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Tomar is known as the city of the Knights Templar, because it was offered by the King D. Afonso Henriques to the Knights Templar, after the conquest of the city from the Arabs in Sortelha is one of the historic villages of Portugal, with granite houses standing within the village outer wall, and the castle on top of the highest hill. Sortelha stands in Sabugal municipality, in the northern Portugal inland. Vieira de Leiria is situated in the well-known Pinhal de Leiria pine wood forest of Leiria and it has a beautiful beach.

The old fishing village gives the beach its picturesque look, and small fishing boats and traditional fishing equipment can still be seen on the beach. It is one of the most typical villages completely built of stone and with granaries, interesting stone storages on high stakes that are still used nowadays for drying corn. Silves was the capital of the Algarve until the 16th century. It has always been an important town because of its strategic location on the banks of Arade River. In fact, the snow is a great attraction and during the winter months, when the mountain is covered with a white blanket, it offers breathtaking scenery.

It is close to Marinha Grande, a city famous for the manufacturing of glass. The town stands on top of the rugged coastline overlooking the sea. We can also find beautiful windmills along the coast. Every year great festivities are held there on this day, with millions of pilgrims attending the ceremony.

With an old population, it conveys the typical quiet lifestyle of Alentejo villages. The endless fields, covered with a beautiful green mantle in Spring, feature the amazing landscape of Alentejo. Cape St. Vincent is situated on the most southwestern point of Europe, where the Fortress of Sagres stands. From the top of the promontory we can enjoy the strong sea breeze and listen to the splashing waves. Sabugal is a small village in Portugal inland, near Serra da Estrela. It has a beautiful medieval castle, the only one with 5 corners, where, according to the legend of the miracle of roses, a well-known episode in the history of Portugal took place.

Orders, decorations, and medals of Portugal

Although it has been the subject of various legends, there is no accurate information about its history. The tower is the most emblematic building on the site. Centum Cellas Tower , also known as St. Cornelius Tower, is the best preserved building of the archaeological complex, so it is what stands out. The Tower, built around the first century AD, is believed to have been part of a Roman villa belonging to a wealthy citizen.

Pulo do Lobo has a waterfall of 20 meters high and stands in Beja district, in the Guadiana River route. It is a natural phenomenon uncommon in the south of Portugal. It lies on the Atlantic coast, north from Lisbon. It has one of the best beaches in the world for surfing, windsurfing and kitesurfing.

Carcavelos is famous for its beach, located on the Atlantic coast, west from Lisbon Estoril line. Torre tower is the highest point in mainland Portugal. In fact, it is a geodesic mark that indicates the highest point of Serra da Estrela, which naturally reaches m high, but relying on the tower reaches m ft. As it is the closest beach to Sintra it was the hangout of the Portuguese socialite. It has an old tram that was the connection between the beach and the town of Sintra.

Praia da Rocha is the Algarve beach with the largest sand extension. Comporta Beach still keeps its wild nature, in spite of the increasing influx of tourists that has taken place in the past few years, due to the construction of infrastructures to support tourism. It is a prime area near Lisbon. Oporto is a unique city on the national scene: it is a large and cosmopolitan city with a village spirit. People from Oporto have strong feelings for their city that you cannot find elsewhere in Portugal.

The village landscape is dominated by the castle on the hill around which the settlement lies. The castle has a medieval style with two pinnacle towers, covered by green tiles, which is an unusual feature in Portugal. Despite being a mass tourism destination, it stills keeps more typical features of the Algarve than any other urban center of the region. Fishing is still the main economic activity, right after tourism, and it is the best place to eat the typical charcoal grilled sardines.

The houses are made of shale, with roofs of slabs and blue wooden doors. The houses are organized in terraces on the hillside, looking like a nativity scene. The Fortress of Peniche is a mandatory stopover on a visit to this city.

Peniche is traditionally a fishing town and it keeps the simple character of its people. The villages in this region are quite isolated from each other and they are camouflaged in the rocky landscape. Penha dos Prados stands in Celorico da Beira municipality and it is an excellent natural viewpoint, because the village is at an altitude of m, from where you can see over the Mondego Valley, which stands at about m above sea level. Birds of prey like eagles, vultures and falcons can be often seen in the area. Penamacor is a village which lies in the district of Castelo Branco.

