignimi dongia cuntralus.
And that rivulet of light along the knee! When the sun ensnares itself in the thorns of the darkness, then whose will be the face that I caress? There are those who learn how to suckle from the white of the page, to whistle from a wind hidden deep within. And how you can command, condemn, cudgel all humanity, right from there, from that white room, perched like a king on the throne of the latrine.
He studied at the University of Bologna and now teaches in a lycaeum in Pordenone. He has published numerous critical essays on literature and aesthetics in journals such as Testo a fronte , Studi di estetica , Diverse Lingue , and Baldus which he also edits. The following essays of his have appeared in book format s : Diritto alla poesia , with A. De Biasio and A. Lettura della trilogia di A. Publishing a few chap-books in Italian—e. His most important dialect works are Altro che storie! The texts anthologized come from Vose de vose. He has comprehended and assimilated European Symbolism and Surrealism.
For him, they are overcome by their ineluctable fragility in an atmosphere of indistinct contours, all in suspension and expectancy. Searching for his own voice, he eschews his noble poetic tradition. He writes viva voce , in dialogue, retracing old terms, introducing innovation, finding points where the old and the new meet.
Brevini, Le parole perdute, cit. Colonnello, Mariuz and Pauletto, eds. Geno Pampaloni, I giorni in fuga Milan: Garzanti, For the Autumn Left I. For the autumn and animals left under the crystal of hours culling branches and earth for a den in a nook of the head. For the autumn metal sheet and the man who wakes up calling with hands full of fingers, with hair coiled on the brain, of the breed of autumn gulls in eternal earthward flight. Translated by Dino Fabris II. Translated by DinoFabris X.
A rain eroding clay shoulders and finding us in the jaw of a November forever open in an lotus with luggage to manage the night, filled with leaves, peelings, signed papers. If we fall asleep. Translated by Dino Fabris XI. A nylon cloth the clouds, and the man of glass takes on a hue of tar and rusty wire that binds the hours around his ribs.
Spadoni and Luciano Benini Sforza are presently assembling an anthology of poetry written in Romagnol in the second half of the twentieth century. Visionary and descriptive passages alternate. His variegated repertoire of images is characterized by subtlety in design and by a cyclical sense of melody. Notwithstanding traces of his literary tradition, Spadoni gives new life to his dialect that is virtually biological for its instinctive immediacy. Its affinities are clear from its settings everyday, humble objects and human types and its versification.
The latter is characterized by a warm, colloquial vocality that lightens the sombre tone and mollifies the harshness of vision. Cesare Vivaldi, in Il lettore di provincia , 79 Vivaldi, in Poesia dialettale dal Rinascimento a oggi Milan: Garzanti, Pietro Civitareale, in Abruzzo letterario , Prima che si faccia buio. All clocks have stopped.
People refuse to grasp that the moon doesnt know what to do about us. Le voglie. Shadows play hide-and-seek and the street-lights perforate the aura of squandered hours. Puoi fare di meno. That day comes when you grow weary, lace up your best shoes and go Come fili di tela di ragno. Nadiani and Cipriani also collaborated with Andrea Foschi on the essays in La parola ritrovata: la poesia contemporanea fra lingua e dialetto Ravenna: Long Editore, In , Nadiani co-founded the literary review Tratti.
He is now its editor-in-chief. The poems anthologized here come from Tir. This marginality, however, allows him to focus his lens sharply. Creaks, collapses, fissures, crashes of beams in the dust, cracks, cuts, splinters—all reverberate. These poems do an x-ray of an inexorably progressive landslide, an extraordinary yet oblique vision of cycles and seasons.
His new emphasis is on an accumulative narration of data, objects, daily and work situations. His new instruments are parataxis and asyndeton or polyasyndata —i. Everyday prose speech, the brutality of history in the making, the infamous and the banal—that is to say, the terms of contemporary threats to the very act of writing poetry—are all here, center stage.
The shattering of verse in Nadiani conveys his interaction with lived, transcribed prose. This idiom is lived to the extremes of chaotic enumeration where his dexterous and resourceful rhythms overcome the flat, monodical flow of apparently run-on phrases. In our heads we say no to North Africans with languid eyes Sleep is what wakes us and we dont buy Automat Today after swats that lit up the night the flies are unsure of themselves For one, over-long moment we stop to hear the thud on the pavement of an over-ripe fig, the putrid splash of the wheels The sparrows wallowing in their puddles seem amused and, in the murk, we envy their chirping.
