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First the people with the most knowledge about the past and current state of the building shared their views, to familiarize others with the state-of-the-art. Besides the challenges such as small flats that favour high fluctuation of residents and one-sided socio-economic structures, a number of opportunities were identified: e. The workshop also took place in the targeted building, in a vacant shop premise of the ground floor. Most of the time was spent in three groups, envisioning the great future of the building and making a roadmap by naming concrete actions that are required to reach the vision in the coming five years: what can be done immediately and which bottlenecks have to be removed before being able to proceed with certain interventions.

All agreed that the first priority is to start familiarizing with the current residents — e. What shall be avoided is a costly renovation process the results of which are not truly appreciated or are used only seldom. A number of problems got at least tentative solutions already. If it was possible to lower the considerably high maintenance costs of the house caused e. A related idea was to provide opportunities for work and apprenticeship inside the building by establishing a number of workshops either in the shop premises or vacant apartments.

We were lucky to have representatives of the owner company Vonovia and the Job Center in the workshop. Impressions from Slovenia. This gave us hope that our efforts inspired thinking on the system level, in a country with big controversy on this topic. Also, our concept for improving urban environment together with refugees attracted the attention of 2 municipalities. April in Ljubljana stattgefunden hat. Ljubljana selbst ist mit Slovenia started to take first steps away from collective rather towards decentralized accommodation and is in that terms searching for good examples from both Germany and Italy.

Most were really impressed on what a city from that size could manage so far. Ljubljana with around There was quite interesting input from Italy as well - the SPRAR System from Cittalia: An italianwide program to decentralize accommodation and support cultural projects with and from refugees. For more information on slovenien language, please visit:. Vergangenen Freitag, am Zusammenarbeit in Oberhausen: Gut zu sehen, wie vielseitig das Engagement in Oberhausen ist!

Musikschule, Presseklub, Pokuju e. Conference "Culture with refugees". Last Friday, on March the 11th , took the conference "culture with refugees" in the vacancy at kitev place. Representives of free initiatives, urban cultural institutions and Interested people talked about the function of culture when it comes to integration processes of new-arrived citizens. Beside the inventory of already existing projects to participate to culture and education, many new ideas and suggestions came up and were developed.

Teamwork in Oberhausen: Good to see how multifaceted the engagement in Oberhausen is! Am Ende waren es nach intensiver Recherche unsere internationalen Partner, welche uns mit guten Beispielen versorgten. Lesson 1! We overcame this problem by asking personally people we knew from different countries. Our list is now populated enough, but we seek for more diversity country-wise. Also our demands cases meeting certain criteria were not simple enough for citizens to respond. For the future we propose more targeted contacting and max use of our personal networks!

New inspiration about Interculture. Project philosophy could be one category, too, right? It invited us to rethink refugee accommodation and to see refugees as skillful and interested individuals who can contribute to new forms accommodating themselves in their new domiciles — also in the sense of making themselves feel comfortable and welcome. Instead of seeing the newcomers as burdens of the system that labels people based on their country of origin and often holds them in an agonizingly long state of waiting, the project has wished to see models where everybody can take part in shaping urban living.

The challenge is not limited to working for and with refugees, but as we felt the urgency to react to the global refugee streams, we simply needed to start to act from here. The book was published in but it remains highly topical. It is a clear-sighted diagnosis of the various institutional efforts — mainly unsuccessful despite of the often good intentions — to cope with the increasingly multicultural life in Germany. Welch ein Wochenende!

So wurden die problematischen Fragen eines jeden Projekts mithilfe von professioneller und emphatischer Moderation besprochen. Das Programm beinhaltete u. Workshops, welche als "echtes Training" fungierten. Es war ein wahrer Luxus an einem, von Advocate Europe jedem einzelnen Projekt zugeschnittene, Coaching teilzunehmen. Sind wir mit unserem Projekt auf dem richtigen Weg? Ruhrgebiet ein. Das Haiptthema war Europa: In welchem Europa wollen wir gerne leben? Dies bedeutet, dass jeder ein Diskussionsthema vorschlagen kann und dadurch selbst zum Moderator wird.

Wer wo, aktiv oder passiv, dabei sein wollte, wurde per Fuss-Wahl abgestimmt. Keywords : anthropology of night , night and anthropology. This means Indeed, anthropologists have everywhere, at all times, also investigated phenomena associated with the night. As yet, however, relatively few enquiries into nightly proceedings and phenomena per se appear to have been conducted, no systematic studies or volumes bringing together different aspects of the investigation of the night Keywords : Derrida, J.

Derrida an Egyptian. On the problem of the Jewish pyramid. Borkenau, R. Debray, Hegel, and B. He would be completely forgotten from the day of his death; and 2. These two perhaps contradicting attitudes existed side by side in Derrida, and Sloterdijk interprets them as an expressive dimension in Derrida hinting at his philosophy - it may be a self-description approximating the quality of a metaphysical statement. Keywords : human rights , globalization , indigenous peoples and rights. Indigenous peoples and human rights in the global age.