The village received its first charter in by King D. From the top of the Castle walls, we can have the best panoramic view over the village. It is an important legacy that remains from the Jurassic period till nowadays. Dinosaur footprints were pressed in a swampy ground that later dried out and left these marks in history. Douro International Natural Park is a natural reserve area and its main attraction is Douro River, which is a natural border between Portugal and Spain. In addition to the beautiful mountain landscapes, Fisgas do Ermelo watefall is the highlight of this place.

It is considered a paradise right at the gates of the capital city Lisbon. It stands alone on top of a hill and has a very distinctive architecture comparing to the most common castles in Portugal. It is one of the most beautiful historic villages of Portugal. Nossa Senhora da Peneda , located in Ponte da Barca municipality, is famous for its sanctuary. It resembles Bom Jesus de Braga sanctuary with a staircase in the front adorned with statues and fountains in every floor level.

Outside the village we can find a medieval necropolis with tombs, some easier to identify than others thanks to its bumps. Even today you can see women dressing up like that. Montalegre is a town which stands in the northernmost region of Portugal, close to Spain. Montalegre Castle stands out in the village landscape. In recent years Montalegre devoted itself to celebration of mysticism. Every Friday 13th offers numerous events and ceremonies which are attended by hundreds of tourists.

The small village of Monsaraz is located in the Alentejo region, close to the border with Spain. The whiteness of its houses stands out on top of the hill, within the castle walls. Small stone houses lean against big rocks that seem to threaten to roll down at any time. The streets are narrow and cobbled. Moimenta da Beira stands in Montesinho Natural Park. It is a countryside village, surrounded by beautiful landscapes.

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In the village center there is a beautiful church that, despite being originally from the 14th century, shows features mainly from the 17thth centuries renovations. It stands within Douro International Natural Park, and its major attractions are the landscape and the diverse outdoor activities. At the highest point of the city stands the castle and in the level below stretches the city of white houses built in the typical style of the region. At the highest peak of Serra de S. Mamede, one can see a village of immaculate white houses, typical of Alentejo.

The town of Manteigas stands right in the heart of Serra da Estrela and can be the starting point for exploring the region. As it lies on a valley, you can climb up from there towards the highest points of the mountain, enjoying the natural beauty. Mafra is situated 40 km north from Lisbon. Part of the Convent can be visited, another part belongs to the Portuguese School of Weapons.

Tapada de Mafra is an area of rich forest biodiversity where you can enjoy several activities related to nature. Lisbon is the capital of Portugal, known as the city of seven hills like Rome and Istanbul also a unique city that delights tourists from all over the world. Lisbon is a city to be visited with plenty of time. Read the page : Things to do in Lisbon by Travel with Pedro. Linhares da Beira is a historic village in Celorico da Beira municipality. The buildings are mostly made of stone and many of them alongside with big rocks that seem to be part of the house.

The castle stands at the highest point of the village as if crowning the landscape. Lindoso is a parish and village in Ponte da Barca municipality in the northernmost region of Portugal. Dinis when he first visited the village. Lindoso castle was used to protect these limits of the kingdom for centuries.

In the square in front of the castle, there are many granaries, stone buildings that look like little chapels on stilts, and they are still used nowadays to dry cereals and corn. Leiria became a city during the rule of the first king of Portugal, D. Afonso Henriques, in It stands in the heart of Portugal, near the coast. To protect the coast and the city from seawater and sand moving forward, King D. Dinis ordered to grow the famous Pinhal de Leiria pine forest , between and The castle that stands at the top of the highest hill in the city was built in but went through many enlargements afterward.

The first stones used to build the castle have been taken out from the ancient Roman city, located in that place. The houses are built of shale speckled with river pebbles, lighter and rounded. Formerly, the boat was the only way to move to the other side of the river, but at present we can use it for a nice tour. The village surroundings invite you to take one of the hiking trails.

Igrejinha is a village in Arraiolos municipality, in Alentejo region. It is a typical Alentejo village with single storey houses, immaculately whitewashed now painted with blue or yellow bars around the doors and windows. Idanha-a-Velha lies in the Portugal inland, in Idanha-a-Nova municipality.

The village had a great reputation during the Roman occupation that began in the 1st century BC. It was later the target of Barbarian invasions in the 3rd and 4th centuries, conquered by the Moors in and finally received a charter in from the King D. Sancho I.