But dont talk to the computer about it! Stressed, we punch the keys to forget the impotent rage of our disguises Weariness The full moon plumb over the trailers that extend the night. We masters of the dark, hushed Feet sodden with dew we slither back home to shut the blinds, light a lamp, look each other in the eye: no one dares speak of going to bed. In an ample anthology of works in print was published by Scheiwiller, with the addition of the section Laudario , which assembles the texts subsequent to Carta laniena , and an unpublished poem written in The volume is edited and prefaced by Franco Brevini.
He died suddenly in Numana in the summer of Mondadori published posthumously the book of poems El sol. In this sense dialect is seen as a metaplasm of language, alien to any aesthetics of the untranslatable. The model for this operation was presumably offered to him by a popular sixteenth-century poet of the Marche, Olimpio da Sassoferrato Franco Brevini, in Poeti dialettali del Novecento , Einaudi, Scataglini has a very personal ability to cross the boundaries of reality without escaping it, forcing to the utmost the contours of the image, expanding them, and at the same time corroding its core, its inner center, so that it may open to the air and burn in the air.
Towards her I lean through an ancient obedience with the gloomy mien of one becoming immanence. Essentially, sex is a seeming allegory: you can find a nexus only with deathly misery. Look at me hit the ground: breathless, I agonize like a reeling bloodhound lost amid the ice. Raso: abbattuto. Translated by Luigi Bonaffini El cardo sui grepi o cavedane! Cavedane: strade campestri. Translated by Luigi Bonaffini Su la neve De gravi rami in schianto luntani soprasalti. From buckling heavy branches faraway anxieties.
Is this, my love, the way one dies of completion broken, side by side, inside their own windbreakers? Strama: lacera da Laudario The Whip On the spent docks the rusted whip of a tackle rips the silence vapors in the distant whir of motors. Translated by Luigi Bonaffini El sol I. Svetava soverchiante come una torre altera la grande ciminiera fino a luntane piante.
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Trebiatrici per aie, da longo, colonie, barconi in mezo a scie de svolazate paie. Piccola fabbrica non lungi da Chiaravalle, in aperta campagna. Smantellata dai tedeschi nel , ne restano desolate vestigia. The long shiver of the call runs through the people inside the waiting room. On the side, a few countenances, all of submissive lives wearing clean clothes contrite farmers in reticent shadows wives in the corner of the waiting room outside, the calash with puppets painted on its flanks, desolate in their vilified happy bloom.
Local whistle trains. The great chimney soared high like another lofty proud tower up to the distant trees. Water down in the gorge the attending murmur flees beyond the patch of elm trees that came out clean and purged from the cast iron gratings of the Sol the whine of black factories, turbines. Unshared, outlying was a large villa the swallows fell in swarms on the white hawthorns. A Small factory not far from Chiaravalle, in the open countryside. Dismantled by the Germans in , only desolate traces of it remain. The text recalls a summer spent by the author in those places as a boy.
Leonardo Mancino Born in Camerino Macerata in Leonardo Mancino Essential Critical Bibliography. Paglia, in AA. E che ce pensi E ci pensi E ci pensi che qualcuno - come si vorrebbe - ci ha preceduto sulla strada che andiamo percorrendo con tutta la fatica necessaria. Su questo palco ormai fradicio e vecchio che non si regge in piedi sempre ti ci devi muovere.
Anche morire se necessario. And Do You Think And do you think how someone preceded us on the road that we keep walking on with all the strain it takes. On this rickety stage barely standing now rotted and old you must make your way. Even die. People look at you with baleful eyes, the clothes are as torn as the years, as the little heart we still have left. At the corner of the eye tangled fears when you ask yourself why.
Nel giardino. In the Garden In the flower garden the poison of sea fragrance grows like a ghost in the night the eye fixes the pupil seems a throbbing dilated abyss on the realm of sweet bewildered dreams the word constantly invoked keeps saying like a chant a verse Lettera del figlio. Vedi la casa. Vedi la casa nascondersi dietro le braccia degli alberi alla campagna. Dal ballatoio sulle scale sembra di vedere una figura che si allontana e poi sfuma: se ci fai caso attentamente somiglia alla sagoma di una madre eguale alle altre, a tutte, che di riflesso spia il destino nella sua stessa immagine.