The author starts with early approaches of the first half of the 20th century, including R. Redfield, and continues by alluding to attempts at definitions of what is a people, and some developments of the topic in the following decades, activities of the UN etc. Die gezeigte und die verborgene Kultur. Keywords : hidden culture , displayed and hidden culture , taboo , language , Shiite strategies , belief protection , shame and theater , theater , action and statement , statement and action , sorcery , magic , Babylon.

Visible and hidden culture. The papers of this book are based on a series of lectures at the University of Leipzig in - dealing with the many dimensions of culture as understood and used in various disciplines. Keywords : Thiel, J. Via mission to anthropology. This autobiographical account relates how Thiel became a missionary SVD - Societas Verbi Divini and an anthropologist, which is intertwined with humanitarian work and details of his work in Africa, later his teaching as an anthropologist in Frankfurt and as a museologist.

Keywords : Boas, F. Remembering Franz Boas This article stresses the point that Boas, the co- founder of American Anthropology at the end of the 19th century already raises questions, which initiate the "Cultural Turn" in anthropology and the transformation of the Humanities into Cultural Sciences Boas developed his own scientific as well as ethical and philosophical views and methods influenced by the ideas of Humboldt, Kant, and Cassirer.

He abandoned an essentialist concept of culture and anticipated the affinity of racism and evolutionism rejecting the notion of an universalistic cultural evolution particularly if the evolutionary progress is based on the idea of race and consequently the denial of individuality. Eine Kritik des Aneignungs-konzepts - nicht nur im Hinblick auf den Verlauf von Mikro-kreditprojekten. Keywords : globalization , agency , appropriation , glocalization , culture concept , heterogeneous culture , essentialism , functionalism , diffusion processes , bricolage.

The return of cultural harmony. A critique of the concept of appropriation. Recently the concept of ,appropriation" has gained some importance in ongoing discussions on globalization, providing a means of emphasizing the agency of those involved in processes of cultural diffusion. The key assumption underlying this perspective is that goods, ideas or practices spreading around the world are not just absorbed by those confronted with them, but are remodeled and modified according to local cultural conditions.

It is the aim of the paper to critically discuss this idea of appropriation as a practice of cultural contextualization. By assuming, I argue, that innovations are adjusted according to local cultural contexts, the concept of appropriation sharply contrasts the local with the foreign, in this way presupposing an image of culture as a coherent set of beliefs and practices that is unduly harmonious. Thus, to approach globalization by way of focusing on processes of cultural appropriation implies and evokes not only an essentialist, but also a systemic, closed, hence functionalist notion of culture that doesn't do justice neither to the complexity of cultural diffusion, nor to human life in general.

The way in which the population of a small Sahelian village in Southern Niger dealt with the money supplied by a microfinance development project provides a good example for illustrating these theoretical constellations. For here comes to light what applies for processes of cultural diffusion in general: That the focus on agency inherent to the concept of appropriation, is too narrow to match the actual complexity of diffusion processes, since it pays too little tribute to determining contexts - other than the notion of bricolage , which seems much more suitable in this respect.

Metamorphosen des Signifikanten. Keywords : body image , subject and reality , psychoanalysis , narcissism , Lacan, J. Metamorphoses of the significant. On the meaning of the body image for the reality of the subject. He defines language as fathomless, opposite of which are body images, which originate in the Other of the reflexion spiegelbild in which the growing subject discovers himself.

Salve Bakkalaureus. Keywords : Bachelor course Germany , anthropology curriculum. Salve Baccalaureus. Concept and perception of the Bachelor course in anthropology at Halle. Perceptions and reactions regarding the new Bachelor undergraduate course system of students, based on a questionnaire, is topic of this report. The results show a moderately good state of affairs.

Keywords : war , traveling , tolerance , women , feminism. The individual issues deal with the following topics:. Wie wir reisen [On the road. How we travel]. Keywords : online public sphere , public spheres , media research , empirical online research. So far, research of online public spheres has mainly been carried out as an online version of offline public spheres.

The possibilities of the new medium to create new and Internet-specific forms of a public sphere have been ignored both on the theoretical and empirical level. In this article, I propose an approach that allows for the conceptual ization of new forms of online public spheres. It takes the Internet user, the providers of web sites and the structural specificities of the Internet into account.

The main thrust of the article is the question as to where the Internet provides public spheres that fulfill functions similar to their offline siblings yet are characterized by an Internet-specific quality. Taking the case of online public spheres that are created by search engines, it can be illustrated how sphere may be analyzed empirically. In order to be able to judge their potential, online public spheres are compared with printed mass media. In a final reflection, I propose a theoretical framework that could be fruitful for the explanatory interpretation of the patterns found in the empirical analysis.

Magie und Medizin. Frobenius-Vorlesung Keywords : magic and medicine , medicine and magic , healing and medicine , alternative healing. Magic and medicine. Frobenius Lecture Zinser starts by focusing on bio-medicine and alternative healing as notions of combat, then on magic in the history of religions and in anthropology, then in alternative healing, followed by individual and collective religious actions, and exlusion of the respective other notion of combat. Familienwandel in Afrika.