The village itself consists of typical stone houses and several impressive monuments that tell the history of the community, such as the Castle, the Tower of the Templars, the Cathedral, the Bridge over Ponsul River, among others. He was responsible for the conquest of the territory that is Portugal nowadays. Mira de Aire Caves are the largest complex of caves in Portugal. It was occasionally discovered in and opened to the public in During the last five years of his life, he turned to administration, [14] where his actions as the second governor of Portuguese India were crucial to the longevity of the Portuguese Empire.

Afonso de Albuquerque was born in in Alhandra , near Lisbon. His father held an important position at court and was connected by remote illegitimate descent with the Portuguese monarchy. Alfonso de Albuquerque, surnamed the Great, by reason of the heroic deeds wherewith he filled Europe with admiration, and Asia with fear and trembling, was born in the year , in the Estate called, for the loveliness of its situation, the Paradise of the Town of Alhandra, six leagues distant from Lisbon. Leonor de Menezes, daughter of D. Guiomar de Castro, and corrected this injustice of nature by climbing to the summit of every virtue, both political and moral.

He was educated in the Palace of the King D.

Meaning of "acataia" in the Portuguese dictionary

Afonso served 10 years in North Africa, where he gained military experience in fierce campaigns against Muslim powers and Ottoman Turks. In , under the command of Afonso V of Portugal , he was present at the conquest of Tangier and Arzila in Morocco , [21] serving there as an officer for some years. He participated in the campaign on the Italian peninsula in to rescue Ferdinand II of Aragon from the Ottoman invasion of Otranto that ended in victory. Afonso made his mark under the stern John II, and won military campaigns in Africa and the Mediterranean sea, yet Asia is where he would make his greatest impact.

When King Manuel I of Portugal was enthroned, he showed some reticence towards Afonso, a close friend of his dreaded predecessor and seventeen years his senior. Eight years later, on 6 April , after a long military career and at a mature age, Afonso was sent on his first expedition to India together with his cousin Francisco de Albuquerque.

They engaged in several battles against the forces of the Zamorin of Calicut Calecute, Kozhikode and succeeded in establishing the King of Cohin Cohim, Kochi securely on his throne. This laid the foundation for the eastern Portuguese Empire. Afonso returned home in July , and was well received by King Manuel I. Afonso went as "chief-captain for the Coast of Arabia ", sailing under da Cunha's orders until reaching Mozambique. The fleet left Lisbon on 6 April Afonso piloted his ship himself, having lost his appointed pilot on departure. However, Socotra was abandoned four years later, as it was not advantageous as a base.

On his way, he conquered the cities of Curiati Kuryat , Muscat in July , and Khor Fakkan , accepting the submission of the cities of Kalhat and Sohar. He arrived at Ormuz on 25 September and soon captured the city , which agreed to become a tributary state of the Portuguese king. Hormuz was then a tributary state of Shah Ismail of Persia. In a famous episode, shortly after its conquest Albuquerque was confronted by Persian envoys, who demanded the payment of the due tribute from him instead.

He ordered them to be given a stock of cannonballs, arrows and weapons, retorting that "such was the currency struck in Portugal to pay the tribute demanded from the dominions of King Manuel" [31]. Afonso began building the Fort of Our Lady of Victory later renamed Fort of Our Lady of the Conception , [32] engaging his men of all ranks in the work. However, some of his officers revolted against the heavy work and climate and, claiming that Afonso was exceeding his orders, departed for India.

With the fleet reduced to two ships and left without supplies, he was unable to maintain this position for long. Forced to abandon Ormuz in January , he raided coastal villages to resupply the settlement of Socotra, returned to Ormuz, and then headed to India. Afonso arrived at Cannanore on the Malabar coast in December , where he opened before the viceroy, Dom Francisco de Almeida, the sealed letter which he had received from the King, and which named as governor to succeed Almeida.

Afonso avoided confrontation, which could have led to civil war, and moved to Kochi, India , to await further instruction from the King, maintaining his entourage himself. Increasingly isolated, he wrote to Diogo Lopes de Sequeira , who arrived in India with a new fleet, but was ignored as Sequeira joined the Viceroy. At the same time, Afonso refused approaches from opponents of the Viceroy, who encouraged him to seize power. On 3 February , Almeida fought the naval Battle of Diu against a joint fleet of Mamluks , Ottomans , the Zamorin of Calicut , and the Sultan of Gujarat , regarding it as personal revenge for the death of his son.

