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Ideology of Governance. The Portuguese Football League Case. About the Theological Interpretation of a Philosophical Concept. Woodrow Wilson wanted an army that would receive full credit for its victories on the battlefield. He insisted that American troops operate independently from the British and the French. Jay Winter, Historian: The American army had to have a major and independent role because Wilson wanted to have, after the war, a major and independent role in the peace.
The United States was the new power, it was the future. Narrator: As his tour of the front lines came to an end, Pershing dispatched a cable that sent shockwaves through Washington. He believed he would need a million men in France, perhaps as many as three million. And he estimated it would take almost a year to get them there. It was a very important part of Americans making peace with the fact that they had to go to war.
Voice: John Lewis Barkley: Everybody around me was going crazy about the war. I [had] as bad a case of war fever as the next fellow. Worse probably. He had grown up fishing and hunting along Scalybark Creek in the rough farm country of western Missouri, and claimed his skills as a frontiersman could be traced back to his distant ancestor, Daniel Boone. Barkley was swept up in the enthusiasm for the war, but the reality was, he had little choice in the matter.
Keene, Historian: The idea of the draft was controversial in the very beginning because the draft implies that men don't want to fight this war and you're forcing the country to fight. There were anti-draft riots in the North during the Civil War, Wilson was very self-conscious about that. Keene, Historian: Wilson has a big sales job that he has to make about conscription. And so he doesn't call it conscription and he doesn't call it the draft.
What does he call it? He calls it Selective Service. Men like Barkley were urged to register and the government would then select who would serve and who would remain exempt. Kennedy, Historian: The whole system traded on the idea that we the government are simply facilitating volunteering. Richard Slotkin, Historian: Even though the government is reaching in and pulling Johnny out of the living room and putting him into uniform it seems like they had volunteered to be drafted. Each man filled out a registration card, noting his occupation, and his place of birth.
Chad Williams, Historian: African American troops were very explicitly seen as a problem. Adriane Lentz-Smith, Historian: A Senator from Mississippi, I think correctly, says once you draft a negro man and give him a gun and tell him to fight with it, it's one short step for him thinking that he should fight for his rights at home. Narrator: Although millions registered, not everyone agreed to serve in the new American Army.
More than three million others, known as slackers, evaded the call to arms altogether. On July 20 th , a crowd of dignitaries and journalists filled a hearing room in the Senate Office Building. As the newsreel cameras rolled, the first draft of the Great War began. By the end of day, more than , men had been selected. Poles, Scandinavians, Germans. I welcomed anything…I knew that in the midst of the ruinous world war it was necessary to show everyone that I was a true representative of our people.
There were my dogs, and my old horse Charley , and my family, and a girl. Just before leaving for camp I got really engaged to my girl, with a ring and everything. It was the most important thing that had ever happened to me. Except getting in the army. Narrator: In the face of determined opposition, Woodrow Wilson had succeeded in laying the groundwork for the biggest armed force the United States had ever seen.
They were part of a huge rally to sell Liberty Bonds, an innovation created to get the American public to not only support the war, but to invest in it too. Christopher Capozzola, Historian: Liberty Bond drives opened up a fire-hose of propaganda. Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin, all of the greatest stars of their day. Celebrity culture is just starting to emerge, and they can turn out crowds, and those crowds then become some of the biggest rallies that you see on the home front during the war.
Christopher Capozzola, Historian: In between every reel of film, there was a four-minute break when the projectionist had to change the reels. Somewhere along the way, someone at the CPI hit on the idea that this was a perfectly captive audience for the delivery of the war message. Narrator: Night after night, prominent members of the local community would stand up and deliver short patriotic speeches.
Ten men gave talks in Yiddish, seven in Italian. President Wilson himself gave a Four-Minute speech. Narrator: The appearance of spontaneity masked a carefully scripted government message. Alan Axelrod, Writer: They were guided by a central authority, but always in the own words of the individual giving the speech and he was usually a person who was known in the community. He was not saying this is what the government says. Keene, Historian: The federal government figures out ways to come to you.
Want to watch a movie? Up pops a Four-Minute Man to give you a little speech about the war. Go to the county fair? There are a myriad of ways in which the federal government inserts this propaganda into your daily life. Narrator: The success of the first round of the draft presented the Wilson administration with a problem.
