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The timing of his death and the Vatican's alleged difficulties with ceremonial and legal death procedures fostered several conspiracy theories. In his book, in God's Name, British author, David Yallop, suggested that John Paul I died because he was about to uncover financial scandals allegedly involving the Vatican. John Cornwell responded to Yallop's charges in with, A Thief in The Night, in which he analyzed the various allegations and denied the conspiracy.

His resignation became effective on 28 February Two Italian publications, the major Italian newspaper La Repubblica and Panorama, an Italian magazine weekly, have proposed the conspiracy theory that Pope Benedict XVI resigned because he himself was part of the Roman Catholic sex abuse allegations, that he was being blackmailed by those with proof of his complicity, and that he resigned to avoid a scandal. Catholicism as a veiled continuation of Babylonian paganism: in , Alexander Hislop's pseudohistorical work, The Two Babylons asserted that the Roman Catholic Church originated from a Babylonian mystery religion and proposed that its rituals and ceremonies are a veiled continuation of Babylonian paganism.

The Two Babylons was an anti-Catholic religious pamphlet produced initially by the Scottish theologian and Presbyterian Alexander Hislop in It was later published as a book in Its central theme is the allegation that the Catholic Church is a veiled continuation of the ancient pagan religion of Babylon, the veiled paganism being the product of a millennia old conspiracy.

LAPD Detective The Pete Boggs Case by Ed Van Meyer

It has been recognized by scholars as discredited and has been called a "tribute to historical inaccuracy and know- nothing religious bigotry" with "shoddy scholarship, blatant dishonesty" and a "nonsensical thesis. Many of these deal with the Antichrist Arabic: Masih ad-Dajjal. The Antichrist, also known as The Beast , is supposed to be a leader who will create a world empire and oppress Christians and in some conspiracies, Jews as well. Donald Trump is the basis for the latest conspiracy theories. At times, apocalyptic speculation has mixed with anti-Catholicism, believing that the reigning Pope is the Antichrist or the False Prophet.

Another interpretation sees the Antichrist as a world leader involved with the United Nations, who will create a one world government New World Order and establish a single monetary system. The latter is identified with the Mark of the Beast, which some believe that people in the end times will need to possess in order to conduct trade. Anti-Catholic conspiracy theories in majority Protestant countries have since the Reformation, especially Great Britain, The United States, Australia, Canada, and countries in Northwestern Europe have opposed the Pope, Roman Catholic rituals, and general "popery" a major political theme, often rallying behind anti-Catholic sentiment by inflaming fears of alleged Catholic conspiracy plots.

Anti-Catholicism and fear of Catholic conspiracies were also a major issue during the presidential campaign of , in which the Irish Catholic New York state governor Al- Smith, the first major-party Roman Catholic candidate in a presidential election, ran against the Protestant Herbert Hoover. Smith's opponents created the phrase "Rum and Romanism" in reference to Smith's campaign, as Smith was not only Catholic but, like many Catholic Americans at the time, was against the mostly Protestant Teetotaler Prohibition movement.

The so-called "Catholic Question," in which Protestant Americans were concerned about Catholic American loyalty to the Pope rather than the United States, once again rose to the forefront in the campaign of John F. Prominent Protestant ministers, such as Billy Graham, distrusted Kennedy, believing Kennedy to be a potential agent of the Catholic Church, and tried to derail his campaign. The more extreme, paranoid anti-Catholic Protestants employed old anti-Catholic conspiracy theories in response to Kennedy's candidacy and subsequent presidential administration, claiming that Kennedy, as the first Roman Catholic president of the United States, was a pawn of the Catholic Church.

Schlesinger, Sr. Describing American prejudice against the Catholics as "the deepest bias in the history of the American people. Two major types of anti-Catholic rhetoric existed in colonial society: The first, derived from the heritage of the Protestant Reformation, consisted of the "Anti-Christ" and the "Whore of Babylon" variety, claiming the Catholic Church to be these evil entities predicted in the Book of Revelation.

The second was a more secular variety which focused on the supposed intrigue of the Catholic intent on extending medieval despotism worldwide. Anti-Catholic fears in the U. Yallop enlarges on claims of priestly sexual abuse and repeats the other standard anti-Catholic clap-trap listed above together with a new one that St Maximilian Kolbe, the Polish priest who died in place of a young married man at Auschwitz, had previously endorsed the anti- Jewish Protocols of the Elders of Zion.

There is no reference for this claim and just thirteen footnotes in the entire pages. Avro Manhattan's works form part of the basis of a series of tracts by the noted modern anti-Catholic and comic book evangelist Jack Chick who also accuses the papacy of supporting Communism, of using the Jesuits to incite revolutions, and of masterminding the Holocaust. Chick claims that the Catholic Church infiltrates and attempts to destroy or corrupt all other religions and churches, and that it uses various means including seduction, framing, and murder to silence its critics.

Drawing on the ideas of Alberto Rivera, Chick also claims that the Catholic Church helped mold Islam as a tool to lure people away from Christianity in what he calls the Vatican Islam Conspiracy. During the Troubles in Ireland, anti-Catholic conspiracy theories and anti-Catholicism in general were frequent among Ulster Scot loyalists and Northern Irish unionists, though generally from a more secular standpoint. Bible conspiracy theory: Bible conspiracy theories suggest that much of what is known about the Bible, in particular the New Testament, is a deception.

Many of these theories are propagated by atheists and former Christians. In the Gospel of Philip, Mary Magdalene, who is referred to as Jesus' koinonos, a Greek term for "companion" or "partner," is depicted as being closer to Jesus than any other apostle. These theories variously claim that Jesus had a wife, Mary Magdalene, and children, that a group such as the Priory of Sion has secret information about the bloodline of Jesus, that Jesus did not die on the cross and that the carbon dating of the Shroud of Turin was part of a conspiracy by the Vatican to suppress this knowledge, that there was a secret movement to censor books that belonged in the Bible, or the Christ myth theory, proposed for example in Zeitgeist, the Movie as a means of social control by the Roman Empire.

A fictionalized contrivance of this is portrayed in the novel The davinci Code. Associated with this belief is the conspiracy of the Antichrist, who is to lead the New World Order against Christ.

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This same theory also proposes that current events, such as global changes resulting from global warming, are fulfillment of Bible prophecies and signs of the Tribulation and the end of days. Rivera also alleged that the Vatican staged an apparition at Fatima named after Muhammed's daughter to cozy up to Muslims. He further claimed that the Catholic Church staged the Pope John Paul II assassination attempt using a Muslim as the marksman "to guilt-induce the Muslim world, bringing them still closer to the Catholic faith.. Rivera also believed that Jesuits are responsible for the creation of Communism and Nazism, and are the cause of both World Wars, the Jonestown Massacre, and the assassinations of Abraham Lincoln and John F.

Kennedy; that the Catholic Church wants to spread homosexuality and abortion; that the Charismatic Movement is a front for the Catholic Church; that the popes are Anti-Christs; and that the Catholic Church is the Whore of Babylon. He has also claimed that the Jesuits were the masterminds behind the Medieval Inquisition in the 13th century, even though the Jesuits were in fact founded in Although extensively footnoted, giving the impression of reliability, commentators, in particular Ralph Woodrow,10 have stated that there are numerous misconceptions, fabrications, and grave factual errors in the document, and that this book follows the line of thought of works like: Martin Luther: on the Babylonian Captivity of the Church , Titus Oates: An Exact Discovery of the Mystery of Iniquity as it is now in Practice amongst the Jesuits , and Conyers Middleton: Letter from Rome Although scholarship has shown the picture presented by Alexander Hislop11 to be absurd and based on an exceedingly poor understanding of historical Babylon and its religion, his book remains popular among some fundamentalist Christians.