Senti un lamento di un cane vecchio che muore. He lives in Perugia. Ponti , by Giuseppe Giacalone , ; Idillio e catastrofe. Poesie , and is interested in art criticism he has edited at least twenty exhibits. Mazzamuto, Palermo, As a dialect poet since , he appears in Umbria by P. Some of his poems were included in the anthology Fiori di San Valentino.
The poems here included are unpublished. Ponti the man has a serious notion of life, a pessimistic conception of the world, but Ponti the poet almost always succeeds in transcribing his inner feelings into a cold and calculated style, as if it were a defense mechanism against his suffering. A way of writing cold what one feels hot, a way of laughing at his own pain, as a way of overcoming the pain. But in reality he holds man responsible for his pain, because humanity, from a social point of view, does nothing to make life less miserable. Vivaldi, Poesia dialettale dal Rinascimento ad oggi , cit.
Follia paesana. But what have you got inside your head? To drive me crazy? E caloia de fantignole e merolla sdirinate. Cuore dolce. And flashes of fits and wornout marrow. Sowing pegs and reaping puddles. Never feeling quite right your whole life long. Nevica da mille ore. And I am dozing off in a needle shaft of moonlight that colors all it touches like a crayon made of sun. Quando rischiara. Holding a literature degree, he taught in secondary schools. Prose: Un regno e un regno Milan, ; Apologhi a Pietro Foggia, ; Le piccole patrie Pescara, ; Viva la guerra Bari, ; Concerto sul colle Chieti, ; He also wrote a few small volumes of essays and satirical and parodic verse : Poesia in forma di cosa?
Pescara, ; Un uomo sfinito Lanciano, ; Minime della notte Chieti, Ha published books of narrative for secondary schools and edited anthologies. He was the editor of Dimensioni and Questar te He is the general secretary for the international prize Ennio Flaiano.
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The texts that follow are unpublished. The dialect of Giuseppe Rosato, as is the case with the content of the poems and the themes developed, displays totally unconventional registers and cadences, which arise from remote, intimate, personal echoes, and establish him not as the bard of a people, but as the voice of a contemporary consciousness that utilizes dialect for its discrete charm, for its exclusive resources and for the malleability and expressiveness of certain extraordinary structures.
The selection of poems does not exceed the number of fingers of both hands, yet it permits a discourse that is worth carrying out and it refers to the use of dialect in poetry Rosato goes back to a precise condition of poetry consecrated by dialect. Yet she goes to meet the sun: what death could be more beautiful? To be able to believe there is a rising east that waits for us as well as for the last moon of September, a morning filled with light in another world that lies behind the night The dark will swallow us, and afterwards there is no striving and there is no need, there is no curve of moon or spread of stars, there is no sky, there is no anything.
E finalmente, dice. Ma le pinze? Mi riposo But what are you really thinking? And where is all such contentment after all? E ti stai zitto. Now you can cry oh mamma all you like but who will listen, who will pity you? So you keep quiet. Hi has been living in Florence since His work has been translated into various languages and he has in turn translated La muerte a Beverly Hills by P. The poems presented here are unpublished.
I received his small book Come nu suonne with a sense of happy wonderment. His poems are pleasing and precious, and are written in that beautiful language of central Italy that awakens so many echoes of the poetry from which our Italian language was born. A very tender poetry, that employs to great effect a simple, limpid way of approaching things. Franco Loi I read with great interest his poems of Vecchie parole.
It seems to me that a magic lyricism makes perfect use of dialect in order to reinvent occasions of places and moments of days and seasons, achieving an extraordinary intensity and originality. Giorgio Barberi Squarotti I thank you for the gift of Vecchie parole that I read with great pleasure: reconciliation and harmony of religious spirit and natural elements imbued with a similar soul; profound, age-old language that you execute with great skill and restraint, but that above all you do not betray by deforming it with thoughts and sentiments which do not belong to it, as is customary nowadays.