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They had nowhere to put their new soldiers. In the summer of , the government embarked on a crash program to build sixteen Army compounds that would accommodate up to a half million draftees from every corner of the country. Camp Funston was carved out of a meadow in just five months. It encompassed 3, buildings sprawling over 2, acres, mostly two-story barracks, but also a library, hospitals, an arcade filled with stores, restaurants, movie theaters, and the biggest pool hall in the state of Kansas.
John Barkley and his fellow recruits had little time to enjoy the amenities. They started us out at once on close order drill and calisthenics, and they gave it to us on a fourteen-hour-a-day schedule. Narrator: Barkley found himself surrounded by a babel of strange accents, exotic languages, and alien customs.
Voice: John Lewis Barkley: The bunks were only a few inches apart, and there was a Mexican in the one next to mine. He was pretty sick, but he never complained, and I got to like him. Richard Rubin, Writer: Before this time most Americans associated only with people who were just like them in terms of background. It received thousands of men from what was known as the Metropolitan Division, all drawn from the streets of New York.
Narrator: In the decades leading up to the Great War, as many as 23 million immigrants had poured into the United States. By , a third of Americans had been born in a foreign land, or had a parent who had emigrated from abroad. Kennedy, Historian: This was a moment of massive immigration in our society and there were lots of questions in the air about just how well could this society absorb immigrants on this scale. Some people saw mobilization for the war as a way to accelerate their assimilation.
Kennedy, Historian: Some of the officers used to say that a shared military service, sharing the same pup tent, would yank the hyphen out of all these immigrant communities. That was the phrase that they used. Christopher Capozzola, Historian: If you look at the American army in , you see young men from all these different countries around the world, [including] immigrants from the countries against which the United States is now fighting. For many during the war the hyphen became the real enemy, it was the sign of divided loyalties and the sign of an obstacle to American national unity.
The real challenge, of course, is for people whose ancestors came from Germany. Narrator: Immediately after the US had declared war, local governments, civic organizations, and even ordinary citizens began an attack on German Americans and their culture. Christopher Capozzola, Historian: There are children who are instructed by their teachers to cut German songs out of the music books that they use in their classrooms. There is a public stein-breaking fest at one point, to keep people from drinking German beer.
Richard Rubin, Writer: Germans were pressured to stop playing German music, to stop going to German plays. And when I say Germans, I mean German-Americans whose ancestors might have been in this country since before the revolution. Narrator: The anti-German hysteria even extended to the federal government. The CPI published an article with tips on how to identify people who were pro-German. The program was administered by a year old member of the Department of Justice, J. Edgar Hoover. By the fall, a new series of camps capable of housing thousands of people had sprung up — in Utah, Georgia and North Carolina — not to train new recruits but to imprison anyone that the government considered a threat to its security.
Narrator: While newly drafted soldiers stabbed dummies with bayonets in camps all across the country, another group of recruits practiced their drill steps on the streets of Harlem. Community leaders in Harlem had lobbied for the creation of an all-black regiment for years. The legislature comes back and says okay, but you have to raise the money to equip the unit, and you also have to accept white officers. Narrator: A prominent lawyer named William Hayward took command, and set about recruiting to get the regiment up to full strength.
And, in fact, many of the officers, in the 15 th New York who were white could not get high-ranking officer positions in other units. The 15 th was this, sort of, place of last resort for many of these rich, white men. Narrator: The New York Fifteenth was forced to beg for equipment from other units, and train in the backyards and empty lots of Harlem. When the 15 th New York National Guard is formed, though, he decides that he wants to join for the same reason that a number of African-American men joined.
They see it as this potent symbol of African-American manhood. Voice: James Reese Europe: Our race will never amount to anything. But to accomplish these results, the best. Narrator: Europe convinced his writing partner Noble Sissle to enlist. When Hayward asked them to form a regimental band, the two took up the challenge. Adriane Lentz-Smith, Historian: The band is just huge. Europe argues for at minimum, 40 men, I think gets a few more than that. Realizes that he needs a stronger wind section, so goes down to Puerto Rico and recruits Afro-Puerto Rican clarinetists mostly, but trombone players as well.
Spanish speakers, English speakers, folks with a nutty southern dialect, all wrapped up. By the summer of , Noble Sissle watched as the regiment began to attract recruits in record numbers. Voice: Noble Sissle: Our. Adriane Lentz-Smith, Historian: When Wilson frames the war as a war for Democracy, he offers up something that seems to promise for African-Americans expanded possibility. Jeffrey Sammons, Historian: New York was a segregated city.