The book's thesis has also featured prominently in the conspiracy theories of groups such as The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord and other conspiracy theorists. In an exchange between Peter and Mary, he admits to her that "the Savior loved you above all other women" a tense moment in the scripture that seems to portray the jealousy that the other apostles might have felt for Mary's relationship with Jesus. The only other evidence used to support the theory is a mention of Jesus kissing Mary often, but some say kissing was the custom and it was typical of Jesus to practice it with those close to him.

For example, Judas kissed Jesus in the garden to betray him to the Pharisees. As the basis for the plot of the Da Vinci code, the idea that Jesus wed Mary and now has a physical bloodline made for a good performance at the box office. The theory itself, however, is loosely based on excerpts taken from the Gnostic Gospels whose authenticity is still being disputed. Most of the enemies are protestants. The most recent example of this is found in the book "The Mormon Conspiracy" by Charles 10 Ralph Woodrow is an Evangelical Christian minister, speaker and presently the author of sixteen books.

Woodrow formerly supported the thesis of 19th century Presbyterian churchman, Alexander Hislop, that Roman Catholicism is a syncretistic pagan religion in his book Babylon Mystery Religion and gained a certain notoriety when he changed his view and pulled the work from circulation. His new viewpoint is documented in The Babylon Connection? Woodrow has been in the ministry since the age of 18, where he has remained for over fifty years. Wood,12 which attempts to show how the Latter-Day Saints Church LDS is organized to restrict individual freedoms, individual thought, independence and democracy.

First of all, his credentials are that he is a Navy veteran and a phd in education. Neither credential makes him an authority on Mormonism so whatever he says must be taken with a grain of salt. The book "The Mormon Conspiracy" alleges how the Mormon church leaders are involved in a nefarious conspiracy to control the United States government and eventually the world by establishing its "Kingdom of God" on earth. Members believe that Church Authorities fourteen apostles in addition to the president of the church are also infallible.

Therefore, these fifteen Authorities have control of the Mormon Church. There is no democracy in the decision making of the church, since all appointments from the highest to the lowest offices in the church are made under the umbrella of the church president. The hilarious book, The Mormon Conspiracy, shows that if the Mormon Church were to gain control of the United States there would be no secret ballot election of congressional representatives, state legislators, or local governmental officials.

All of these officials would be appointed by the President of the Mormon Church, with assistance from other church officials. I read excerpts of the book. It resembles some of the travelogues by early explorers who tried to describe cultures, lands and people they never understood nor had any intention of understanding. Wood does the same thing. He describes the rug from the backside where he offers the vague design but misses out on the full beauty and details. Wood merely shows his own ignorance about the Mormons.

This conspiracy theory attempts to gain momentum when concerns are addressed about the Mormon church members. The book contends The Mormon church members are controlled by an authoritarian organization much like the Monarchies that prevailed in European countries such as France and England before the French Revolution and before democracy was established in England. The Mormon church requires strict religious obedience from members and teaches them that individuals need not think for themselves concerning church doctrine as taught by the Church Authorities, a form of mind control.

This is evident even in areas of non-church affairs, such as politics and economics where the church hierarchy expects members to follow its directions. This allegation is laughable. Here Mr. Wood is wrong, embarrassingly wrong. The Mormon Church teaches us to think for ourselves. We watch the news for current events. We engage in trends in music, clothes, and other current inclinations.

Wood, a Navy veteran, received his Ph. He has traveled throughout the world and lived for several years in France and Germany. He authored two books on Education and over thirty articles in national journals prior to writing "The Mormon Conspiracy. Lilburn W. Boggs of Missouri who issued an extermination order, Missouri Executive Order 44, against the Mormons in October 27, Wood and others like him attempt to expose the church with just enough knowledge to be dangerous to themselves and others. The accusations they make against Mormons could easily be made against any of the Protestant churches.

They persecuted each other during the reformation. Even when they came to America they continued their persecution of each other. It seems that they are the Christian version of jihadists for Christ. Muslims, Protestant Christians, and Atheists have caused more death and destruction than even the Catholics. What is it about each of their names, buildings, doctrines, and policies that one can reasonably say that church is a Christian church?

Wood goes on to list all the ways the Mormons control state and local and the federal government. When Mitt Romney ran for president there were just as many lies about him and the Mormons from conservatives as from the liberal democrats. Many non-Mormons in Utah like to talk about the telephone line between the state capital and church offices.

As I mentioned earlier, first there is no more mind control over members from the church then there is mind control over conservatives in the republican party. Yes, there are Mormons in state and local government. I overheard a couple of guys talking about the influence of religion on government. When many former communist nations overthrew communism, all the leftist socialist countries in Europe, and fascist countries in the Middle East and South America, over threw their socialist and fascist slave masters, are their nations any better off because they got rid of religion from their governments?

Again, Joseph Smith taught that he teaches the members correct principles and they govern themselves. Therefore, members who serve in government are a reflection of their personal beliefs. There are Mormon at all stages of dedication. Some are Mormons in name only. Other are dedicated in every aspect of the religion. Then there are those who fit on every point in between. Some Mormons lose faith in the leaders or members and leave the church entirely.

No one forces them to stay in the church. If someone has a problem with doctrine, policies or procedures they are free to leave. Proof of that are the numbers of people who have left the church over the years from Joseph Smith to present times. In fact, the Polygamists in southern Utah and Texas are people who left the church over polygamy at the turn of the last century. The Reorganized Church Community of Christ left the main body over differences in doctrine.

Now they bear little resemblance to the LDS Church as they have evolved over the last years to the point they resemble other Protestant churches. Many outsiders feel Members are forced to live the doctrines and policies of the church. One such was a colleague at work who said that the Book of Mormon has 50, mistakes14 in it. I asked him how did his minister come up with that information? I asked had he read the book?

Another person who claimed to be a feminist asked me something about church policy. I asked her if she was intending on joining the church. She answered no, so then I said, so what does it matter? If the church is divine, then you can believe that the church policies are inspired of God. Truth is not an option. Before we bite we must ask ourselves who is repeating the theory? Where did it originate? Who is to gain and who is to lose? What are the facts? The Church of Scientology: Developed by L. Scientology addresses the spirit—not the body or mind—and believes that Man is far more than a product of his environment, or his genes.

Scientology comprises a body of knowledge which extends from certain fundamental truths. Scientology further holds Man to be basically good, and that his spiritual salvation depends upon himself, his fellows and his attainment of brotherhood with the universe. Scientology is not a dogmatic religion in which one is asked to accept anything on faith alone. On the contrary, one discovers for oneself that the principles of Scientology are true by applying its principles and observing or experiencing the results.

The ultimate goal of Scientology is true spiritual enlightenment and freedom for all. All told, L. Also from these works come Scientology technologies to rear children, repair families, educate, organize and provide relief in times of illness or suffering. So that all may avail themselves of these technologies, L.

Ron Hubbard directed the rise of Churches all over the world and thus, the birth of a worldwide religion. It is a practical religion. It is applicable to every aspect of human existence and it is religion for the here and now. But at its core and 14 The Book of Mormon has pages. Also, the Book of Mormon was translated from ancient plates of Brass and Gold delivered to the Prophet Joseph by an angel from heaven. Ron Hubbard, who had an extensive record of biographical fabrication and exaggeration such as bronc busting at the age of Hugh B. Those precursors include excerpts from an unpublished Hubbard work entitled Excalibur, written in , which suggests that Hubbard learned the secrets of reality from a near-death experience during an operation p.

Urban does point out the anti-religious sentiments expressed by Hubbard in some of his early s lectures, which were particularly critical of Christianity. Such a terrible thing to make an issue of. Something is at the bottom of it. A man without an abiding faith is, by observation alone, more of a thing than a man. Dianetics auditing had led to controversy over past lives by , and was beginning to clash with medical regulators over claims of diagnosis and healing, with several Hubbard followers being arrested in the early s p.