Keywords : family in Africa , colonialism and family , postcolonialism , globalization. Family change in Africa. An overview of research. The authors concentrate on changes during colonialism, and post-colonialism sociological research on elites , neo-Marxism, research on women and gender, new kinship research in the s, and the family in times of globalization.

Wer hat das E gesehen?

Of undreamed-of influences of the fieldworker. Experiences from South Africa. Artus interviewed a number of people and reports about their sensibilities to talk about their illness. Verfassungs- und Wahl-rechtsreformen in Algerien, Tunesien und Marokko zwischen und Keywords : authoritarian rule , Maghreb states and politics , elites in Maghreb , elections in Maghreb , reforms in Maghreb , power in Maghreb , rule in Maghreb.

Reform of authoritarian rule in North Africa. Reforms of constitution and election laws in Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco between and Transition research has granted well-founded insights into the preconditions, the course, and conditions for the success of democratic system change. But little is known about the mechanisms of change within authoritarian systems. Using the case of the three Maghreb countries the author presents a detailed introduction to the variety of constitutional and electoral instruments which are used by the elites to modify and change dimensions of their authoritarian regimes.

According to the author the present framework of analysis can be applied to other states of Africa, Asia, and the Near East as well. Geschichte und Dynamiken des Wandels vom Ende des Jahrhunderts bis zur Gegenwart. Keywords : clothing and culture , garments and culture , change and clothing , ritual sphere and clothing , colonialism. Clothing and clothing practices in the Northern Ivory Coast. History and dynamics of change from the end of the 19th century to the present. Why do handwoven textiles in West Africa more and more disappear in everyday usage, and why are they kept in ritual-ceremonial contexts?

The book is on history and change of garments and focuses on the textile artisans and traders of the Muslim Dyula and their relations with other groups of society. It also has a focus on the actors and their practices regarding clothing in various contexts of action. The author identifies several 'garmental' spheres each of which are governed by singular dynamics of change and interaction. The book is based on historical sources and fieldwork in Southern Burkina Faso.

Bauer starts with a theoretical and methodological part and then introduces the Dyala, their history and society.

The last chapters deal with garments in the ritual sphere, and in everyday situations after independence. Keywords : Dafur Conflict , conflict , war , violence. The border region between Chad and Sudan has a particular history and importance in the development not only of the government and people in Chad. As of September , the war in Sudan's western Darfur region on the border with Chad has been raging for more than three years with over , Sudanese citizens living in Chadian refugee camps and more than two million displaced in Darfur.

This article will begin by attempting to disentangle the complex historical connections as well as the intertwined relations between the present governments of Chad, Sudan, and others, in order to develop a frame for understanding the actors' perspectives in recent violent developments in the border region. The second part will focus on the local border groups mired in a cycle of violence that keeps returning to the forefront of the regional conflict.

Islam und Entwicklung in Afrika. Islam and development in Africa. Points of departure for development cooperation]. Afrika Spectrum Keywords : Pentecostal Churches , Valentine's Day , change in Ghana , youth and Pentecostalism , sexualized spheres , premarital relationships. In the past five years, Valentine's Day has been celebrated in Ghana by young people in the public sphere.

This opened up public discussions giving insights into changes of youth and childhood in postcolonial Ghana: The celebrations are closely connected with the arrival of new goods and communication technologies which have been used by young people since the turn of the millennium. The media and Pentecostal Churches create a sexualised public, with 'the youth' as a centre of interest. Schools not only prolong childhood, creating a gap between young people's sexual maturity and their entry into reproductive life, but also offer a sexualised sphere outside their parents' control.

Despite these complex changes, young people and their parents keep to customary forms of premarital relationships, in which modes of intergenerational communication are marked by silence and secrets about sexual friendships. Kommunikationsprozesse zwischen Produktion und Rezeption in der Lissabonner Diaspora.

Spektrum Communication processes between production and reception in the Lisbon diaspora. This kind of music, implicit or explicit, depicts the two realms as intimately connected, and one may ask which social dynamics result from it on the level of the societal discourse on politics. While the musicians point to grievances, listeners value their emotionality and proximity to reality. The appendix has some 30 pages of song texts, in original and German translation.

Politischer Islam in Westafrika. Eine Bestandsaufnahme. Afrikanische Studien Political Islam in West Africa. A stocktaking. The long way home. Contemplations of Southern Sudanese refugees in Uganda. Keywords : refugees , peace treaties , ethnic groups , repatriation , exile , state-refugee relations. Following the signature of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the Governments of Northern and Southern Sudan, peace has officially been concluded.

But does that necessarily mean that refugees want to return to their home country? How do they determine their decisions and what do they expect from the post-conflict era? Based on extended field research in the Rhino Camp Settlement in Northern Uganda and in the town of Yei in Southern Sudan these questions are being addressed.

The focus is on the individuality of each refugee while, at the same time, official responses and policies are being considered and challenged. Democracy, decentralisation and poverty reduction in Malawi. Keywords : democracy , decentralisation , poverty reduction , reforms and poverty , decentralization , empowerment , participation. The overall objective of this study was to examine the politics of poverty reduction in the context of political and administrative reforms. The specific objectives of the study include the following:.