His victory was decisive: the Ottomans and Mamluks abandoned the Indian Ocean, easing the way for Portuguese rule there for the next century. In August, after a petition from Afonso's former officers with the support of Diogo Lopes de Sequeira claiming him unfit for governance, Afonso was sent in custody to St.

Angelo Fort in Cannanore. In September , Sequeira tried to establish contact with the Sultan of Malacca but failed, leaving behind 19 Portuguese prisoners. Afonso was released after three months' confinement, on the arrival at Cannanore of the Marshal of Portugal with a large fleet.

On 4 November , Afonso became the second Governor of the State of India, a position he would hold until his death. Almeida having returned home in , [40] Afonso speedily showed the energy and determination of his character. Initially King Manuel I and his council in Lisbon tried to distribute the power, outlining three areas of jurisdiction in the Indian Ocean. He was succeeded by Duarte de Lemos, but left for Cochin and then for Portugal, leaving his fleet to Afonso. In January , obeying the orders from the King and aware of the absence of Zamorin , Afonso advanced on Calicut.

The attack was unsuccessful, as Marshal Fernando Coutinho ventured into the inner city against instructions, fascinated by its richness, and was ambushed. During the rescue, Afonso was shot in the chest and had to retreat, barely escaping with his life. Coutinho was killed during the escape. Soon after the failed attack, Afonso assembled a fleet of 23 ships and men. Contemporary reports state that he wanted to fight the Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate fleet in the Red Sea or return to Hormuz. However, he had been informed by Timoji a privateer in the service of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire that it would be easier to fight them in Goa , where they had sheltered after the Battle of Diu, [42] and also of the illness of the Sultan Yusuf Adil Shah , and war between the Deccan sultanates.

He thus completed another mission, for Portugal wanted not to be seen as an eternal "guest" of Kochi and had been coveting Goa as the best trading port in the region. A first assault took place in Goa from 4 March to 20 May After initial occupation, feeling unable to hold the city given the poor condition of its fortifications, the cooling of Hindu residents' support and insubordination among his ranks following an attack by Ismail Adil Shah , Afonso refused a truce offered by the Sultan and abandoned the city in August.

His fleet was scattered, and a palace revolt in Kochi hindered his recovery, so he headed to Fort Anjediva. New ships arrived from Portugal, which were intended for the nobleman Diogo Mendes de Vasconcelos at Malacca, who had been given a rival command of the region. Three months later, on 25 November Afonso reappeared at Goa with a renovated fleet. Diogo Mendes de Vasconcelos was compelled to accompany him with the reinforcements for Malacca [28] and about Malabari reinforcements from Cannanore. It is estimated that of the Muslim defenders of the city died, either in the fierce battle in the streets or by drowning while trying to escape.

Afonso rewarded him by appointing him chief " Aguazil " of the city, an administrator and representative of the Hindu and Muslim people, as a knowledgeable interpreter of the local customs. In Goa, Afonso established the first Portuguese mint in the East, after Timoja's merchants had complained of the scarcity of currency, taking it as an opportunity to solidify the territorial conquest. Gold cruzados or manueis, silver esferas and alf-esferas, and bronze "leais" were issued. Upon hearing that the doctors were extorting the sickly with excessive fees, Albuquerque summoned them, declaring that "You charge a physicians' pay and don't know what disease the men who serve our lord the King suffer from.

Thus, I want to teach you what is it that they die from" [47] and put them to work building the city walls all day till nightfall before releasing them. Despite constant attacks, Goa became the center of Portuguese India, with the conquest triggering the compliance of neighbouring kingdoms: the Sultan of Gujarat and the Zamorin of Calicut sent embassies, offering alliances and local grants to fortify.

Afonso then used Goa to secure the Spice trade in favor of Portugal and sell Persian horses to Vijayanagara and Hindu princes in return for their assistance. It urged moving forward with the largest possible fleet to demand their release, and gave details of the fortifications.