In , the Washington, D. This still, however, seemed mostly for show. Only once in twenty years, and I was in the Sea Org running a large part of Scientology across the entire world for half of that time. He felt that the trouble we were currently having with the IRS would not exist if he had not listened to those around him at the time and just stayed as a for-profit corporation and just made more money to pay the taxes.

The lawsuit was settled in August Apparently, the Church of Scientology managed to perform the largest infiltration of the United States government in history. They stole hundreds of documents, mainly from the IRS. No critic was spared, and in the end, organizations, agencies and foreign embassies were infiltrated. After two Scientologists were caught in the U. Courts building in Washington, D. Although Hubbard was named as an unindicted coconspirator and was sought by investigators, he went into hiding.

His wife took the fall for him and went to jail after a negotiated guilty plea to a charge of conspiracy. But he continued to issue orders through a few trusted Scientologist intermediaries. Its primary task appears to be archiving and preserving the works of L. Both Rathbun and Rinder have now left the church and are actively working to promote the practice of Scientology independent of the organization. She describes cases of physical battery, hard labor without pay in the RPF, coerced abortions for women in the Sea Org, and the breaking up of families. Scientology filed about lawsuits against the IRS, to which 2, individual members added their own lawsuits.

Seventeen individual IRS officials were named personally in Scientology lawsuits, accusing them of illegal acts against the church. Private investigators were hired to attend IRS conferences and identify IRS agents who seemed to have problems with alcohol or were cheating on spouses. When Miscavige met with IRS Commissioner Fred Goldberg in , Miscavige told him all the problems could go away with a settlement, and a settlement was reached in Reitman, pp.

Scientology agreed not to sue the IRS for anything prior to the same date. The settlement also gave Scientologists the right to deduct expenses for fees paid for auditing or any other religious services contradicting the U. Supreme Court decision in Hernandez v. Commissioner, U. That last point led to a lawsuit against the IRS by Michael Sklar, arguing that if Scientologists can deduct expenses for religious schooling, he should be able to deduct the portion of payments made to an Orthodox Jewish school for his children that was used for religious instruction.

Commissioner, F. Online information critical of Scientology proliferated. Her death received little publicity, no public police report, and not even an obituary Reitman, p. The Lisa mcpherson Trust was set up by critics of Scientology in Clearwater, and new pressure was directed against the church.

She shows how mcpherson went from a happy, vivacious young lady to a woman who began exhibiting signs of psychosis. After a minor automobile accident, she got out of her car and began taking off her clothes, and was taken to a hospital for observation. But Scientologists came, took her into their care, and held her captive at the Fort Harrison Hotel without proper medical treatment as her behavior became more and more erratic.

Then after 17 days she stopped moving. They drove mcpherson past several hospitals to one where a Scientologist physician was on staff, where she was declared dead on arrival. In , Jeff Jacobsen was preparing a Clearwater, FL protest against Scientology for its abuses, when a local policeman who was the liaison for protesters told him that he might find a page on the Clearwater Police Department web page to be of interest. As a result, the state attorney dropped the charges on the grounds that he could not depend on her testimony in the prosecution. In , the civil case was settled.

The iconic protest mask adopted by the Anonymous group was originally designed by British comic artist David Lloyd for a ten-issue graphic novel series V for Vendetta, written by Alan Moore. The mustachioed visage was based on portraits of Guy Fawkes and traditional festival masks. When the series became a hit film, the image gained even wider recognition. It was also dropped from planned rebroadcasts, though it aired again in after viewer protests and can be seen on youtube.

The Church of Scientology issued legal threats, but Gawker refused to take down the video, though other sites complied with removal requests. Understanding the E-Meter, P. Ron Hubbard. Simply squeezing the cans to increase the contact area with the skin can also vary the amount of current measured by the meter. Both Reitman and Urban document the extent to which the Church of Scientology declined between and For example, Scientologists completed 11, courses in , but only 5, in Reitman, p.

Scientologists at 55, in , and at only 25, in Urban, p. Recent departures include very senior former members such as Marty Rathbun and Mike Rinder. These former Scientology executives have begun speaking out publicly and releasing key documents, as well as promoting the alternative of practicing Scientology independently of the church.

Blogs such as Leaving Scientology and online forums such as Ex-Scientology Kids and the Ex-Scientologist Message Board now provide a support structure available for those leaving the church that was not available in the past, as well as a source of continuing new accounts of abuses occurring inside the church. And there is hope among many outside and almost certainly inside as well that Scientology faces a potential revolution, or possibly even collapse. Many, Scobee, Headley, Hawkins, and Duignan have each written books about their experiences, of which those by Hawkins and Duignan both of whom worked in marketing roles for Scientology are the best written and most engaging.

See pp. The events of Scientology vs. The Internet merit a book of their own, yet to be written. Reitman writes in a footnote on the first page of her first chapter p. Hubbard, a civil engineering major at George Washington University, was put on academic probation after getting a D average in his first year, and dropped out after his second year.

As Miller p. The trouble with China is, there are too many chinks here. Hubbard identified homosexuality as a perversion and mental illness in both Dianetics pp. Many, p. Ballard, U. In this case, Edna and her son Donald Ballard were accused of collecting donations on the basis of religious claims they did not themselves believe. The District Court instructed the jury to find the defendants guilty of fraud if their religious claims were not sincerely held beliefs; the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals overturned on the grounds that this restriction was unnecessary and the jury could rule on the truth or falsity of the beliefs.

The Supreme Court majority opinion, authored by William O. In a later case before the 9th Circuit referencing Ballard, Cohen v. In the beginning, he may have been sincerely interested in helping people. However, as with any organization without a moral compass it evolved into an abusive and corrupt organization.

Now you can decide where the truth lies. Netcom, F. Lerma, F. The only way to defend anything is to ATTACK, and if you ever forget that, then you will lose every battle you are ever engaged in, whether it is in terms of personal conversation, public debate, or a court of law. The law can be used very easily to harass, and enough harassment on somebody who is simply on the thin edge anyway…will generally be sufficient to cause his professional decease. If possible, of course, ruin him utterly. Fair game. May be deprived of property or injured by any means by any Scientologist without any discipline of the Scientologist.

May be tricked, sued or lied to or destroyed. When the enemy agent gives false data, those who believed him but now find it false kill him—or at least cease to believe him. Ex-Scientologists have claimed that material from their auditing sessions has been used to discredit them in this manner. The technique is somewhat less than effective when used by Scientology in making charges of abuse against its own former senior executives, who were in positions of authority for decades, and who now report on those very abuses.

It was established by Hubbard policy in , cancelled in , and restored in Atack, pp. Lisa mcpherson was undergoing this treatment in the days leading up to her death Reitman, pp. But with an effective science [i. Sexual perversion, including homosexuality, is at 1. Ron Hubbard, Science of Survival, , pp. Early allegations of pressure to have abortions were made in the Declaration of Mary Taboyoyon in the case of Church of Scientology International v.

Steven Fishman and Uwe Geertz in Some of the FBI-seized documents can be found online. Many of these abuses are also vividly depicted in the sources in note 2. Both couples were split up by the church and the husbands escaped uncertain they would see their wives again, but they both successfully managed to help their wives also escape. Anti-Semitic Conspiracies and the Holocaust This article was originally written in for a volume that was commissioned by the Council of American Jewish Museums. It is published here with the kind permission of Ori Soltes, editor of that volume Antisemitism is an interesting word.

Generally, it is used to describe hatred of those of Jewish descent and religion. Yet Arabs are also Semites. Yet this word is very rarely applied to them. Of course, Antisemitism is, for Jews, one of the simplest, yet paradoxically also one of the most complex of phenomena.

It is simple in that almost every Jew feels like they either have direct experience or at least an expert knowledge of it, and yet it is so complex that scholars still cannot agree on its exact definition. The definitions offered range from a broad description of Anti-Semitism "as a term denoting all forms of hostility manifested toward Jews throughout history,"1 to narrower contexts that refer only to actions that cross certain specified lines i.