Blacks have no political power. So [some Blacks are] saying, why should we be fighting for this nation and these you know white people who are oppressing us? Narrator: The situation in the Jim Crow South was even worse: a toxic mixture of rigid segregation, and almost daily episodes of racially motivated brutality. In July, in East St.
Louis, Illinois, an exchange of gunfire between blacks and local police provoked an explosion of mob violence that reduced entire black neighborhoods to ashes and left hundreds of men, women and children dead. Seven weeks later, a battalion of black troops stationed outside Houston encountered a campaign of harassment and violence from local whites.
They responded by marching into the city and engaging in a pitched battle with local police. Chad Williams, Historian: This was the worst fears of white southerners come true. A group of black soldiers taking up arms and killing white people. There was a hasty trial. And they very quickly became martyrs. Scott Berg, Writer: Woodrow Wilson grew up in the south. By any measure Woodrow Wilson was a racist.
He introduced Jim Crow to Washington, D. At a time when it was just starting to loosen up, he brought it back and it became for all intents and purposes the law of the land. Adriane Lentz-Smith, Historian: Wilson is so disappointing. And then on the flip side, for all of his big ideals, he is such a narrow-hearted little man.
Adriane Lentz-Smith, Historian: They show up in Spartanburg a month after black soldiers in Houston had marched on the town. And so the folks of South Carolina are determined to make sure that this particular set of black soldiers, Yankees, come down, right, stay in their place. And the military leadership is incredibly jittery. Richard Slotkin, Historian: For a couple of weeks, they walk the edge of possible violence in the town. They manage it pretty well. On the other hand if the white officers let the local whites abuse their troops, they lose face with their men.
He also asked his men to pledge that they would avoid violence of any kind, even if provoked. Richard Slotkin, Historian: Noble Sissle, goes to buy a newspaper in the lobby of a hotel and gets into an altercation with the white man behind the counter. A crowd gathers and not only are the blacks squaring off against the whites in the room, but the white national guardsmen from New York are backing their fellow Yankees against the local Confederates and James Reese Europe says, halt, stop.
Brings the whole incident to an end, marches his men out of there and averts violence. Narrator: The Fifteenth emerged stronger because of its ordeal in Spartanburg. Anxious to burnish the reputation of his regiment, Hayward petitioned to have it included in the famous Rainbow Division, drawn from National Guard units from more than half the states in the nation. Jeffrey Sammons, Historian: Hayward asks the Rainbow Division if the 15th could join them and the response to his request is black is not a color of the rainbow. And of course neither is white. Narrator: By the fall of , the scale of the challenge confronting American mobilization was beginning to sink in.
The Quartermaster Corps estimated it would need 17 million woolen trousers, 22 million flannel shirts, 26 million shoes. The U. On September 4 th , , President Wilson, members of his cabinet, and the leadership of Congress led a parade from the Capitol down Pennsylvania Avenue. They were there to honor 1, newly drafted men from the District of Columbia. When he reached the White House, Wilson stepped onto a reviewing stand, and the new recruits, still in their civilian clothes, marched past.
They were led by the radical suffragist Alice Paul. The child of devout Quakers from Philadelphia, and armed with a doctorate in sociology, Paul was a formidable adversary. When war was declared in April, most mainstream suffrage groups suspended their efforts. Not Alice Paul. She turns his language back on him, and says, we are going to continue pushing for the vote, through the war.
Christopher Capozzola, Historian: At first, Wilson sort of ignored them. Condescended to them. Had hot chocolate sent out from the White House kitchen to keep them warm on winter days, but it became increasingly embarrassing that these protests were happening. And over time Wilson wanted the protesters gone. Narrator: The president came to see the defiant women outside his window as a threat to the war effort, and conspired with the Washington police to crack down on them. He says, go ahead, let them out. They get released, boom, right back in front of the White House.
On October 20 th , Paul herself was arrested and sentenced to seven months in a Virginia prison. The suffragist press made heroes and martyrs out of Paul and her fellow prisoners. Christopher Capozzola, Historian: Alice Paul knows that imprisoned women suffragists, particularly young, middle-class women, make very good newspaper copy. So she encourages women to stay arrested, to refuse to pay bail. Narrator: Shortly after arriving at the prison, Alice Paul went on a hunger strike. Doctors forced a tube down her throat three times a day. When she became too weak to stay in her cell, she was transferred to the hospital, then the psychiatric ward.