Afonso showed it to Diogo Mendes de Vasconcelos, as an argument to advance in a joint fleet. In April , after fortifying Goa, he gathered a force of about Portuguese, Hindu mercenaries and about eighteen ships. Afonso eventually centralized the Portuguese government in the Indian Ocean. After the Malaccan conquest he wrote a letter to the King to explain his disagreement with Diogo Mendes, suggesting that further divisions could be harmful to the Portuguese in India. After a false start towards the Red Sea, they sailed to the Strait of Malacca.

Despite its wealth, it was mostly a wooden-built city, with few masonry buildings but was defended by a mercenary force estimated at 20, men and more than pieces of artillery. Its greatest weakness was the unpopularity of the government of Sultan Mahmud Shah , who favoured Muslims, arousing dissatisfaction amongst other merchants. Afonso made a bold approach to the city, his ships decorated with banners, firing cannon volleys. He declared himself lord of all the navigation, demanded the Sultan release the prisoners and pay for damages, and demanded consent to build a fortified trading post.

The Sultan eventually freed the prisoners, but was unimpressed by the small Portuguese contingent. Afonso then burned some ships at the port and four coastal buildings as a demonstration. The city being divided by the Malacca River, the connecting bridge was a strategic point, so at dawn on 25 July the Portuguese landed and fought a tough battle, facing poisoned arrows, taking the bridge in the evening.

Portuguese exploration in the Age of Discovery

After fruitlessly waiting for the Sultan's reaction, they returned to the ships and prepared a junk offered by Chinese merchants , filling it with men, artillery and sandbags. The day after, all had landed. After a fierce fight during which the Sultan appeared with an army of war elephants , the defenders were dispersed and the Sultan fled. Merchants approached, asking for Portuguese protection. They were given banners to mark their premises, a sign that they would not be looted. On 15 August, the Portuguese attacked again, but the Sultan had fled the city. Under strict orders, they looted the city, but respected the banners.

Despite the delays caused by heat and malaria, it was completed in November , its surviving door now known as " A Famosa " 'the famous'. It was possibly then that Afonso had a large stone engraved with the names of the participants in the conquest. To quell disagreements over the order of the names, he had it set facing the wall, with the single inscription Lapidem quem reprobaverunt aedificantes Latin for "The stone the builders rejected", from David 's prophecy, Psalm —23 on the front.

Besides assisting in the governance of the city and first Portuguese coinage, he provided the junks for several diplomatic missions. On 20 November Afonso sailed from Malacca to the coast of Malabar on the old Flor de la Mar carrack that had served to support the conquest of Malacca. Despite its unsound condition, he used it to transport the treasure amassed in the conquest, given its large capacity. There were also the offers from the Kingdom of Siam Thailand to the King of Portugal and all his own fortune.

On the voyage the Flor de la Mar was wrecked in a storm, and Afonso barely escaped drowning. Most Muslim and Gujarati merchants having fled the city, Afonso invested in diplomatic efforts demonstrating generosity to Southeast Asian merchants, like the Chinese, to encourage good relations with the Portuguese. Trade and diplomatic missions were sent to continental kingdoms: Rui Nunes da Cunha was sent to Pegu Burma , from where King Binyaram sent back a friendly emissary to Kochi in [56] [57] and Sumatra , Sumatran kings of Kampar and Indragiri sending emissaries to Afonso accepting the new power, as vassal states of Malacca.

He was one of the Portuguese who had been arrested in Malacca, having gathered knowledge about the culture of the region. There he was the first European to arrive, establishing amicable relations between the kingdom of Portugal and the court of the King of Siam Ramathibodi II , returning with a Siamese envoy bearing gifts and letters to Afonso and the King of Portugal. Soon after, Afonso sent Rafael Perestrello to southern China, seeking trade relations with the Ming dynasty. In ships from Portuguese Malacca , Rafael sailed to Canton Guangzhou in , and again from to to trade with Chinese merchants.

Afonso returned from Malacca to Cochin, but could not sail to Goa as it faced a serious revolt headed by the forces of Ismael Adil Shah , the Sultan of Bijapur , commanded by Rasul Khan and his countrymen. During Afonso's absence from Malacca, Portuguese who opposed the taking of Goa had waived its possession, even writing to the King that it would be best to let it go.

Held up by the monsoon and with few forces available, Afonso had to wait for the arrival of reinforcement fleets headed by his nephew D. Garcia de Noronha, and Jorge de Mello Pereira. While at Cochin, Albuquerque started a school. In a private letter to King Manuel I, he states that he had found a chest full of books with which to teach the children of married Portuguese settlers casados and Christian converts to read and write which, according to Albuquerque, there were about a hundred in his time, "all very sharp and easily learn what they are taught".