Although the subject has been studied from many perspectives and disciplines, there is still much that remains uncertain, including questions regarding its origins and the motives of its adherents. It can be said that from its very beginnings the Jewish people have had to contend with anti-Jewish behavior. The Scroll of Esther as well as the Apocryphal books of Judith and Tobit have been viewed, in the words of one popular history, as being "the first evidence of those virulent anti-Jewish attitudes that were to become so frequently directed at major Jewish communities" in the Diaspora.

The debate over historical references to Anti-Semitism intensifies when we turn to the classical Greco-Roman period. One expert has written that "Ancient Anti-Semitism was significant and widespread" and came "from governments, mobs and intellectuals. This would be accomplished by the aggressive Jewish proselytization together with Jewish self-organization had created a large and cohesive bloc that usually operated in cooperation with non-Jewish governments the series of armed rebellions against Antiochus of Syria and Rome were more exceptions than the rule , causing resentment amongst some local populations; when taken all together, this potent combination created the anti-Semitic beliefs that periodically erupted.

Another scholar, Shaye J. Cohen, raises an important point. He warns us that the use of the term Anti-Semitism for this period is in itself problematic because it is "not only anachronistic, but misleading. There were also no stereotypical pictures of Jews as moneylenders, usurers, or economic exploiters, nor were there charges of dual loyalty, all of which would become mainstays of traditional anti-Semitic typecasting. Some of the anti-Jewish acts that did take place were even understandable as reactions to Jewish rebellions and other actions.

Furthermore, there existed a pattern of successful proselytization, which would indicate an openness or even sympathy to Judaism. Cohen concludes his discussion by saying that "a discussion of Anti-Judaism in antiquity that ignores the other half of the question, the power of the attraction exerted by Judaism in the Greco-Roman world, is lachrymose16 indeed. Antisemitism usually does not exist in a vacuum, but rather exists in a context of both balance and nuance.

Whatever one chooses to conclude about the definition of ancient anti-Judaism, there is no question that the birth of Christianity changed the situation dramatically. Many experts find the roots of modern Anti-Semitism to be firmly imbedded in aspects of Christian theology. For Christianity, originating as it did within Judaism, the issue involved both the separation and creation of an identity distinct from Judaism.

It also posed the question of how Jews, who accepted the Bible as the authoritative voice of God, did not accept the Messiah and religion that was for Christians, foretold in those scriptures. This meant that either the Christian reading of the Bible was false, or else the Jews consciously and willfully denied the truth of the sacred text.

The rivalry between Christian and Jew was not only internal. Both groups had strong proselytizing tendencies, and eventually they competed against each other for the ultimate prize - the Roman Empire. It was this competition that drove Paul to eliminate compliance to Jewish Law as a requirement for conversion; a move which "changed the course of the world's history. Jews were responsible for deicide, or the murder of the "Son of God" who was Jesus. The Judaism that existed at the time of Jesus was degenerate.

The punishment for the crime of deicide was dispersion. It was not only what was said, but the heavily charged language that helped create this "Adversus Judaus" tradition. This code forbade Jews from interfering with conversions to Christianity, from owning Christian slaves and later any slaves; thus, helping remove Jews from all except small subsistence farming , from proselytization amongst Christians, and from building new synagogues, and throughout all this Judaism was referred to as "nefarious," "sacrilegious" and other negative terms. It asked the students, in various ways, whether they believed that most human beings treat others generously, fairly, and sincerely.

It measured faith in people, not in propositions. This sort of distrust, in other words, favors a certain kind of belief. It makes you more susceptible, not less, to claims of conspiracy. An example of this is foreign language. Americans are generally English speaking only. They look at others who speak other languages with suspicion.


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Put an American in a group of people where another language is spoken and they instinctively suspect that everyone around them are talking about them. In extreme form, it can become paranoia. Suspicion, imagination, and fantasy are closely related. The more you see the world this way—full of malice and planning instead of circumstance and coincidence—the more likely you are to accept conspiracy theories of all kinds.

Once you buy into the first theory, with its premises of coordination, efficacy, and secrecy, the next seems that much more plausible. Many studies and surveys have documented this pattern. In , Public Policy Polling asked 1, registered U. Compared with respondents who said Oswald acted alone, those who believed in a larger conspiracy were more likely to embrace other conspiracy theories tested in the poll. The appeal of these theories—the simplification of complex events to human agency and evil— overrides not just their cumulative implausibility which, perversely, becomes cumulative plausibility as you buy into the premise but also, in many cases, their incompatibility.

The Conspiracy theorists believe and therefore it has to be true. The rest of us realize that beliefs are like opinions. Everyone has one. In , psychologists at the University of Kent led by Michael Wood who blogs at a delightful website on conspiracy psychology , escalated the challenge. They offered U. One statement said that a year-old man had died of cerebral hemorrhage caused by the product. The average score across all the theories was 3. They aim their scrutiny at the official narrative, not at the alternative explanations. Conspiracy believers are the ultimate motivated skeptics.

Their curse is that they apply this selective scrutiny not to the left or right, but to the mainstream.

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It took a new form. A sampling: Maybe the brothers Tsarnaev were just patsies, fall guys set up to take the heat for a mysterious Saudi with high-level connections; or maybe they were innocent, but instead of the Saudis, the actual bomber had acted on behalf of a rogue branch of our own government; or what if the Tsarnaevs were behind the attacks, but were secretly working for a larger organization? But recent scientific research tells us this much: if you think one of the theories above is plausible, you probably feel the same way about the others, even though they contradict one another.

Americans have always had the sneaking suspicion that somebody is out to get us — be it Freemasons, Catholics or communists. Will Saletan writes about politics, science, technology, and other stuff for Slate. But according to recent scientific research on the matter, it most likely only serves to make theories more convincing to the public. Perfectly sane minds possess an incredible capacity for developing narratives, and even some of the wildest conspiracy theories can be grounded in rational thinking, which makes them that much more pernicious. In , Swami and a co-author summarized this research in The Psychologist, a scientific journal.

They found, perhaps surprisingly, that believers are more likely to be cynical about the world in general and politics in particular. Conspiracy theories also seem to be more compelling to those with low self-worth, especially with regard to their sense of agency in the world at large. Conspiracy theories appear to be a way of reacting to uncertainty and powerlessness. Economic recessions, terrorist attacks and natural disasters are massive, looming threats, but we have little power over when they occur or how or what happens afterward.

In these moments of powerlessness and uncertainty, a part of the brain called the amygdala kicks into action. Instead, the amygdala jump-starts the rest of the brain into analytical overdrive; prompting repeated reassessments of information in an attempt to create a coherent and understandable narrative, to understand what just happened, what threats still exist and what should be done now. It can be comforting to do your own research even if that research is flawed.

It feels good to be the wise old goat in a flock of sheep. And those conspiracies whether they be Watergate or the Iran-contra Affair often involve manipulating and circumventing the democratic process. Even people who believe that the Sandy Hook shooting was actually a drama staged by actors couch their arguments in concern for the preservation of the Second Amendment. Those on the other side of the argument exploit the tragedy to lobby for more gun control.

Our access to high-quality information has not, unfortunately, ushered in an age in which disagreements of this sort can easily be solved with a quick Google search. In fact, the Internet has made things worse. Confirmation bias, the tendency to pay more attention to evidence that supports what you already believe, is well-documented and is a common human failing. People have been writing about it for centuries. In recent years, though, researchers have found that confirmation bias is not easy to overcome.

