Operational amplifier : Amplifiers. Semiconductor devices.
The Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering
Diode : Semiconductor devices. Electric force and electric field : Electrostatics Fields, potential, and voltage : Electrostatics. Signals and systems. Fourier series : Signals and systems.
Home-made robots. Lego robotics. Ant bot : Lego robotics Programming basics : Lego robotics. Reverse engineering.
Digital camera : Reverse engineering. Getting started. Electric current Getting started. Current direction Getting started.
Voltage Getting started. Conventional current direction Getting started. Preparing to study electrical engineering on Khan Academy Getting started. Complex numbers spin. Complex numbers AC circuit analysis. Euler's formula AC circuit analysis. We can think of the holes as flowing in the opposite direction, however this is just a mental visualization to help describe behaviors of materials in more advanced electronics.
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For now, think of electrons flowing from the negative terminal of a voltage source to the positive terminal while the holes that constitute what we think of as "conventional current" flow from the positive terminal of the voltage source to the negative terminal.
Insulators are simple. They are stable atoms of elements not prone to losing their electrons.
Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
This means they hardly ever share electrons, except in extreme conditions. Electrical equipment is always designed to operate within a particular temperature range, and this range varies upon the instrument's design. Semi-conductors and super-conductors also exist, but those have characteristics that we don't need to cover at the moment. Imagine a nice mountain stream. What does it do? It flows downhill until it comes to an area of equilibrium. When the water is at the top of the stream, it has the potential to fall down.
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If we took away the mountain, the water would fall straight down. We know from physics that the water has a potential energy. When thinking of electricity, these ideas of 'potential energy' and 'flow' are similar to what we've discussed about water, but instead, Electrical Engineers deal with a 'potential voltage' applied that causes electrons to 'flow'. In other words, higher amounts of potential energy in water are analogous to higher concentrations of stored charge therefore higher potential voltage in a material. The flow of electrons in a conductor can be thought of as the flow of water molecules through a pipe.
The electromotive force , EMF , or simply Voltage Potential V in the field of Electrical Engineering is analogous to the potential energy which 'motivates' the water to flow downhill to a lower 'potential'.
Conditions of Use
When the water is flowing, it has a current, and so when electricity flows it also has a current. When the water flows faster, the current is higher, and the faster electrons flow by, the higher electrical current. The electrical term is Amperes which is often shortened to Amps, and notated as A. In a mountain stream, if you cut a straight channel across a bend, the water will soon only follow the cut. When considering electricity, we call this a 'short circuit'.
A short circuit can be very bad if you are part of this new shorter path to relieve the potential. So, always be careful when dealing with electricity! The dangerous part is the current, a static shock between a finger and doorknob has several hundred-thousand volts of potential.
A wall socket has V in the US, but the amperage A is more than enough to kill. The same is true for electricity. Watts are a measure of power, the same as horsepower, but the question never arises as to how much horsepower your sub-woofer is. Usually, the only time horsepower is mentioned when dealing with electricity is when the electrical power is being converted by a motor into mechanical power. Don't worry about equations yet; just know that the power in an electrical system is dependent upon the voltage potential hereafter simply voltage and current ie.