By November 24 th , Paul had gone weeks without food. That she had gone too far. But then, a crucial thing happened. Late one night in prison, Alice Paul is visited by a close Wilson confidante. Kimberly Jensen, Historian: Wilson understands that these are women who are resilient, who will not give up. Alice Paul is a force of nature. So a deal is struck. Narrator: Despite the possibility of progress, Alice Paul continued to accuse the government of hypocrisy. Narrator: During the war years, visitors to the White House had cause to be concerned about their own safety.
It regularly attacked members of the White House staff. But the ewes produced fine wool, so he remained a menacing presence on the South Lawn. The sale of White House wool raised tens of thousands of dollars for the Red Cross, and Edith knitted socks for soldiers. She also signed a Food Pledge, vowing to forego meat, wheat, and sugar, so more of these vital supplies could be sent overseas. With most of Belgium and large parts of France under German occupation, and farmers off at the front, millions of Europeans were struggling to survive. America, on the other hand, was an agricultural powerhouse, whose output of food could become as important as its manpower or its financial resources.
Helen Zoe Veit, Historian: It became evident that food was going to be a weapon in the war. Herbert Hoover immediately worked to get Americans to think that saving food and conserving food was the most important thing that they could do as individuals to help the effort. Narrator: As many as , women volunteers fanned out across their communities, urging neighbors to join Edith Wilson and sign a food pledge. Fourteen million families put a sign in their window showing that they were behind the campaign.
Helen Zoe Veit, Historian: There was no rationing, but there were suggested days where people should give up certain foods. Tuesday was a meatless day, Monday was a wheat-less day, Saturday was a pork-less day. Kimberly Jensen, Historian: They were very sophisticated in the ways that they tried to persuade people. Local newspapers published the names of people who contributed or not. There was a tremendous amount of pressure, visiting of houses.
And there were lots of consequences. Firing from jobs, being ostracized in a community. Christopher Capozzola, Historian: Americans came to feel watched and came to live as if they were watched. Narrator: Volunteer organizations sprang up to help enforce the new conformity. The largest was the American Protective League, with over branches and , card-carrying members across the country. Richard Rubin, Writer: These vigilante groups were there to make sure that every American was doing his or her patriotic duty. Narrator: Even the famous community organizer and committed pacifist Jane Addams could not resist the pressure.
After weathering a storm of harsh criticism in the press, she embarked on a government sponsored speaking tour to rally support for the food effort. Bristow, Historian: To oppose the war was a very difficult position to take and a dangerous position. To be an activist, even of a respectable type like Jane Addams was very difficult.
You became a public enemy if you refused to step in line in support of the war. Anxious to avoid any more racial incidents, the Army had shipped the regiment overseas.
They were now on their way to join some of the first Americans in France. General Pershing had only four divisions stationed in relatively quiet sectors of the Western Front, where they were undergoing training alongside French and British units. They participated in reconnaissance patrols, and endured artillery bombardments and sniper fire.
Already, Americans had been killed and wounded. But when the Fifteenth arrived at the port of Brest on January 1 st , they were promptly assigned to the logistical arm of the military, known as the Services of Supply, and given the dirty work of the army — clearing swamps, unloading ships, digging graves. The overwhelming majority of the men in these labor battalions were black. Chad Williams, Historian: Most black troops who served in the Services of Supplies recognized that this was not what they signed up for.
This was not their ideal of what a soldier meant. They were manning shovels instead of rifles. These are the things of which soldiers are made and heroes are made and what we write about. Adriane Lentz-Smith, Historian: On the one hand, these soldiers are so proud that they are serving. At the same time, the army leadership is not excited about having black soldiers. Narrator: For two months, the Fifteenth worked as laborers in France and became increasingly disillusioned.
One day a pair of talent scouts, looking for entertainment for soldiers on leave, heard them play. But when the band had finished and people were roaring with laughter, … I was forced to say … this is just what France needs at this critical time. Narrator: As the reputation of the New York Fifteenth grew, it became harder for General Pershing to let them languish with the rest of the black troops in labor battalions. The French and British, meanwhile, continued their desperate pleas for reinforcements. So, Pershing loans them to the French.
Narrator: For black Americans, immersion in the French army was a disorienting plunge into a new world. Many struggled to understand their French officers, adjust to new uniforms, new rifles and the realities of trench warfare. Gradually, Sissle and his fellow soldiers began to feel more confident. Voice: Noble Sissle: The French [soldiers] treated our boys with all the courtesy and comradeship that could be expected.