As most people know, a smart person can make facts prove any point they want. In that way, Swami says, the Internet and other media have helped perpetuate paranoia. Just look at the social media phenomenon. In fact, some genius even said as such during the riots that occurred around the country when police officers were targeted in Houston and other US cities. Because while believing George W. Bush helped plan the Sept. Earlier this year, Karen Douglas, a University of Kent psychologist, published research in which they exposed people to conspiracy theories about climate change and the death of Princess Diana.

Those who got information supporting the theories but not information debunking them were more likely to withdraw from participation in politics and were less likely to take action to reduce their carbon footprints. It can even have dangerous health implications. This results in the rise in epidemics in regional pockets of childhood diseases with even a few deaths in places with low child-vaccination rates. Either way, the current scientific thinking suggests these beliefs are nothing more than an extreme form of cynicism, a turning away from politics and traditional media which only perpetuates the problem.

They feast on mysteries. Most conspiracy theories are based on speculation, and circumstantial evidence. Even in the face of empirical evidence many people feel the evidence is suspect. Conspiracy theorists are naturally negative, cynical, apolitical, uninformed, gullible, and some cases illiterate. They get their information from kooks like Alex Jones and other likeminded conspiracy pimps who perpetuate conspiracy theories. There was a quote from a movie I saw long ago, enentitled Alamo Bay. They reject our reality and substitute their own. This treatise on conspiracy theories will take a look at several popular conspiracy theories in an attempt to point out that the perception of powerful organizations and elitist individuals as somehow controlling world events is a delusion.

No organization or government is powerful enough to control every aspect of our lives. The bigger the organization the more bureaucratic it is and the more difficult it is to control anything including the organization. Look at the United Nations. It is a bloated bureaucracy that some claim is a dominating world government. What makes people think they can control the world?

The US government is a top-heavy bloated, immovable, bureaucracy that likes to think they can make or break a president, congress, or local governments. Yet, eventually they will get caught and they will go to jail. Public Health Service studying the natural progression of untreated syphilis in rural African, American men in Alabama under the guise of receiving free health care from the United States government.

It is large, it is rich, it is secretive, and it is powerful especially during the Middle Ages when it was the only kid on the block. They controlled everyone from Kings to peasants. They implemented crusades, inquisitions, and the selling of indulgences and other practices and teachings that controlled the illiterate masses. Then during the renaissance and reformation when Gutenberg published the Bible and Luther nailed his 95 theses to the church door in Wittenberg, Germany the power of the Catholic church began to erode.

It is still rich, large, secretive, and somewhat powerful but is more involved in doing good works in poor nations than in the shenanigans of the Middle Ages. Yet conspiracy theories concerning the Catholic church still survive, usually perpetuated by Protestants who hate the pope and the church and everything they stand for.

Some even go so far as to claim the Catholic Church is not a Christian church. Anti-Catholic, Jesuit, and Vatican conspiracy theories vary in their level of extreme stupidity. Less extreme conspiracy theorists assert the more realistic ideas that the Catholic Church as a political entity which exercises control over certain world events or the global economy, especially through Vatican banking; or that the Catholic Church has engaged in and subsequently concealed their involvement in political corruption and other immoral or criminal practices.

In the renaissance that was true as the Pope was both political and spiritual leader of the Vatican and held sway over many political leaders. Other theories that fall on the less extreme side yet still remain unfounded include the belief that the Catholic Church, Jesuits, or Knights Templar are suppressing or have suppressed in the past important religious documents or evidence incompatible with Church teachings, a theory that gained increased traction with the popularity of Dan Brown's the Da Vinci Code.

Less realistic and more extreme conspiracy theories tend to be more likely to attack Catholic adherents in general as a cohesive group, claiming that Catholics as a religious demographic, rather than just the Vatican, are actively conspiring or influencing world events. This was a popular theory when John F. Kennedy was president. Common extreme conspiracy theories, many of which have persisted for centuries within anti- Catholic Protestant circles, include theories suggesting that either Catholics as a general group, the Church hierarchy in particular, or certain Catholic orders participate in secretive or evil rituals or secret societies, with accusations varying as to the nature of these secret Catholic activities.

Such conspiracy theories may feature accusations that Catholics, Catholic groups, or the Church regularly engage in ritual abuse, Satanism, paganism or pagan rituals, orgies, black masses, bloody human sacrifices, or black magic rituals, or that the pope or the Vatican is the Anti-Christ, Satan, The Whore of Babylon, or The Beast.

More secular or politically-based but still extreme conspiracy theories include the belief that the Vatican, the Jesuits, or Catholic secret societies are seeking to create a state within a state, a strategy of tension, a shadow government, a concentration of media ownership, or they are cabals or Illuminati-like organizations creating a New World Order.

Other more recent secular conspiracy theories may speculate the Church or the Pope as part of a secret reptilian takeover conspiracy. In other words, the Pope and other high-ranking officials will turn into reptilian-like creatures and dominate the earth. One of the examples Anti-Catholics use is The Exultet which has been the subject of numerous online conspiracy theories attempting to show that the Catholic practice is actually devil-worship.

These conspiracy theories usually show a recording of a deacon chanting the final portions of the Exultet in Latin, captioned with a purported "translation" of the text into English with these or similar words, selectively translating very poorly and ungrammatically everything but the word Lucifer "light-bearer" or "Morning Star" , which is used in 2 Peter 1 and Revelation 2 and 22 as a title for Christ, attempting to inappropriately use the term as a name for Satan. The first major section of the annual Easter Vigil celebration may be the most memorable and engaging to the senses.

It certainly includes some vivid symbols and actions which we do not encounter in the liturgy every day. As the candle is being carried in procession into the dark church, all those in attendance are given individual candles which have received their light from the one Paschal Candle. Imagine how precious a candle, as the only source of light, must have been to families and monastic communities alike as the day came to an end and the sun began to set in Gaul, Spain, and other areas in the early Middle Ages.

There were of course no electric street lights, no lamps available at the touch of a switch. Candles were costly, and often a single candle provided the sole source of light throughout the impenetrable darkness of the night. The importance of such a light found liturgical expression in evening lamp-lighting services called lucernaria. In monastic communities, these often served as a kind of prelude to all-night vigils, especially on important feast days.

The hymn and prayer texts which accompanied the lucernaria made ready use of the solitary light — this one sign of security and hope enclosed by an otherwise dark night — as a symbol of Christ as the light to the world. It is no wonder, then, that a most elaborate Lucernarium came to climax the opening moments of the Vigil of Easter, the most important vigil of the year. In texts prior to the early Middle Ages, we find that a lengthy prayer of blessing of the candle was used in Rome and in the areas, most influenced by Roman liturgy. In areas of northern Europe, however, the practice of a deacon intoning a proclamation of praise in the presence of the Easter Light became customary, and during the course of the Middle Ages, this was eventually imported into regular Roman practice as well.

It is quite possible that the earliest of these Easter Proclamations were improvised, but by the Middle Ages the text we now know as the Exultet became the standard hymn for the Easter Vigil in the West. In fact, in the important and influential Sacramentary compiled from both Roman and Northern European sources for the 9th century court of Charlemagne, we find the Exultet essentially as we know it today.

Despite its antiquity, this plus year old Latin text is nearly identical to the one in our Missal today, except that the older one is about one third longer. In this early Exultet, there was an entire long section devoted to a rich symbolism drawn from the activities of bees. In our present version, this has been reduced to two references to the role of bees in the production of the wax which makes up the sacred candle — language which has been noticeably restored in the new English translation of the Exultet. In Southern Italy during the later Middle Ages the Exultet was often written out on elaborately decorated scrolls.

As the deacon progressed through the long text, the assembly was able to see beautiful illuminations accompanying the various parts of the text. Rich with patristic allusions, the Exultet also provides a preview of the scriptural and theological themes that will ground the rest of the Easter Vigil liturgy. The text poetically recalls the Passover Feast; the candle present before the assembly is likened to the pillar of fire which guided Israel in its desert journey; their miraculous passage through the Red Sea serves as both a sign of deliverance and as a prefiguring of the waters of Baptism, another prominent element of Easter Vigils both ancient and modern.