I am more and more convinced that dialectality is an inner category. Uccelli di maggio. Fiori di neve. Snowflowers Snowflowers in the window and outside, stretching to the limits of the world, the bewildered field just yesterday a snarl of leaves a coating of rust on the sky now a glitter of glass tinted ashy January gray that on some nights brings a silence like a gnawing like an icy embittered moon in the heart.
Ma ora so che non posso. But Now I Know I Cannot Do it I used to believe that it was possible to come back to this height, where the giddiness of memory breathes life again into faraway dreams, and on that path I taste you once more as I did before, fragrant and hot, like bread fresh from the oven.
And it is late, and always growing later, and narrow, and interminable, the way. Mi ha ucciso la luna. I Was Murdered by the Moon Heart in pieces and the years pressing like a packsaddle, I await the withering of the last rose on the hedges, blind to every hope, persuaded only by the nothingness there is. His poems have appeared i various anthologies and in journals such as Paragone , Salvo imprevisti , Tracce , Gradiva , Lengua, Tratti e altre.
These texts were born after a period of meager and uncertain practice with dialect. On the creative level, the speech of the Frentan area, and in particular that of Lanciano, paralyzed me: I passively felt its fascination, but was unable to go beyond a series of quotations — or at most of brief insertions — in an Italian context. It was therefore inevitable that I would eventually dare to immerse myself totally in this language, which I felt was extremely expressive, rich with a remote music, dead to the world of modern communication but mysteriously alive as a biological event.
At this point I was obliged to give in to that semiconscious wave that was swelling, to recover its transgressive and atemporal force, to recreate it through archaic gulps, agglutinations and linguistic rasps, setting aside all constraints and false parallels with Italian. Where has it plunged us, what good does it blow this great wind rising over mouldy days this empty idle chattering of chickens this rolling of the intoxicated sky this mouth of petroleum that swallows up the sea: these putrid leaves, these leaves that gut the face of the scarred and disembowelled earth.
You inflame me: who are you. But to the bottom of a pan, to capsize like a wreck there, pours the devil of my revel and the levelled quickened oil. Che sa Emme? From the marbled marine mass we get our Em. The misty mantle round the moon? All Em. What does Em know? A mute and mysterious medley of months: she munches mu and moo, gives me mellowness of mauve, and oh how im- maculate is the magic land of Em. I theoretical essays are contained in the volume Le ragioni di una scrittura. Vignuzzi and a note by G.
The poems presented here are unpublished Moretti unfetters the dialect of Abruzzo from regional themes, using it as a language endowed with full semantic potential. His case is typical of neodialect poetry To mark this distance he no longer employs closed forms or the hendecasyllable, but a laisse of long lines, with the cadence of a recitative and a very personal, internalized rhythm, and a predilection for the discursive long poem His poetry is marked by strong reasons Franco Brevini, in le parole perdute , cit.
With respect to age, complexity of intellectual culture, literary experiences, Vito Moretti rightfully belongs to the new generations of dialect poets In his poetry metrical freedom does not mean lack of rhythm which, on the contrary, stems from careful research of the deepest rhythmical sources, of cadences that combine dialect words into well-connected groupings. Moretti gives unequivocal proof of this Moretti then starts from the instances of contemporary culture, of intellectual, philosophical culture, and from an ethical quest, from political and religious aporias, to look for the most appropriate expressive medium in the rhythmical cadence bound to dialect words.
Essential Critical Bibliography U. It Has Fallen Softly to Weigh Softly the darkness has fallen, softly the night with the black houses rooted about like wornout beasts of burden. It has fallen softly to weigh, with that round moon hung up by the hands of a hundred craftsmen, the thread of hours that my day brings back to the signs of the earth, and that now ready to close the blinds and to separate us from the joust of dreams I represent as a patient game of pardons.
Will it suffice to whisper resolutions to repent? The house is a cave, you told me, a lump to swallow now the children have deserted, and the words--you laid them gently on my breast-- had an umbilicus of the world, like the weeping of the bulrushes with the priestly hallelujah. But ours is an old disquiet, and it makes you tired in the silence of the nights. And it may not be worth it to wear away the boundaries, or consciously to turn back to hailing yesterday. The cock may crow, even three times, or grow ill with dizziness on the sabbath that has aged us.