While this [first] chapter introduces the scope and focus of the study, chapter two presents a review of literature both at conceptual and empirical levels about the relationships between democracy, decentralisation and poverty reduction. It also sets out the conceptual framework within which the politics of poverty reduction is investigated. Chapter three presents the political economy setting of the country focusing on the political, economic and policy developments since independence in specifically highlighting their implications for the poverty reduction agenda, which has been at the centre of Malawi's development strategy since the turn of the s.

Chapter four discusses the history and the evolution of the decentralisation policy reforms in Malawi. While three distinct phases are identified, particular attention is paid to the current phase of the decentralization policy reforms. The features of the decentralisation policy and the l. Chapter five is divided into two major parts. The first part evaluates how the legal and institutional frameworks have influenced and impacted on the implementation and institutionalisation of the decentralisation policy reforms. The deficiencies and constraints of the legal and institutional frameworks are noted and their implications highlighted Chapter six assesses the status of District Assemblies DAs as the main implementation agencies of the decentralisation policy reforms Chapter seven discusses the views and perceptions of the grassroots about poverty, participation and civic competence within the framework of the decentralisation policy reforms It concludes with the assessment of factors affecting grassroots participation in development projects prompted by the rather instrumental imagery of the decentralisation policy reforms championed by stakeholders both at national and DA levels.

Chapter eight focuses on the interface between traditional and modern leadership institutions in the implementation and institutionalisation of the decentralisation policy reforms paying particular attention to the inherent tension between them Finally, chapter nine summarises and concludes the study with some indications of directions for future research.

German-African research co-operation: practices, problems and policies. Keywords : higher education , research co-operation , foreign aid , development aid , co-operation in research , academic cooperation. This paper provides some insights into the policies, practices and problems of German-African co-operation in research projects conducted in Africa.

Differences in interests, knowledge domains and competences, in economic, social and political situations, a lack of awareness thereof, power imbalances and a lack of management skills can severely impede a fruitful co-operation. These factors are compounded by institutional constraints in the German academic sector. Germany seems to be conspicuously absent as a participant in international debates and development policies of research co-operation between countries of the North and the South.

Research funding policies are at great variance with the complex realities particularly in African countries. A critical analysis of policies and practices of research co-operation elsewhere could contribute to a revision of some of the current policies of research funding organisations in Germany.

Lokale und internationale Perspektiven. Keywords : story-tellers , narrators , Kanuri storytellers. Professional narrators among the Kanuri of the Chad Lake area Nigeria. Local and international perspectives. Geider focuses on the specific type of professional Kanuri narration and begins with the status of the narrator and his training, followed by the structure of his performance. He also deals with what is being narrated, and what the difference is regarding everyday story-tellers in families.

Furthermore: what does professionalization do to the performance of his narration, and the influence of modernity. Comparative aspects deal with the origin of the narrator, and the transethnic distribution of narrative topics. Pastoral Morocco. Globalizing scapes of mobility and insecurity. Nomaden und Sesshafte 7. Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag Keywords : pastoralism , nomadism , sedentarism , agro-pastoralism , neoliberalism , environmentalism , restructuring agriculture , animal husbandry.

Pastoral Morocco explores the mobility of people and livestock in the context of neo-liberal globalization. Mobility is defined as a strategy to maintain and enhance access to resources, and hence comprehended as a stratgegy of pastoralists to cope with insecurity and new risks. Pastoral livelihoods in Morocco are, as the authors point out, increasingly shaped by processes unfolding outside the realm of animal production, for instance by dynamics of labor migration, changing property rights, and new means of communication. This volume examines local consequences of agro-pastoral restructuring.

It investigates, for example, the invention of pastoral cooperatives, analyzes territorial changes triggered by urbanization and new spaces of enterprises, assesses the importance of cross border trade and sheep-commodity chaings, scrutinizes the complexity and vulnerability of livelihood portfolios and it ultimately inquires the genealogy of conflicts over pastures.

Pastoral Morocco draws on intensive empirical fieldwork and captures the regional diversities of the country. It is the first English language volume that combines Moroccan and European expertise about the changing world of mobility and insecurity that Moroccan pastoralists inhabit. The significance of resources. Keywords : San , bushmen , hunter-gatherers , revisionism debate , cultural ecology. The field of hunting-gathering studies has been a contentious branch of anthropology since its inception two centuries back.

The article reviews the developments of the field through two generations of researchers, from the s to s, when an ecological paradigm prevailed, to the present generation. The latter largely in reaction to the excessively static and materialist orientation of the previous approach, has turned towards modes of analysis of foraging - or, today, largely "post foraging" - societies that are either historical or hermeneutical or symbolic, as well as "revisionist" giving to the field its latest bout of contentiousness.

