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From Early Modern to Postmodern

Dans bon nombre de ces loc. Le fr. Zola , La Fortune des Rougon, , p.

Déjà (English translation)

Mais quoi! Flaubert , La Tentation de Saint Antoine, , p. Claudel , La Jeune fille Violaine, 2 e version , , p. France , Le Petit Pierre, , p. La loc. C'est que Mirbeau , Le Journal d'une femme de chambre, , p. Il voulait attendre au printemps O Violaine! Claudel , La Jeune fille Violaine, 2 e version, , I, p. Mais le compl. Hugo , Les Travailleurs de la mer, , p.

Bernanos , Sous le soleil de Satan, , p. Je ne peux pas Verne , Le Tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours, , p. Il n'aurait certes pas eu la force d'en dire davantage. Mais la justesse de sa comparaison lui faisait jouir la cervelle. Romains , Les Copains, , p. Ces compl. Dans certaines tournures adv. Certains des compl. Zola , Germinal, , p.

Table of contents

Il faut que l'herbe tombe au tranchant des faucilles Zola , La Joie de vivre, , p. Courteline , Messieurs-les-Ronds-de-Cuir, , I, p. Bloy , La Femme pauvre, , p. Un grand effort pour parler, mais la faiblesse pour trouver les mots. Dieu sait! Bernanos , Madame Dargent, , p. Flaubert , La Tentation de Saint-Antoine, , p. On notera les constr. Erckmann-Chatrian , Le Conscrit de , , p. Allons donc! Martin du Gard , Confidence africaine, , p. Jouve , Les Tragiques, Livre de la nuit , , p. Certains adj.

On ajoutera un certain nombre de tournures dans lesquelles le subst. Abellio , Heureux les pacifiques, , p. Les subst. Tu es digne de l'attachement que je te porte. Constant , Le Cahier rouge, , p. Le subst. Michelet , Journal, , p. Sainte-Beuve , Tableau hist. Zola , Le Docteur Pascal, , p. Maurois , Ariel ou la Vie de Shelley, , p. Giono , Un de Baumugnes, , p. Martin du Gard , Un Taciturne, , p. Stendhal , Lucien Leuwen, t.

Scribe, A. Varner , Le Mariage de raison, , I, 1, p. L'aiguille a fait son tour. Bref, elle m'adorait. Un certain nombre de syntagmes nom. Certes, par oppos. Ainsi le compl. Toutefois les compl. Forme phon. La plupart des dict. Nicot Pour l'introd. Dans les textes anc. Eulalie, Saint Alexis , les formes en ad sont empl. Pour la question de x empl. Les formes mod. On rencontre encore de nombreux cas d'agglutination au xvi e s. Paris et Pannier 16a ds T. Notion de situation : , dans le temps Eul. Notions : a d'instrument : Eul.

Alexis, 5e ds T. Sainte-Maxence , S. Hippeau, ibid. Micha, : Que ses oncles li mande Qu' a lui pes ne trives n'atande. Avalle, : Castel Emaus ab elz entret, Ab elz ensemble si sopet ; id. Une nouvelle vie. L'inconnue de Peyrolles. Une passion fauve. Le choix d'une femme libre. Objet de toutes les convoitises. Publication in France: 17 September pages.

Its erotic content did not provoke a scandal, since for much its existence it has remained in private collections. It is now in the Louvre, Paris. Painting by Ford Madox Brown : Work is generally considered to be his most important achievement. It exists in two versions. The painting attempts to portray, both literally and analytically, the totality of the Victorian social system and the transition from a rural to an urban economy.

Brown began the painting in and completed it in , when he set up a special exhibition to show it along with several of his other works. He wrote a detailed catalogue explaining the significance of the picture. The picture depicts a group of so-called "navvies" digging up the road to build an underground tunnel. It is typically assumed that this was part of the extensions of London's sewerage system, which were being undertaken to deal with the threat of typhus and cholera. The workers are in the centre of the painting.