Having recalled key moments of the Old Covenant, the New Covenant between God and humanity is proclaimed eloquently in terms of the brilliant Light of Christ dispelling the darkness of sin and death for all time. As is fitting for a text of this importance and solemnity, the Exultet should always be sung — unless singing it worthily would be truly impossible.

The chant notation in the Missal is not difficult to sing, but the Easter Proclamation is lengthy, so preparation and practice well in advance is essential. It is also important to take note of the rubrical instructions concerning the Exultet which are contained in the Missal. Deciding which of the various options best suits a given community and the capabilities of its ministers will go a long way to ensuring a rendition of the Exultet which is both dignified and evocative of joy.

As the rubrics indicate, intoning the Exultet is primarily the responsibility of the deacon. In the absence of a deacon, it may also be sung either by the priest who is presiding, or by a concelebrant. However, if local circumstances suggest it, the instructions also permit the intoning of the Exultet by a lay cantor, with certain indicated portions of the text being omitted.

Finally, if the length of text proves daunting, the Missal also contains an abbreviated form of the Exultet. These various options, together with the determination of which ministers will execute them, should be discussed early in the planning stages, and never left to chance at the last minute. Augustine aptly described the Easter Vigil. The following is the Original Latin Version, the current official translation. And a Google Translation by me. Section 2 V. Sursum corda. Dignum et iustum est. Current Official Translation Section 1 Rejoice, heavenly powers!

Sing, choirs of angels! Jesus Christ, our King, is risen! Sound the trumpet of salvation! Rejoice, O earth, in shining splendor, Radiant in the brightness of your King! Christ has conquered! Glory fills you! Darkness vanishes forever! Rejoice, O Mother Church! Exult in glory! The risen Savior shines upon you! My dearest friends, Standing with me in this holy light, Join me in asking God for mercy, That he may give his unworthy minister Grace to sing his Easter praises.

Rejoice, let Mother Church also rejoice, Arrayed with the lighting of his glory, Let this holy building shake with joy, Filled with the mighty voices of the peoples. Section 2 The Lord be with you. And also with you. Lift up your hearts. We lift them up to the Lord. Let us give thanks to the Lord our God. It is right to give him thanks and praise. This is our Passover feast, When Christ, the true Lamb, is slain, Whose blood consecrates the homes of all believers.

This is the night When first you saved our fathers: You freed the people of Israel from their slavery And led them dry-shod through the sea. This is the night when the pillar of fire Destroyed the darkness of sin! This is the night When Christians everywhere, Washed clean of sin and freed from all defilement, Are restored to grace and grow together in holiness. What good would life have been to us, Had Christ not come as our Redeemer? Father, how wonderful your care for us!

How boundless your merciful love! To ransom a slave You gave away your Son. Section 3 O happy fault That earned so great, so glorious a Redeemer! O truly blessed night, Worthy alone to know the time and hour When Christ rose from the underworld! This is the night Of which it is written: The night shall be as bright as day, Dazzling is the night for me, And full of gladness. The sanctifying power of this night Dispels all wickedness, washes faults away, Restores innocence to the fallen, and joy to mourners, Drives out hatred, fosters concord, And brings down the mighty. O truly blessed night, When things of heaven are wed to those of earth, And divine to the human.

Section 4 Let it mingle with the lights of heaven And continue bravely burning To dispel the darkness of this night! May the Morning Star which never sets Find this flame still burning: Christ, that Morning Star, Who came back from the dead, And shed his peaceful light on all mankind, Your Son, who lives and reigns for ever and ever. Receive it as a pleasing fragrance, And let it mingle with the lights of heaven. My Google Translation Section 1 Let the angelic choirs of heaven: but the joyful mysteries of the divine: Sound the trumpet of victory, and for the salvation of so great a King.

Let us be glad, and the earth was enlightened by the splendor of so great: And the brightness of the eternal King, Illustrator, Of the whole world let it know that the cloud. Let Mother Church, So, light, adorned with the rays This royal hall ring with the great voices of the peoples.

For example, the merit of mine, who did not Was enrolled among the Levites, did vouchsafe to admit, His light upon, To perfect the praise of this wax candle. Section 2 The Lord you. And with your spirit. Who for us the eternal Father the debt of Adam, And the shedding of the blood of the old original sin. These are the feasts of Easter, In which the true Lamb, is slain, Whose blood consecrates the homes of all believers.

This is the night, Pillar of fire destroyed the darkness of sin. This is the night Which at this time throughout the world in Christ, believing, you Sin and freed from all defilement from our sins of the world, Restored to grace and grow together in holiness. This is the night In which, being defended from all the chains of death, Christ rose triumphant from the grave.

Have profited us nothing to be born, but we might be redeemed. O inestimable love: Mightest redeem a slave, thou didst deliver up! O truly necessary sin of Adam, The death of Christ is wiped out! Section 3 O happy fault, which gained for us so great a Redeemer! O truly blessed night, Which alone deserved to know the time and hour, In which Christ rose from the grave He rose again! This is the night, as it is written: And the night as the day; And night shall be my light in my pleasures.

The power of this holy night dispels all evil, washes guilt away, , restores lost innocence, brings mourners joy. It casts out hatred, brings us, and humbles earthly pride. In this sacred night, Receive, O holy Father, the evening sacrifice of this praise, Shown you on the Church's solemn offering, By the hands From the work of bees, make the most holy Church renders to.

But now we know the praises of this pillar, Not light a fire that glows to the honor of God. A person who, even though it is divided into parts, No loss from its light being lent. O truly blessed night, When heaven is wedded to God! We beseech thee, O Lord, That this candle, consecrated in honor of Thy name, To dispel the darkness, Continue to arise. Section 4 The odor is accepted, Heavenly luminaries. His flames dawning: He, I say, O Lucifer, who does not know the going down: Christ your Son, Who came back from the grave, his peaceful light on all mankind, Who lives and reigns for ever and ever.

So, you see there is no Satanic ritual in the Exultet. It is simply an announcement and invitation to all Christians to celebrate Easter. Those who see the word lucifer automatically jump to the conclusion that the word means Satan. However, if they bothered to consult a Latin Dictionary they would see that word means Son of the Morning. This not only refers to Satan but it also referesz to Christ as the Light of the Morning. The eventual expulsion of numerous Catholics from Great Britain, and the executions of at least 22 men, including Jesuit priests.

Later the hatred for Protestants which defined the reign of Queen Mary Tudor did not help quell the anti-Catholic fervor. Kennedy British laws of the time, such as the Popery Act , collectively known as the Penal Laws, imposed various civil disabilities and legal penalties on disobedient Catholics. Simply, the laws disenfranchised Catholics, non-Anglican Protestant groups such as the Calvinists and Quakers, which made it unlawful for them to hold public office, receive university degrees, become school teachers, or come within five miles of a town.

The activities of a fifth column can be overt or clandestine. The economic hardships the laws caused forced many in the UK and Ireland to immigrate to America. Maryland was a colony established by Lord Baltimore for Catholics, while many Presbyterians and Quakers settled in Pennsylvania and parts of New England. Anti-Catholic Protestants continued their vitriol against Catholics even to the present day.

One of the early anti-Catholic groups was the No-Nothing party that began the anti-Catholic political group, the Know Nothings, which began in and dissolved in They were a political party claiming that the Irish and other Roman Catholic immigrants to the United States were controlled by the Pope to further an anti-American agenda. Later after the civil War other groups such as the Ku Klux Klan were especially anti-Catholic and fearful of an eventual Catholic takeover of the U.

S; basing their beliefs in part on a "religious foundation" in Protestant Christianity and a "return" to "White Protestant values" while also hateful of the influx of poor Catholic immigrants for more secular, nativist reasons. It is interesting that the name was quite revealing about the clueless members of the party. The name could also be attributed to those today who spread clueless rumors, gossip, false news, and other nonsense on social media.