While drawing on research on hunter-gatherers globally, the article is focused predominantly on the San, a hunter-gatherer group of paradigmatic significance in hunter-gatherer studies. Fossil fuels, oil companies, and indigenous peoples. Strategies of multinational oil companies, states, and ethnic minorities. Impact on environment, livelihoods, and cultural change. Action anthropology 1. Keywords : oil companies , action anthropology , environment , habitat destruction , resistence. Global public awareness of the devastating impact of oil extraction on local communities has grown considerably in recent years, due in large part to Ken Saro-Wiwa's work on behalf of the Ogoni in south-eastern Nigeria and his death in at the hands of Nigeria's military dictatorship.

This volume consists of eight case-studies, all of them attempting to answer these questions: What can indigenous people do when faced with the destruction of their natural and social habitats? And how do oil companies respond to the various forms of local and indigenous resistance to their activities? The eight case studies deal with oil-producing regions in Alaska, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, Colombia, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea andwest Siberia and encompass 18 indigenous population groups. Global responsibility - local agenda.

The legitimacy of modern self-determination and African traditional authority. Keywords : globalization , local and global , responsibility and globalization , self-determination , traditional culture and globalization , power and legitimacy , legitimacy and globalization. Yet, there is confusion about the role and functioning of such decentral structures as well as about sustainable political approaches to the top down transfer of government power in the context of local agendas.

The book highlights major aspects of the legitimacy of local power as presented by modern self-government structures as well as traditional communal authorities. Although the main focus is placed on Southern Africa Namibia, South Africa, Botswana , examples from other regions Ghana, Democratic Republic of the Congo are also put into perspective.

Contributors: B. Benzing, Th. Gatter, G. Hilliges, M. Hinz, H. Kammerer-Grothaus, B. Katjaerua, E. Okupa, N. Olivier, B. Oomen, H. Patemann, D. Quintem, D. Schefold, G. Stuby, G. Quellen zur Khoisan-Forschung Hoff wants to continue work started by the linguists W. Bleek and L. Ein Leben mit afrikanischen Sprachen. Keywords : Jungraithmayr, H. A life with African languages. This is the first part of a detailed autobiographical account from first beginnings parents etc. Keywords : migrants , family relations of migrants , babies of migrants.

Many young Nigerian women's main reason for migrating to Europe lies in the desire to support their families back home in Nigeria. For those who travel to Europe overland it means being on the road for months or even several years. In this transitional stage, new relationships - often highly provisional - develop, and many migrants get pregnant. Although their unborn children are often not the result of relationships based on mutual consent nor planned, they nonetheless may play a crucial role in being able to continue the journey: These days they represent a kind of protection and 'papers' and, thereby, reduce the risk for their mothers of being deported.

Being mostly single mothers, soon after reaching Europe the young women take on the role of double breadwinners: On the one hand, they have to provide for their children who were born on the road or in the country of destination, on the other hand, they have to support their families in Nigeria.

In analysing these new forms of family relationships that span from the country of origin to the transit country and the provisional destination country, the author also contributes to research on the dynamics of family structures in the context of migration. Mit den Mythen denken. Die Mythen der Burji als Ausdrucksformen ihres Habitus. Ethnologie Euro Keywords : Burji , value systems , discourse analysis , interpretation , Bourdieu, P. Thinking with the myths.

The myths of the Burji as expressions of their habitus. This book tries to arrive at a deeper understanding of Burji culture Ethiopia and Kenya and their value systems through their myths. The myths are not expressly dogmatic regarding their world view but display models of thought that can be interpreted variably. The author shows how a narrative or its situation evokes certain thoughts, and how these structure further cognition or modes of action. Texts that have been recorded in the original language are analyzed according to a method that combines hermeneutic and performative approaches and Bourdieu's theory of practice.

The basis for analysing the way in which Burji use their myths as a reflexive medium are 16 'myths' or 'historical narratives' which the Burji categorize as mammaahoo. Vatiants of two myth complexes were selected for the analysis: eight variants of the Liban tradition which is about the ethnogenesis of the Burji, and eight variants revolving around the clan re- founder Yaayya.

Both mythical traditions are still deeply rooted in the minds of the Burji. They can be seen as 'key cultural texts' When Burji 'think with the help of their myths,' they put their reality of life in a larger context and try to understand it by relating it to their transmitted culture and social order set up by the ancestors. Since daily life is transcended in the myth, the latter can give new impetus to everyday practice, inspire ideas on how to practically and cognitively cope with problems and inconsistencies of human existence.

Afrikanische Soldaten aus deutscher Sicht seit Stereotype, Vorurteile, Feindbilder und Rassismus. Afrika und Europa. Koloniale und postkoloniale Begegnungen 4. Keywords : soldiers and stereotypes , stereotypes about soldiers , colonialism and stereotypes , racism and soldiers. African soldiers from a German perspective since Stereotypes, prejudice, projections of enemies, and racism. Historically generated judgments about other peoples are one basis for modern everyday racism. Patterns of perception discovered by this method are grouped in six stereotypical complexes - adventurous, despised, belittling, sexualizing, ruthless etc.