All of us, with small steps, have the day for crouching on the glass, the red moon that every evening scales the fans of the soul. Rimango a contare le veglie. Like a tree with hidden branches I stay here to calculate the vigils. Tomorrow perhaps, tomorrow I can tell you of my faith, the sour temper that wraps memories in paper and turns them into passions. Previously the principal of a middle school, he now is involved in the publishing industry via his collaboration with major dailies and literary reviews such as La Repubblica , La Fiera Letteraria , Critica Letteraria , and Produzione e Cultura.
Fiore Adriatica Ed. Enne, ; Profilo storico del Molise Venice: Ed. New York: Peter Lang, He transcends dialect verse by writing poetry in dialect. He does so with a sure-handed grasp of linguistico-cultural contamination reconfigured in totally contemporary language. Tracce, n. Orazio Tanelli, in Nuova Dimensione October Bonaffini, introduciton to The Peacock. Chi arriva e chi parte! Quando parto. When I Leave When I leave and lay down my clothes inside my suitcase, the jacket with the shoulders on a hanger, its sleeves neatly crossed over on the chest, I feel like I am laying a dead man in his coffin.
Always the same. Some people arrive and some leave. And on your final trip you bring one jacket underneath the ground and leave behind at home another jacket dangling on a hanger. A mio figlio. To My Son I am sorry, son, for having planted you in a sunless orchard, quiver of a flower in a guitar; huddled sparrow you wait to be fed with your mouth wide open and quietly flap your wings, but with every hour you grow in my heart like leavened bread, like a scream choking in my throat.
La parola. The Word The word on the lips of a peasant comes out among nettles and stones like a clod turned over by hoes. The word on the lips of a big shot is just like the scrawl of the topping on a cake all garnished with almonds and sugared candy of silver and gold. Adesso nemmeno mi riconosci. A look was all we needed, and like the north wind we destroyed the world, slier than a stone-marten or a fox.
Se dipendesse da me. He writes in Italian, English and his native dialect. As in the cases of Zanzotto, Noventa and Pierro, this journey promises the re-embracing of an archaic, maternal language. In this poetry, there abound dissonant rhythmic percussions, phonic analogies, pounding and obsessive reiterations of suffixes, enjambments breaking sound waves, internal rhymes, and phonico-visual synesthesia.
Bibliography Giuseppe Ravegnani, in Uomini visti , vol. II Milan: Leone Piccioni, in La narrativa italiana tra romanzo e racconti Milan: Egerton Bede, ed. Vineta Colby, ed. Jovine and Luigi Fontanella, in Novecento , 9, vol. Giambattista Faralli, in Poesia dialettale del Molise Isernia: Anthony J. Tamburri, in World Literature Today Summer Lazily in the shade passes the day and sleep is like the sleep of fledgling birds. You keep your eyes half-open and half-closed, because you want to see what you can do.
It gets lost in the valleys among stones: it no longer carries jugs, it has no cushion for the head. Desire to work is a small hole, because you want to know what we must do. Il vento del paese mio. He shoves you to and fro along with rocks, he presses, rips right through you, knocks you down.
A wind like this you never will forget: He made of you a man who can bear mountains, stealing your seeds, your ears of corn, your wheat, ramming against you and strapping you down. So many years have come and gone, today the wind is a good friend outside my door.
The Song of Nothingness Nothing, said the hen, can make you happy. Nothing ever ends, and nothing is born. Nothing, there is nothing to bring outside, that in this world we have brought nothing at all. Nothing, there is nothing, I am also nothing. Only I know that what I know is really nothing. La via del molise. Slowly you start to count: the time gone by before your eyes, begins to waver. The road to Molise is sweet as honey, it stretches across mountains, over rivers.
You can see the towns in shape of crosses and the heart rejoices, wants to sing. And you hear an ancient voice that calls you from the dark of the fountain, from the branches. Tesio Udine: Campanotto, ; Controcielo , grotesque novel, preface by F. Brevini and note by A. Serrao Milan: Scheiwiller, Spagnoletti e C. Vivaldi, eds. Milan: Garzanti, The poems printed here come from Controcore. This is a bastard child of a perennial world, unconscious victim of the she-wolf mother unnature? It does so via his inexhaustible inventions of turns-of-phrase and metaphors against a baroque backdrop that is, literally, black-and-blue.