Rising fears sparked a rebirth in the well-worn conspiracy claim that the Catholic Church was the Whore of Babylon in the Book of Revelations, bent on bringing about the end times. The Panic of was used by American Protestants as "proof" of a Catholic conspiracy to destroy the financial institutions of the US, with fringe groups alleging that agents of the Catholic Church had assassinated Abraham Lincoln. The American fear of Catholic and Papal political control also grew with the establishment of Catholic parochial schools. In response, Congress proposed an amendment to the Constitution in that provided: "No money raised by taxation in any State for the support of public schools, or derived from any public source, nor any public lands devoted thereto, shall ever be under the control of any religious sect, nor shall any money so raised or land so devoted be divided between religious sects or denominations.


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Reed's accusations inspired an angry mob to burn down the convent, and her book famously sold , copies in one month. William Stone, a New York city newspaper editor, along with a team of Protestant investigators, inquired into Monk's claims, inspecting the convent in the process. Stone's investigation concluded there was no evidence that Maria Monk "had ever been within the walls of the cloister. I have learned over the years that many Protestant writers often publish tracts that attack other religions with some off-the wall accusations that may or may not be true. They put little value on the truth and more often than not the more sensational the better.

Anything to destroy the competition to their ability to make money through their collection plates and other donations. The timing of his death and the Vatican's alleged difficulties with ceremonial and legal death procedures fostered several conspiracy theories. In his book, in God's Name, British author, David Yallop, suggested that John Paul I died because he was about to uncover financial scandals allegedly involving the Vatican.

John Cornwell responded to Yallop's charges in with, A Thief in The Night, in which he analyzed the various allegations and denied the conspiracy. His resignation became effective on 28 February Two Italian publications, the major Italian newspaper La Repubblica and Panorama, an Italian magazine weekly, have proposed the conspiracy theory that Pope Benedict XVI resigned because he himself was part of the Roman Catholic sex abuse allegations, that he was being blackmailed by those with proof of his complicity, and that he resigned to avoid a scandal.

Catholicism as a veiled continuation of Babylonian paganism: in , Alexander Hislop's pseudohistorical work, The Two Babylons asserted that the Roman Catholic Church originated from a Babylonian mystery religion and proposed that its rituals and ceremonies are a veiled continuation of Babylonian paganism. The Two Babylons was an anti-Catholic religious pamphlet produced initially by the Scottish theologian and Presbyterian Alexander Hislop in It was later published as a book in Its central theme is the allegation that the Catholic Church is a veiled continuation of the ancient pagan religion of Babylon, the veiled paganism being the product of a millennia old conspiracy.

It has been recognized by scholars as discredited and has been called a "tribute to historical inaccuracy and know- nothing religious bigotry" with "shoddy scholarship, blatant dishonesty" and a "nonsensical thesis. Many of these deal with the Antichrist Arabic: Masih ad-Dajjal.

The Antichrist, also known as The Beast , is supposed to be a leader who will create a world empire and oppress Christians and in some conspiracies, Jews as well. Donald Trump is the basis for the latest conspiracy theories. At times, apocalyptic speculation has mixed with anti-Catholicism, believing that the reigning Pope is the Antichrist or the False Prophet. Another interpretation sees the Antichrist as a world leader involved with the United Nations, who will create a one world government New World Order and establish a single monetary system.

The latter is identified with the Mark of the Beast, which some believe that people in the end times will need to possess in order to conduct trade. Anti-Catholic conspiracy theories in majority Protestant countries have since the Reformation, especially Great Britain, The United States, Australia, Canada, and countries in Northwestern Europe have opposed the Pope, Roman Catholic rituals, and general "popery" a major political theme, often rallying behind anti-Catholic sentiment by inflaming fears of alleged Catholic conspiracy plots.

Anti-Catholicism and fear of Catholic conspiracies were also a major issue during the presidential campaign of , in which the Irish Catholic New York state governor Al- Smith, the first major-party Roman Catholic candidate in a presidential election, ran against the Protestant Herbert Hoover. Smith's opponents created the phrase "Rum and Romanism" in reference to Smith's campaign, as Smith was not only Catholic but, like many Catholic Americans at the time, was against the mostly Protestant Teetotaler Prohibition movement. The so-called "Catholic Question," in which Protestant Americans were concerned about Catholic American loyalty to the Pope rather than the United States, once again rose to the forefront in the campaign of John F.

Prominent Protestant ministers, such as Billy Graham, distrusted Kennedy, believing Kennedy to be a potential agent of the Catholic Church, and tried to derail his campaign. The more extreme, paranoid anti-Catholic Protestants employed old anti-Catholic conspiracy theories in response to Kennedy's candidacy and subsequent presidential administration, claiming that Kennedy, as the first Roman Catholic president of the United States, was a pawn of the Catholic Church.

Schlesinger, Sr. Describing American prejudice against the Catholics as "the deepest bias in the history of the American people. Two major types of anti-Catholic rhetoric existed in colonial society: The first, derived from the heritage of the Protestant Reformation, consisted of the "Anti-Christ" and the "Whore of Babylon" variety, claiming the Catholic Church to be these evil entities predicted in the Book of Revelation.

The second was a more secular variety which focused on the supposed intrigue of the Catholic intent on extending medieval despotism worldwide. Anti-Catholic fears in the U. Yallop enlarges on claims of priestly sexual abuse and repeats the other standard anti-Catholic clap-trap listed above together with a new one that St Maximilian Kolbe, the Polish priest who died in place of a young married man at Auschwitz, had previously endorsed the anti- Jewish Protocols of the Elders of Zion.

There is no reference for this claim and just thirteen footnotes in the entire pages. Avro Manhattan's works form part of the basis of a series of tracts by the noted modern anti-Catholic and comic book evangelist Jack Chick who also accuses the papacy of supporting Communism, of using the Jesuits to incite revolutions, and of masterminding the Holocaust. Chick claims that the Catholic Church infiltrates and attempts to destroy or corrupt all other religions and churches, and that it uses various means including seduction, framing, and murder to silence its critics.

Drawing on the ideas of Alberto Rivera, Chick also claims that the Catholic Church helped mold Islam as a tool to lure people away from Christianity in what he calls the Vatican Islam Conspiracy. During the Troubles in Ireland, anti-Catholic conspiracy theories and anti-Catholicism in general were frequent among Ulster Scot loyalists and Northern Irish unionists, though generally from a more secular standpoint. Bible conspiracy theory: Bible conspiracy theories suggest that much of what is known about the Bible, in particular the New Testament, is a deception.

Many of these theories are propagated by atheists and former Christians. In the Gospel of Philip, Mary Magdalene, who is referred to as Jesus' koinonos, a Greek term for "companion" or "partner," is depicted as being closer to Jesus than any other apostle. These theories variously claim that Jesus had a wife, Mary Magdalene, and children, that a group such as the Priory of Sion has secret information about the bloodline of Jesus, that Jesus did not die on the cross and that the carbon dating of the Shroud of Turin was part of a conspiracy by the Vatican to suppress this knowledge, that there was a secret movement to censor books that belonged in the Bible, or the Christ myth theory, proposed for example in Zeitgeist, the Movie as a means of social control by the Roman Empire.

A fictionalized contrivance of this is portrayed in the novel The davinci Code. Associated with this belief is the conspiracy of the Antichrist, who is to lead the New World Order against Christ. This same theory also proposes that current events, such as global changes resulting from global warming, are fulfillment of Bible prophecies and signs of the Tribulation and the end of days.