You could see them strolling down the road. The French officers had taken our officers and made pals of them. But when you step out of a system that people have told you is the only way that is possible and then you look around and there are all of these people in the world working under a different set of rules. Now with the help of their French counterparts, it seemed as though they were, at last, ready to prove themselves on the front lines.
How stupidly ugly it was in destruction of human life, limb, property, everything. Narrator: In its fourth year, the Great War continued to claim appalling casualties on both sides. Now, as millions of young Americans prepared to ship over to France, Woodrow Wilson was determined that the cause they were fighting for would be as great as the sacrifice he was asking them to make.
On January 6 th , , the President gathered up his notes, took to his study, and began work on a speech. Ever since the outbreak of the war, he had sought a pivotal role for America in the conflict. Christopher Capozzola, Historian: By , Wilson knows, the American public know, how horrible the war is. And so he needs to make this a war that will matter, a war that will change the world.
In October the revolutionary Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, had formed a new government and vowed to make peace with Germany.
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They offered the world a vision of socialist equality, and an end to the corrupt empires that had oppressed workers for centuries. Before a joint session of Congress, he reiterated why he had felt compelled to enter the war. Germany must retreat back to its borders. Freedom of the seas would be restored. Governments were to respect the self-determination of their citizens. This is a realistic way to go about creating an idealistic future. Adriane Lentz-Smith, Historian: Wilson believes that this is what the war is for, right. That America entered the war in order to determine the terms of the peace.
Narrator: It was the fourteenth point that Wilson felt was to be the keystone of the post-war world: a League of Nations that would arbitrate conflicts between countries. Kennedy, Historian: The League of Nations would be some kind of new forum for the resolution of international disputes, something really never existed before. Christopher Capozzola, Historian: Wilson is asking Americans and the world to take an enormous leap of faith, to give up national interest and national sovereignty, and to give a chance for international organization and international arbitration.
Kennedy, Historian: There were people already beginning to think that the conditions of modern warfare were just so unimaginably destructive that mankind had to find some other way to resolve these perennial conflicts that the human race seems to get itself involved in. Margaret MacMillan, Historian: Underlying the whole speech is this idea that you can build a better world order. This is really an enunciation of what the United States is going to be like as a player in world affairs.
We see ourselves as somehow policing the world and helping the world find a better way forward. It received glowing reviews and banner headlines across the country. Around the globe, the response was equally positive. We all know that America is a nation with interests that sometimes compete with those noble goals.
But I think Wilson almost better than anyone else articulated that wish, that better hope that Americans have for themselves in the world. Your first sight of the ocean. I used to wonder if their waves looked anything like the waves of the ocean. I saw now that nothing else in the world could look like the ocean. Narrator: When John Barkley, the young recruit from Missouri, stepped off the ship in France he was part of the largest movement of soldiers across the Atlantic in history.
In just over a year, the United States had recruited, drafted, trained, and equipped over , men to fight in the Great War. Millions more were on their way. Jose Saenz had left his tiny town near the Rio Grande and was now almost 5, miles from home. I am eager to do my part in the great tragedy. We may not be as disciplined as the sons of Germany, but we are committed to fight for what is only understood by the sons of democracy — Liberty.
Pershing encouraged the nickname to give his army a distinctive identity. His troops liked it too. Alan Axelrod, Writer: The mere arrival of these fresh American troops who were healthy, who were well-fed, who were well equipped, who were eager and most of all who were marching east, instead of retreating west, had a great effect on French morale. Narrator: Each month, another , Americans flooded into France. Like John Barkley, few had any idea what awaited them. When the war is over and I come back I will tell you all about France. All about its good wine.
You talk about boose [sic] in the states. They never saw any liquor. Narrator: Full of swagger and self-confidence, the green American troops were being thrust into the war at a critical stage. The Germans had gambled that they could prevail before the Americans arrived in force; with Russia out of the war, the German High Command was able to transfer more than half a million seasoned troops to the West. In a series of offensives beginning in March , German forces attacked up and down the Western Front.
The quiet sector where the New York Fifteenth was stationed was suddenly filled with enemy patrols testing the strength of the American defenses. Since their arrival in January, the men from Harlem had become a more cohesive regiment.
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In the early morning hours of May 15 th , privates Henry Johnson and Needham Roberts, were standing guard at listening posts twenty yards in front of their own lines, when they heard a noise. Chad Williams, Historian: In the dead of night they heard mysterious sounds, sounding like wire cutters.