Here, an endless neologistic and prosodic bombardment rages against the traditional music of the Romanesque vernacular and transforms this tongue into a solar and underworld language that acts in critical and mad counterpoint with the pulsations of memory, the joys of youth, sensuality, material life. Piga, La poesia dialettale del Novecento, cit. Brevini, in Nuovi Argomenti , 47 July-September Maffia, in La barriera semantica, cit.
Night is gentle, limpid, no dreams. I set out alone to meet the broken dawn. The thought of the moon hovers and light flows in its nuances. The ghosts of things swarm, shades withdrawing from shadows of annunciation of day I revive in the fancy conjured by the world and who-knows. Si fa chiaro quel gran dolore che fa tremare. I cani allampanati hanno un andare sbilenco e incrociano gli umani sentieri.
Il vento viene da infinite leghe e si disperde al crocevia fino al momento del supremo andare che ci fa uomini. Scattering The shaded sky sheds the moon. The pain that wracks us clarifies. Lean and hungry dogs weave, cross paths cut by hands. Wind rises from infinite compounds and scatters at the turning point, that moment of the supreme adventure that makes us human. Il freddo. La carne e il sangue fatti parola. The Cold That holy cold that dries your heart and the sudden frost, quick deep freeze of Bohemian droplets on the branches of the Pincio Flesh and blood become word.
And us, bone-deep, passing through the needle-eye of super-starry heavens that go lunatic. La gloria e la fiacca. The grass shivers in auroral chill Poetry in Italian: Coordinata polare , Rome: Ed. Something else that struck me in these poems is the acceptance of a tradition such as the Neapolitan, not in its easy musicality or in the fatuous and abused melody of sentiments — the Neapolitan song — but in the innermost philosophy of this great city and in the stylistic observance of an inclination to think, of a movement of thought within sentiment, which after all constitutes the most profound character of Neapolitans, so as to produce a renewal within tradition.
Dialect is for Serrao a virile, paternal tongue, in which there is no regression: it is the instrument of an inner monologue and a dialogue with his dead father, which is the same thing , carried out at the urging of a totally modern anguish, far removed from any alleged Neapolitan well-being. A landscape that seems swept by a wind of destruction and the often rainy and wintry weather increase the effect of displacement. Serrao uses a closed, harsh dialect While She Should Have Left Came Winter So Winter Comes In Lord, to you I entrust the melancholy of this gentle sprite, and the signs of mine upon my brow, of mine under the eyelids He teaches contemporary literature at the Academy of Fine Arts in Naples.
Writing in dialect, in my dialect of Cappella, very close and similar to Neapolitan but with a few autonomous morpho-syntactical characteristics, to me means more and more drawing out my voice, my imagination, my anthropological-expressive identity grounded in an sharply defined archaic territory like the Campi Flegrei. Dialect, then, neither as a flight toward the past nor as a negation of the present, or not merely this, but as a pressing necessity to discover my roots, opening my cultural heritage to original and inherent possibilities.
This means that Italian, Latin and dialect must interact, without either academic-philological pretensions or the least late-avantgarde temptation. I am even less seduced by the not very seductive siren of post-modernism. For me it is a question of bringing to light the numerous suggestions and images, the complex phonic and rhythmic layering that has deposited inside me over the years, without any kind of exclusion or privilege.
Le piastrelle. The Tiles The cracked tiles wobble when you walk on them, the whole house shakes, a house with so much pain inside, chairs and mirrors swallow dust and grimacing mouths. A knife slices through the walls, a thin breath like that of gasping birds, beneath the rows of tiles the things the shadows on the floor below stir, creak. And so many long, black tails, so many worms come out at night from underneath the tiles to jump on you in your sleep!
Brucia in basso. It burns Below It burns below it burns twisted roots the animal kicks and bites dead rats below a dry wind burns doors and windows slam the tongue chews only saliva that burns in the throat below Pare luna. It seems moon. These tinkling stairs seem a luminous scroll, where the blackest wings go up and down, tiny feet with a line of blood much thinner than cotton. A Miseno. At Miseno At Miseno there is the sea and the lighthouse, there is a light at Miseno, hazy and distant, that spreads over the mountain, getting lost there, and then a voice rises from the ground, the voice of the statues eaten by wind and time, and from the sea rise ghosts of salt that prick your eyes.