And all of these negative stereotypes hardly vary in the different sections and classes of German society and religious and political groups. The findings also show that these stereotypes exist even today, that is, they prove to be very durable. So, the identification of traditional patterns of perception is an important contribution to researching modern forms of racism. Keywords : tradition , law , legitimacy , chieftaincy , Christianity , revitalization , Akyem Abuakwa kingdom , Presbyterian Church , normative practice , Ohum Festival , Basel missionaries.

Palace customs versus missionary rights: Contesting plural traditions and souvereignties during the Ohum festival controversy in Kyebi Ghana. Palace customs and missionary rights are at the core of what can be discerned as a revitalisation of tradition in Kyebi, the capital of the Akyem Abuakwa kingdom in southern Ghana.

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Both have been subject to fervent debates between the local chiefs' palace and the Presbyterian Church and were labelled by the institutions as their respective tradition. Claimed as a set of legal instruments and normative practices, the two traditions were displayed in a conflict which surrounded the celebration of the Ohum festival and the implementation of particular regulations by the palace.

The latter was strongly objected by the church which saw her legal immunity seriously breached, one allegedly gained by the Basel missionaries for the early Kyebi Christians. Both, palace and church, are therefore caught in a sort of traditional pluralism creating a framework in which sovereignties are challenged and discursively negotiated. In this article, I lay out the particularities of this framework of pluralistic traditions in Kyebi, nourished by historically rooted and reoccurring debates on rights, regulations, practices and their legitimacy.

In particular, analysing the multiple claims for power reveals how tradition is subject to quite differing agendas just when institutional boundaries, loyalties and dogmas are at stake. The Christian quarter and tradition in the debates on the Ohum festival in Kyebi, Ghana.

Klaeger focuses on the position of the Christian neighborhood in relation to other sections and the close interrelationship of religious, political, and juridical dimensions. The Ohum festival a festival commemorating first settlement, wars, mark the yams harvest, purifying and renewing the traditional state conflict was triggered by the Homowo conflict in Accra, and debates then also took place in small-town Kyebi.

There were violent assaults because of the drum noise, and Christian churches were asked to reduce the noise and limit the drumming to indoors. Klaeger discusses theological, historical, and anthropological approaches to deal with this situation and describes the Christian neighborhood between church and palace, and neighborhood realities in the face of status ascription, and finally reflects on a pluralism of traditions. Selecting therapies in Benin: making choices between informal, formal, private and public health services. Keywords : health care Benin , gender and health care.

This paper addresses a distinctive feature in Benin's health care system. Thus governmental health facilities are extremely under-utilized. Where does this rejecting attitude come from and what kinds of health institutions are used instead? The present study explores this peculiarity and analyses the criteria for therapeutic itineraries in central Benin. A gendered focus shifts the evidence from 'the' Beninese population to gendered perspectives of male and female residents.

The findings are based on 22 months of qualitative fieldwork and a large quantitative database obtained from participants in central Benin. Tuareg in Libyen. Keywords : Touareg , Imajeghs , belonging , norms , values , identity , schools , state ideology , marriage , socialization , smuggling , migration , borderland. Touareg in Libya. Identities between borders.

Kohl defines her book as a study in social anthropology that presents, strategies of belonging, shows how Touareg deal with state power, and explains the role of territorial and sociocultural borders or delimitations. The focus is on norms and values of Libyan identity and analyzes the institution of the school as the mediator of state ideology. Also, marriage practices are described as an indicator of informal socialization, and the transregional space of trade, smuggling, and migration as the result of transgressing state loyalty. The appendix supplies various sources of interest to the topic of the book.

The book is profusely illustrated with aesthetic photographs. Violence as routine. Despite the claims of political leaders KwaZulu-Natal remained a violent place after the democratic transition in Chapter I defines central terms, explores various theoretical approaches on violent conflict and presents the main arguments.

Chapter 2 gives a short historical background on political, social and cultural processes in KwaZulu-Natal and the wider Inchanga area since the late 19th century. Chapters 3 and 4 deal with violent conflict before the former explores the origins and initial stages of violent conflict in Inchanga and KwaZulu-Natal, the latter illustrates that violent conflict continued in the transition period and significant changes in the local power structure and institutions came to the fore which contributed to the perpetuation of violent conflict in the years to come Chapter 5 elaborates on the most important economic, social, cultural and political aspects in Inchanga after Chapter Whereas Chapter 6 is more of a descriptive nature, Chapters 7 and 8 are explicitly analytical.

Chapter 7 examines insiders' perspectives on the causes of local violent action in the post-apartheid era. Chapter 8 first analyses the forms and characteristics of violent conflict and subsequently and most significantly relates the main empirical results to the main arguments disjunction and violence as routine introduced in Chapter 1.

In the Conclusion, I finally discuss the state of the South African state, the rise of the local and the future of violent conflict in KwaZulu-Natal. The health problems of pastoral populations are manifold. Different approaches can be applied. Most commonly, biomedical data are collected, but these explain only a part of the problem. Therefore, social science-based approaches were applied to provide an understanding of the social factors related to illness and to reveal the constraints linked to the improvement of health. Zoonoses are among the special health problems of nomadic pastoralist groups.