On 10 September , Afonso sailed from Cochin to Goa with fourteen ships carrying 1, soldiers. Determined to recapture the fortress, he ordered trenches dug and a wall breached. But on the day of the planned final assault, Rasul Khan surrendered. Afonso demanded the fort be handed over with its artillery, ammunition and horses, and the deserters to be given up. Some had joined Rasul Khan when the Portuguese were forced to flee Goa in May , others during the recent siege. Rasul Khan consented, on condition that their lives be spared.

Afonso agreed and he left Goa. He did spare the lives of the deserters, but had them horribly mutilated. After such measures the town became the most prosperous Portuguese settlement in India. In December an envoy from Ethiopia arrived at Goa. Mateus was sent by the regent queen Eleni , following the arrival of the Portuguese from Socotra in , as an ambassador for the king of Portugal in search of a coalition to help face growing Muslim influence.

He was received in Goa with great honour by Afonso, as a long-sought " Prester John " envoy. Although Mateus faced the distrust of Afonso's rivals, who tried to prove he was some impostor or Muslim spy, Afonso sent him to Portugal.

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He was under orders to secure that channel for Portugal. Socotra had proved ineffective to control the Red Sea entrance and was abandoned, and Afonso's hint that Massawa could be a good Portuguese base might have been influenced by Mateus' reports. Knowing that the Mamluks were preparing a second fleet at Suez , he wanted to advance before reinforcements arrived in Aden , and accordingly laid siege to the city. After half a day of fierce battle Afonso was forced to retreat.

He cruised the Red Sea inside the Bab al-Mandab , with the first European fleet to have sailed this route. He attempted to reach Jeddah , but the winds were unfavourable and so he sheltered at Kamaran island in May, until sickness among the men and lack of fresh water forced him to retreat. In August , after a second attempt to reach Aden, he returned to India with no substantial results. In order to destroy the power of Egypt , he wrote to King Manuel of the idea of diverting the course of the Nile river to render the whole country barren.

Perhaps most tellingly, he intended to steal the body of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad , and hold it for ransom until all Muslims had left the Holy Land. Although Albuquerque's expedition failed to reach Suez, such an incursion into the Red Sea by a Christian fleet for the first time in history stunned the Muslim world, and panic spread in Cairo. Albuquerque achieved during his term a favourable end to hostilities between the Portuguese and the Zamorin of Calicut, which had lasted ever since the massacre of the Portuguese in Calicut in As naval trade faltered and vassals defected, with no foreseeable solutions to the conflict with the Portuguese, the court of the Zamorin fell to in-fighting.

The ruling Zamorin was assassinated and replaced by a rival, under the instigation of Albuquerque. Thus, peace talks could commence. With peace concluded, in Afonso devoted himself to governing Goa and receiving embassies from Indian governors, strengthening the city and encouraging marriages of Portuguese men and local women. At that time, Portuguese women were barred from traveling overseas. In under a policy which Afonso promulgated, the Portuguese government encouraged their explorers to marry local women. To promote settlement, the King of Portugal granted freeman status and exemption from Crown taxes to Portuguese men known as casados, or "married men" who ventured overseas and married local women.

With Afonso's encouragement, mixed marriages flourished. He appointed local people for positions in the Portuguese administration and did not interfere with local traditions except " sati ", the practice of immolating widows, which he banned. His reputation reached its peak, laying foundations of the Portuguese Empire in the East. The mission returned without an agreement, but diplomatic gifts were exchanged, including an Indian rhinoceros. The shah 's ambassador to Bijapur invited Afonso to send back an envoy to Persia. Miguel Ferreira was sent via Ormuz to Tabriz , where he had several interviews with the shah about common goals on defeating the Mamluk sultan.

At the same time, Albuquerque decided to conclude the effective conquest of Hormuz.

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He had learned that after the Portuguese retreat in , a young king was reigning under the influence of a powerful Persian vizier , Reis Hamed, whom the king greatly feared. At Ormuz in March , Afonso met the king and asked the vizier to be present. He then had him immediately stabbed and killed by his entourage, thus "freeing" the dominated king, so the island in the Persian Gulf yielded to him without resistance and remained a vassal state of the Portuguese Empire.