Rivera also alleged that the Vatican staged an apparition at Fatima named after Muhammed's daughter to cozy up to Muslims. He further claimed that the Catholic Church staged the Pope John Paul II assassination attempt using a Muslim as the marksman "to guilt-induce the Muslim world, bringing them still closer to the Catholic faith.. Rivera also believed that Jesuits are responsible for the creation of Communism and Nazism, and are the cause of both World Wars, the Jonestown Massacre, and the assassinations of Abraham Lincoln and John F. Kennedy; that the Catholic Church wants to spread homosexuality and abortion; that the Charismatic Movement is a front for the Catholic Church; that the popes are Anti-Christs; and that the Catholic Church is the Whore of Babylon.

He has also claimed that the Jesuits were the masterminds behind the Medieval Inquisition in the 13th century, even though the Jesuits were in fact founded in Although extensively footnoted, giving the impression of reliability, commentators, in particular Ralph Woodrow,10 have stated that there are numerous misconceptions, fabrications, and grave factual errors in the document, and that this book follows the line of thought of works like: Martin Luther: on the Babylonian Captivity of the Church , Titus Oates: An Exact Discovery of the Mystery of Iniquity as it is now in Practice amongst the Jesuits , and Conyers Middleton: Letter from Rome Although scholarship has shown the picture presented by Alexander Hislop11 to be absurd and based on an exceedingly poor understanding of historical Babylon and its religion, his book remains popular among some fundamentalist Christians.

The book's thesis has also featured prominently in the conspiracy theories of groups such as The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord and other conspiracy theorists. In an exchange between Peter and Mary, he admits to her that "the Savior loved you above all other women" a tense moment in the scripture that seems to portray the jealousy that the other apostles might have felt for Mary's relationship with Jesus.

The only other evidence used to support the theory is a mention of Jesus kissing Mary often, but some say kissing was the custom and it was typical of Jesus to practice it with those close to him. For example, Judas kissed Jesus in the garden to betray him to the Pharisees. He was left stranded as Cabrera and Fielder struck out. I sing in a choir wellbutrin buy on line Smith, despite a reputation for mobility, was generally a poor rusher in college. He averaged just 1. We have a very specific notion of where we want to go.

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Some may not even be capable of holding down a job. But many of these are working poor. Trying their best to do their part. Maybe you think these people are worthless scum, but they are fellow Americans. It is important to note that automatic increments for doctors, nurses and other clinical staff are 3. The sanctions angered the North and it responded with threats of a nuclear strike on South Korea and the United States. The source did not disclose a monetary value for the deal.

The agreement calls for those to begin no later than November. That means fewer potholes and more tarmac, more buses and safer roads. How much is a First Class stamp? For some families, the closest non-failing public school is 19 miles away, which would mean traveling 76 miles each day 19 miles each way, twice a day. Not only is a newly empowered middle class demanding better services and more accountability from government — growth has also tapered off in recent quarters.

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At least for the time being, China is well-positioned to navigate such challenges far better than its emerging market competitors. Yes, he cut some records and gave concerts, and, like everyone, his life was a bumpy journey. The standards of safety and efficacy that traditional medications have to meet before gaining approval to be marketed do not apply to these types of supplements. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act has exempted manufacturers of herbal supplements from these regulations.

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I saw, they showed a view from the outside of the Stadium. My God, it was like a thousand people there. He sounded like a preacher addressing a revival meeting. Local media said some , people had gone to the remote Ratangarh village temple in the Madhya Pradesh district of Datia to honor the Hindu mother goddess Durga on the last day of the popular day Navaratra festival.

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DiNapoli said he expects the industry will continue tostreamline as it adapts to changes in regulation and markets. After failing in his first two attempts to score inside the 10, Smith converted on his final try. We might as well televise the world tidlywinks championship. She is also expected to look into whether or not the defense violated witness sequestration rules after it was revealed that a defense witness sat in the courtroom against court rules.

The speedway sits nearly halfway between the campuses of the two schools, off Interstate 81 in Tennessee. The animosity between fans of these two teams is more than palpable and can be seen on a regular basis with violent crimes causing the deaths of fans of one team by fans of the other. What do you do for a living? Sadly a very common story, and can frequently be avoided. Police found that alcohol had factored into that accident, which the Braves had said was the first non-medical fatality to happen at the ballpark.

The world is made of dreamers that change reality because of their dream. If you have selected a specific audience for your content or information, we will respect your choice when we use it. Other studies have pointed to its antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cholesterol lowering effects.

The Royals , who had their nine-game winning streak snapped in extra innings Friday night, take the final two games to win the three-game series. Remove card dapoxetine hydrochloride monograph The wealthy use any and all means to continue their powerful grip on society. The greatest areas of the focus of the wealthy in maintaining power has probably been the various religious and patriotic, flag-waving manipulations, used to gain votes for candidates who will then accept the money of corporations to do all manner of things within the federal government to favor those who really profit from the corporatations.

All the while the wealthy boardroom inhabitants are claiming that they are helping to create jobs, helping to preserve personal freedom freedom of the wealthy, of course, and oppression of the working class , blah-blah-blah. Are not those claims mostly hollow, if not entirely? Logan is spending his remaining days at home, where he is showered with attention from family members. Jones replied that some text messages were taken out of context and that some were just jokes between the two of them. His game is about building a really cool mousetrap — the pride of The Builder.

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Health officials were monitoring air quality in areas that have been blanketed by smoke for days. The pilot who was sitting in thecabin worked to free her, Hersman said. Deficits and foreign currency debt, while worrisome, are not as large. They both have yet to find jobs and are struggling to wrap their ears and tongues around a new language. What part of do you come from? Furthermore, a majority of Ohioans think it is happening primarily due to human activities. This is incredible. This is Ohio, the heartland of America.

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He was asked a question and gave an answer. As of Friday, editors had placed it on the front page on 18 days out of 38, sometimes with news, sometimes with analysis. The coverage has been extensive, aggressive and sweeping. And I see no evidence that The Times is pushing the Obama agenda, overtly or otherwise. Thecurrent wait time is around 18 months. While the metal is keptin the warehouse, Goldman earns rent. He may have had the best view of the collision, too.

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But the party has charted a more centrist path than many expected, fearing backlash from voters in moderate and conservative districts, and the minimum wage hike did not initially seem poised to pass. The lefty walked Chris Nelson to make it , but Sabathia came back and fanned Josh Hamilton before retiring Erick Aybar on a groundout to leave the bases loaded.

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Whereabouts in are you from? This tone is evident in your Sep 6 article regarding the possibility of a US military response to the Aug 21 use of what appears to have been chemical weapons in Syria. However, nothing in your Sep 6 article suggests that you were aware of the proposal, made public on Sep 9, for the US et al. In light of this information that you seemed to be missing as of Sep 6, could you please restate your hypothesis that US foreign policy toward Syria is oriented solely with a view toward Iran?

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They listened via a video-link from an annexe to protect his identity. The inquest continues. While Big Blue was busy throwing away the first third of the season, the rest of the division failed to take advantage. The current state of affairs is more debilitating than dramatic, with tens of millions of families struggling to remake lives worn down by some combination of lost work, income, housing, wealth and hope.

But no one has forgotten where these troubles began, and so it is hardly surprising, but very much worth noting, that the financial world remains a focus of wide and deep popular distrust, with the great majority of Americans advocating more government action, not less. How many more years do you have to go? Failure to do so may lead to ahistoric debt default. In , police said they had recovered 80 percent of the total. Not available at the moment mirtazapine 30mg price He was voicing the growing concern that too much property in London is bought by foreigners, either intending to let it or to allow it to remain empty for much of the year.

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Peyton threw an interception returned 74 yards for a TD with left when the Colts were driving for the tying score against the Saints in the Super Bowl four years ago, although receiver Reggie Wayne was more at fault than Peyton. After making him the top pick in the draft, the Raptors dealt him in July, viewing him as inconsistent in his seven years there. The heckling started early, bellowing down from the rafters every time he touched the ball.

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