Their significance must be considered in humans as well as in livestock. Assessing health care demands is often based primarily on public health considerations. Using the approach of focusing on locally relevant priorities, health complaints were discovered that were unnoticed by public health considerations. And little is known about health-seeking behaviour in nomadic pastoralist communities.

The determinants of the complex and interlinked process of health-seeking behaviour and user satisfaction are shown. Keywords : legal processes , sexual offences , legal dualism , criminal prosecution , South Aftica , traditional law , state law , rape , colonialism. Legal vacuum caused by conflicting expectations about legal processes: the inaccessibility of traditional and state institutions in cases of sexual abuse in rural South Africa. The differences between traditional and state legal systems not only include laws but also expectations about proper procedures, the localization of law and those who can act as middle men and women between the claimant and institutions.

How these different expectations on the technicalities and responsibilities in legal processes may hinder reports to the police and cause what is described as a legal vacuum is discussed in the context of sexual violence against girls in rural South Africa. In addition to that the article discusses how the girls were able to negotiate sexual relations as a group in pre-colonial times, how this peer group responsibility was weakened by the colonial government and responsibilities relocated to the father.

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Finally, the article shows one revival of youth organisation to protect girls from sexual offences in a modern form in North West Province as a possible example of re-vitalising old responsibilities and networks. Keywords : religious mobility , conversion , change and religion. Religious mobility. Conversions and religious change in Burkina Faso. Thus, the causal nature of the world, put on shaky ground following Hume, had been reestablished. Because we are sure to be living in a moral world, we must also believe in the existence of ultimate justice wherein the good are rewarded and the evil, punished.

Thus Fichte attempted to collapse noumenal reality into phenomenal reality with his claim that consciousness is not grounded in anything outside itself. In other words, because experience is constitutive of reality rather than our experience existing at a remove of the truth of things-in-themselves , Fichte chose subjective experience as the self-evident starting point of his philosophy. Therefore, an absolute ego necessarily defines itself against an absolute non-ego, and the absolute ego cannot possibly contain all of reality. Where Subject and Object are absolutely, not just partially united [vereiniget], and hence so united that no division can be undertaken, without destroying the essence [Wesen] of the thing that is to be sundered [getrennt], there and not otherwise can we talk of an absolute Being, as is the case in intellectual intuition.

He reiterates his critique of Fichte in the remainder of this section: But this Being must not be equated [verwechselt] with Identity… on the contrary the Ego is only possible through this sundering of Ego from Ego. But how is self-consciousness possible?

Precisely because I oppose myself to myself; I sunder myself from myself, but in spite of this sundering I recognize myself as the same in the opposites…41 And later: So identity is not a uniting of Subject and Object that takes place absolutely, and so Identity is not equal to absolute Being. But how is selfconsciousness possible? But also and first. Where Subject and Object are absolutely, not just partially united [vereiniget], and hence so united that no division can be undertaken, without destroying the essence [Wesen] of the thing that is to be sundered [getrennt], there and not otherwise can we talk of an absolute Be-.

But this Being must not be equated [verwechselt] with Identity. When I saw: I am I, the Subject Ego and the Object Ego are not so united that absolutely no sundering can be undertaken, without destroying the essence of the thing that is to be sundered; on the contrary the Ego is only possible through this sundering of Ego from Ego. Precisely because I oppose myself to myself; I sunder myself from myself, but in spite of this sundering I recognize myself as the same in the opposites. But how far as the same? So identity is not a uniting of Subject and Object that takes place absolutely, and so Identity is not equal to absolute Being.

In the concept of division [Theilung] there lies already the concept of the reciprocal relation [Beziehung] of Object and Subject to one another, and the necessary presupposition of a whole of which Object and Subject are the parts. Actuality and possibility are to be distinguished, as mediate and intermediate consciousness. When I think of an object [Gegenstand] as possible, I merely duplicate the previous consciousness in virtue of which it is actual. There is for us not thinkable possibility, which was not an actuality.

For this reason the concept of possibility has absolutely no valid application to the objects of Reason, since they come into consciousness as nothing but what. The concept of possibility has valid application to the objects of the understanding, that of actually to the objects of perception and intuition. NOTES a. Having established the validity of a priori synthetic judgments, Kant inverted the grounding of morality on freedom to conclude that because there is morality, there must also be freedom He believed the nature of morality to be the free use of reason.

See appendix for H. See pages of Warminski for further explanation.

Jürgen Habermas

Robert C. James H. August 30, Krone aus kanariengelben Kugeln, in frisch vergossene Schneedecke gewunden, Mantel aus Federwolken. Blinzelnd, Du grubst deine Finger, zitternd, ins Grundgestein, umklammerst den pulsierenden Leib und kriechst nach oben. On the whole, the works are not so much politically motivated as they are attempts to examine and. No people are seen during the first five minutes of the film.