Ormuz itself would not be Persian territory for another century, until a British-Persian alliance finally expelled the Portuguese in His illness was reported as early as September Afonso's life ended on a bitter note, with a painful and ignominious close. At this time, his political enemies at the Portuguese court were planning his downfall. They had lost no opportunity in stirring up the jealousy of King Manuel against him, insinuating that Afonso intended to usurp power in Portuguese India.

While on his return voyage from Ormuz in the Persian Gulf, near the harbor of Chaul , he received news of a Portuguese fleet arriving from Europe, bearing dispatches announcing that he was to be replaced by his personal foe, Lopo Soares de Albergaria. Realizing the plot that his enemies had moved against him, profoundly disillusioned, he voiced his bitterness: "Grave must be my sins before the King, for I am in ill favor with the King for love of the men, and with the men for love of the King. Feeling himself near death, he donned the surcoat of the Order of Santiago , which he was a knight of, and drew up his will, appointed the captain and senior officials of Ormuz, and organized a final council with his captains to decide the main matters affecting the Portuguese State of India.

He wrote a brief letter to King Manuel, asking him to confer onto his natural son "all of the high honors and rewards" that were justly due to Afonso. He wrote in dignified and affectionate terms, assuring Manuel of his loyalty. On 16 December , Afonso de Albuquerque died within sight of Goa.

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  • As his death was known, in the city "grait wailing arose", [77] and many took to the streets to witness his body carried on a chair by his main captains, in a procession lit by torches amidst the crowd. Afonso's body was buried in Goa, according to his will, in the Church of Nossa Senhora da Serra Our Lady of the Hill , which he had been built in to thank the Madonna for his escape from Kamaran island. In Portugal, King Manuel's zigzagging policies continued, still trapped by the constraints of real-time medieval communication between Lisbon and India and unaware that Afonso was dead.

    Hearing rumours that the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt was preparing a magnificent army at Suez to prevent the conquest of Ormuz, he repented of having replaced Afonso, and in March urgently wrote to Albergaria to return the command of all operations to Afonso and provide him with resources to face the Egyptian threat.

    He organized a new Portuguese navy in Asia, with orders that Afonso if he was still in India , be made commander-in-chief against the Sultan of Cairo's armies. Manuel would afterwards learn that Afonso had died many months earlier, and that his reversed decision had been delivered many months too late. Afonso de Albuquerque was a prolific writer, having sent numerous letters to the king during his governorship, covering topics from minor issues to major strategies.

    In his son published a collection of his letters under the title Commentarios do Grande Affonso d'Alboquerque [84] - a clear reference to Caesar's Commentaries - which he reviewed and re-published in There Afonso was described as "a man of middle stature, with a long face, fresh complexion, the nose somewhat large. He was a prudent man, and a Latin scholar, and spoke in elegant phrases; his conversation and writings showed his excellent education.

    He was of ready words, very authoritative in his commands, very circumspect in his dealings with the Moors, and greatly feared yet greatly loved by all, a quality rarely found united in one captain. He was very valiant and favoured by fortune. In , Afonso was celebrated by Fernando Pessoa in Mensagem, a symbolist epic. A variety of mango that he used to bring on his journeys to India has been named in his honour. The fabled Spice Islands were on the imagination of Europe since ancient times. In the 2nd century AD, the Malay Peninsula was known by the Greek philosopher Ptolemy , who labeled it 'Aurea Chersonesus"; and who said that it was believed the fabled area held gold in abundance.

    Even Indian traders referred to the East Pacific region as "Land of Gold" and made regular visits to Malaya in search of the precious metal, tin and sweet scented jungle woods. Afonso de Albuquerque became the first European to reach the Spice Islands. His discoveries did not go unnoticed, and it took little time for Magellan to arrive in the same region a few years later and discover the Philippines for Spain, giving birth to the Papal Treaty of Zaragoza. Nova Iorque, Routledge. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press. A Particular History of the Senses. Berkeley, University of California Press.

    Shapin Girard Kramer Bhabha ; Stoller ; Taussig Revista de antropologia social e cultural, arbitrada por pares. Plano Duas narrativas e uma carta justificativa. Texto integral PDF k Assinalar este documento. Figura 1 — Afonso de Castro Aumentar Original png, k. O que sign