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And realized that a German raiding party was encroaching on their position. Narrator: Johnson and Roberts sounded the alarm as a volley of German grenades exploded all around them. Almost immediately, Roberts was badly injured. Henry Johnson began to fight back, killing one German soldier with his rifle at point blank range.
A second German rushed towards him, firing a pistol and wounding him in the thigh and foot. Johnson swung his rifle by the barrel and clubbed him senseless. Richard Slotkin, Historian: He pulls out this what he calls a bolo knife which is a heavy two-bladed knife. Narrator: As the Germans retreated, Johnson kept throwing grenades, until he passed out from loss of blood. He had been wounded more than 20 times, mostly from gunshots. Richard Slotkin, Historian: When the light dawns the following day, there are half a dozen corpses of German soldiers and blood trails marking another half dozen wounded who have crawled away through the wire.
Narrator: The next morning, a proud William Hayward arranged for a group of reporters to be escorted to the scene of the fighting. The white press is a little more given to stereotype and minstrel-sy. And the black press on the other hand builds him up into this super human hero that is emblematic of all black manhood and all black potential. They were the war heroes that black America had been searching for.
Jeffrey Sammons, Historian: This is a monumental event for the morale of the regiment and also for their self-confidence. It was proof of what they were capable of doing. Narrator: Out of all the publicity, the press conjured up a nickname for the regiment. And they asked him what the war had done for him. He had lived his whole life in this corner of coastal Virginia and being dropped into the current of world events had made him realize he was a global subject.
I think his answer and his experience stands in for all of the folks for whom the war for democracy was really about defining what it meant to be an American. Narrator: As Americans were beginning to fight and die in France, the war was also generating casualties at home. An Indiana farmer named James Goepfrich had to take refuge in the county jail when a mob found out that he had threatened a Liberty Loan committee at his front door.
A mob formed and stripped Prager of most of his clothes, dragged him through the streets, and hanged him from a tree. The Washington Post celebrated the murder. Kennedy, Historian: Big parts of the American public lost their minds about the nature of the society they lived in and the threat they faced from their neighbors who happened to have German names. Richard Rubin, Writer: The maximum sentence was twenty years, for going to a bar and grumbling about food restrictions to somebody who was sitting next to you at the bar.
Or even saying that you thought the uniforms looked ridiculous or questioning what we were really fighting for. Anything at all that might interfere with the war effort, with morale of troops. Scott Berg, Writer: The Sedition Act is probably the greatest suppression of free speech that the country has ever seen.
Wilson had a very firm conviction that he was going to do everything he could to protect his fighting men. Jay Winter, Historian: A draft which forced people to put on a uniform is a very severe curtailment of the liberty of individuals. For Wilson the nation has to be united in order to justify this possible death sentence. Civil liberties became a price that had to be paid in order for a democratic nation to wage war.
Narrator: The passing of the Sedition Act prompted a wave of new crackdowns and arrests. A poet who wrote a satirical piece about the United States was imprisoned. When a Bavarian waiter cursed the slow speed of the New York City subway, he was promptly arrested. The conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra supposedly refused to play the Star Spangled Banner and found himself in an internment camp.
No one was safe from the reach of the new law. Michael Kazin, Historian: Debs is a symbol of unending opposition to the war. But the Justice Department decides he has to be cracked down on at this point. Narrator: Wilson denounced the radical leader. He adopted the most stringent methods to limit dissent and limit resistance to the war effort. Richard Rubin, Writer: Wilson was a man who was able to carry two contradictory ideas in his mind at the same time and not go crazy.
He absolutely had no qualms doing what he did at home, all the while waging a war to make the world safe for democracy. All the while he had steadfastly refused to allow his men to fight under French command. But the situation on the Western Front threatened to force his hand. During a tour of the battlefield, Pershing shared a meal with a French general and his staff. Elite storm troopers penetrated Allied lines, allowing German divisions to pour through the break, rupturing the stalemate that had existed for years. Now German troops had advanced to within striking distance of Paris. Their huge siege guns lobbed shells into the French capital.
Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau made plans to evacuate the government to Bordeaux. Thousands of Parisians fled the capital. The stakes could not have been higher. Pershing gave the only answer he could. Keene, Historian: Events go faster than Pershing expects. Narrator: Pershing committed 56, doughboys, under French command, and rushed them towards the front to save Paris.
A weak point in the French line was in danger of giving way. How Do You View? How Do You Want Me? How's Your Father?
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