All the attention is on the ordered events of a new day; the image of the rising sun is followed by a train running from the countryside into the city. Images of empty factories, which will soon be filled by the frenzy of the business day, are shown alongside scenes of store windows lined with mannequins and advertisement posters, a subtle exploration of the way that money — and capitalism — order the experiences of life in the metropolis.

In his essay, Simmel argues that people in the metropolis are always under the clock, and even a one hour delay in the day would prove very problematic. Punctuality, calculability, exactness are forced upon life by the complexity and extension of metropolitan existence and are not only most.

Clocks and time organize the day in Berlin. Everything in the city is measurable — qualitative value is replaced by quantitative — which has resulted from a society in which human relations are only measured via the external objective values of money and time. Specifically, the identity of the train commuters is only distinguished through images of their legs, suggesting a lack of individuality between them.

The workers and inhabitants of the city remain anonymous throughout the entirety of the film. The entertainment available to the city dwellers are just as automated and synchronized as the machines they handled earlier in the day. Through a chain of associations, routine, rhythm, and repetition are shown as features of modernity. His montage relies on the technique of shock, each image reverberating with intensity. A fast paced tempo is inherent in most of the sequences.

Through his extensive use of montage, most notably in the scenes of machinery and mechanization,. In order to deal with these disruptions and complexities of the modern city, the metropolitan citizen reacts in a rational and impersonal way. In the film, this is most notable twenty-three minutes towards the end of Act II, when the images of telephone operators are overlapped in increasing intensity with other images of factory work, as well as the few stray images of two dogs fighting. Even the suicide is depersonalized; it is just another image of rotation and a symbol of the ultimate lack of individualism.

Ruttmann in his film presents a generalized experience of the city. Indeed, the camera can be understood as the eye that films life as it happens in the modern city. In this way, the viewer becomes an member of the collective city dwellers, constantly bombarded with new sights, sounds and smells of the metropolis. The streets are the focus of most of the images in his film. Workers are excluded from creating their environment, yet remain spectators of commercial capitalism: the metropolis as the capitalist appropriation of human environments.

Through his use of montage, he presents the capitalist city of commerce in a more critical light. In the final sequence at night, Ruttman presents a bright and neon display of consumerism and consumption, turning the city into a spectacle of commercial capitalism. This commercialization, appearing hand in hand with the ever-increasing industrialization, explains why labour would be replaced by machines, allowing citizens to partake in new activities associated with the individualism of capitalism.

Even sex, as part of the metropolitan lifestyle, is carried out in a sportsmanlike manner. It is as if the city has been seduced by capitalism, and glories in the spectacle of modernity and the theoretically free lifestyle it promises. Recurring motifs like the swirling spiral and the blurring of activities distort any notion of self within the city.

A never-ending source of stimulation, the film captures the idea that the city holds infinite possibilities for the individual. Berlin: Symphony of a City, directed by Walther Ruttman. New York: Free Press, Mehrere Gedichte aus seinem Buch der Lieder sind die Klagelieder eines abgewiesenen Geliebten, der um eine verlorene Liebe trauert. Die Problematik seiner ironischen Liebesrethorik wird, nach Untersuchung einigen Gedichten aus seiner Sammlung, deutlich; es ist seine Verteidigung gegen der Prosa der Welt, zu Lasten von seinen weiblichen Subjekten.

Oft wird das prosaische in den Gedichten des Buches sowohl als Stilmittel, wie als Thema behandelt.

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Er behauptet, dass sie aus nichts weiteres als dieser Konvention besteht; das ist kein Lack, eher ist es ihr Kern. Immer wieder wird die Geliebte sehr metonymisch formuliert, und wird zu bruchlosem Zeichen der Gesellschaft. Diese Gedichte sind sehr zart; Heine hatte diese Frauen wirklich geliebt, und sein Elend als sie ihn verlassen, scheint genauso wahr zu sein. Sie werden als Automaten dargestellt nach der Weise der E. Dieser anderer schenkt ihr Diamanten vermutlich als Hochzeitsgeschenk : ein Motiv, dass im Buch der Lieder mehrmals wiederholt wird.

Es ist klar, dass er glaubt, dass die Seelen dieser Frauen genauso durchsichtig sind, als die Steine, die sie tragen. Die Ironie dieser Gedichte ist unbewusst: er stellt sich selber im Gegensatz zur prosaischen Welt, doch erwartet er genau die gleichen Eigenschaften, dass die Gesellschaft von diesen Frauen verlangt. Dass er vielleicht auch einige prosaischer Neigungen.

Die Ironie Heines ist in dem. Heine hat damit recht; Diamanten sind nicht alles, was man im Leben suchen soll. Was er ihnen anbietet ist immer noch ein Leben, in dem sie als Objekt behandelt werden; ihnen werden halt Gedichte statt Diamanten geschenkt. Hegel, Werke Bd. Lehmann, Popularisierung, Roger F. Sehe Justis, Lehmann, Peters. Dies ist zwar ein altes Motiv der Liebesdichtung, doch Heine benutzt sie oft in neuen Weisen.

Perraudin, Poetry, Hegel, Werke, Justis, Feminine, Justis, Feminine, 53