He studied in Naples degrees in French literature and Philosophy. Very intense and decidedly productive his relationship with two distinguished Neapolitan writers: Domenico Rea and Fabrizio Ramondino. He wrote in Neapolitan dialect from the mid-Seventies to the end of the Eighties. Greco ESI, His poems appear in the anthologies Poesia dialettale dal Rinascimento a oggi, cit. He is also known as a satyrical poet in Italian under the pseudonym Sasade.
He uses his Neapolitan dialect to express a malaise that betrays Symbolist roots renewed through the realism of a very different tradition, imbued with a profound and sorrowful musicality. Some faded withering soul of an old unmarried lady got really tired of sewing the dresses that you asked for and ripped away your eyes. I am the one who gave you this quite unpleasant sickness.
I am ashamed of living with my arms that drop under the weight of death. A sprite each morning walks with him towards the school and then takes him back home. The underling of death follows us step by step. The sprite goes out the door to take a little stroll. He earned his keep today. Translated by Luigi Bonaffini.
E scacciali, gli spiriti! They got inside your nerves just like so many ants and gnawed away at you worse than a dead cat. You yourself have cast a most malicious spell. There is no sorceress who can sprinkle grains of salt over your recent wounds. Non fumavo sigarette, non andavo con le donne. I always walked alone waiting for better times, my pockets filled with stanzas that bedeviled death. And the last twenty years? An album full of stamps. While never smoking cigarettes I smoked away my youth. Versi noti di canzone nella nebbia della notte.
With the lyrics of a song they have locked you in a coffin. And you know that after them one morning death will suddenly appear. His corpus poeticum puts us in touch not only with the myth of beauty but with something that transcends our idea of its harmony and hovers around a consciously honed, succinct truth.
Just an earthy and elegant wit that comes to life via the critical discipline of writing, with a keen eye cast on the future, always in progress. Lunetta Bibliography Antonio Motta, preface to Iune la lune, cit. Zagarrio, Febbre, furore e fiele Milan: Mursia, Nigro, In Puglia Florence-Bari, Inside the entrails to catch ghosts it peers. It masks as chick mosquito shade. It rolls over inside chaos filthy with mold and blood with seeds and wind it slowly uncorks your senses.
Open the doors and get undressed so that when you least expect it before the final star dies out feet in the air and without knocking hugging the wall very quiet it will come to visit you. Nu mecidde de crestiene, viete a lore. In campagna. Un macello di cristiani, beati loro.
A swarm of people, lucky for them. The scirocco romps among the olive trees. Puff: the people vanish one and all all of them all at once a burning swells the underbelly! A crevice opens in the ground and lets out a mass of rising dough to be kneaded gently by hand. Kneading it seems as though I were palpating breasts. From beneath the fingers a mare of a woman starts slowly to grow. Oh, yes! His first books of poetry were published in Italian: Sul mare i lembi senza cimose ; La lunga veglia ; Un grido di gioia ; Stormire He has also composed the Grammatica del dialetto di Mattinata Foggia, and the Dizionario del dialetto di Mattinata.
Rome: ; Le parole di legno , Mario Chiesa and G. Tesio, eds. Milan: Mondadori, ; and Poesia dialettale del Rinascimento a oggi, cit. He is all toil and solitude, sun and shade, primal needs, animals, nests, nature, fear, dream. The fabulous vision of Orion, after so much travail, so many emotions, comes to its apotheosis and closes in a cycle that reopens, with three dots of suspension, in the invocation of the rebellious mule that refuses to be recaptured by the child.
The sweet, dramatic nursery rhyme breathes as a magical prayer, a tender exorcism that dissolves in the omen-filled night. Words have the virtual, hypnotic force of signs without significance. These cadences accentuate the dynamic structure of a regular sequence of tercets and septenaries. Donatella Bisutti, in Steve , 7 and in Il Belli , 4 Loi, in Il Sole, 24 Ore 29 January I gelsi, i meglio frutti.
There I had a bunch of friends my brother and my little sister and my mother in a house so bright.