On either side of them are individuals who are either unemployed or represent the leisured classes. Behind the workers are two wealthy figures on horseback, whose progress along the road has been halted by the excavations. The painting also portrays an election campaign, evidenced by posters and people carrying sandwich boards with the name of the candidate "Bobus". A poster also draws attention to the potential presence of a burglar. The setting is an accurate depiction of The Mount on Heath Street in Hampstead, London, where a side road rises up above the main road and runs alongside it.

Brown made a detailed study of the location in Louis Ducos du Hauron patents his numerous ideas for color photography based on the three-color principle, including procedures for making subtractive color prints on paper. They are published the following year. Their implementation is not technologically practical at that time, but they anticipate most of the color processes that are later introduced. Painting by : At the Races in the Countryside. This painting was one of the first works that Degas sold in to Paul Durand-Ruel, the dealer who became the early champion of the Impressionists.

It is not only a landscape but also a scene from everyday life and - most of all - a family portrait. The men seem to almost collapse forward in exhaustion under the burden of hauling a large boat upstream in heavy, hot weather. The work is both a celebration of the men's dignity and fortitude, and a highly emotional condemnation of those who sanctioned such inhumane labor. Although they are presented as stoical and accepting, the men are largely defeated; only one stands out: in the center of both the row and canvas, a brightly colored youth fights against his leather binds and takes on a heroic pose.

The painting is It is one of the most famous works by an American artist outside the United States. It has been variously described as an American icon and a Victorian Mona Lisa. Richard Leach Maddox invents the gelatin dry plate silver bromide process. Negatives no longer had to be developed immediately. Long before his discovery of the dry gelatin photographic emulsion, Maddox was prominent in what was called photomicrography - photographing minute organisms under the microscope.

The eminent photomicrographer of the day, Lionel S. Beale, included as a frontispiece images made by Maddox in his manual 'How to work with the Microscope'. Painting by Claude Monet : Impression, Sunrise French: Impression, soleil levant was shown at what would later be known as the "Exhibition of the Impressionists" in April The painting depicts the port of Le Havre, Monet's hometown, and is his most famous painting of the harbor. Monet claimed that he titled the painting Impression, Sunrise due to his hazy painting style in his depiction of the subject: "They asked me for a title for the catalogue, it couldn't really be taken for a view of Le Havre, and I said: 'Put Impression.

Painting by Claud Monet : Boulevard des Capucines. At their first exhibition, held in April , Monet exhibited the work that was to give the group its lasting name, Impression, Sunrise. The painting was rejected by the Paris Salon of Also in this exhibition was a painting titled Boulevard des Capucines, a painting of the boulevard done from the from the studio of Monet's friend, the photographer Felix Nadar.

Painting by Edgar Degas : A Cotton Office in New Orleans depicts the artist's uncle Michel Musson's cotton brokerage business which several years later went bankrupt in an economic crash, according to Michael McMahon of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette when the firm was swamped by the postwar growth of the much larger Cotton Exchange. Another brother, Achille, rests against a window wall at left while others, including Musson's partners, go about their business.

A Cotton Office in New Orleans was the first painting by Degas to be purchased by a museum, and the first by an Impressionist. Degas' sale of the piece marked a turning point in his career as he moved from being a struggling, unrecognized artist to a recognized and financially stable artist, according to Marilyn Brown in her book Degas and the Business of Art: A Cotton Office in New Orleans.

Degas was to return to Europe in January , but when his return trip was delayed, he was asked by his relatives to paint their portraits, and decided to show them as a group, at work in the family office. Hermann Wilhelm Vogel discovers dye sensitization, allowing the blue-sensitive but otherwise color-blind photographic emulsions then in use to be made sensitive to green, yellow and red light. Technical problems delay the first use of dye sensitization in a commercial product until the mids; fully panchromatic emulsions are not in common use until the midth century.

It was commissioned by Jean-Baptiste Faure. Degas temporarily abandoned work on this painting, and delivered a work of a similar name to Faure. The painting depicts dancers at the end of a lesson under ballet master Jules Perrot. Perrot and Degas were friends, and Perrot allowed Degas access to dance classes.

This tribute to Parisian modern life was also the artist's principal contribution to the very first Impressionist exhibition of the same year, and it was met with much acclaim. It is now part of the collection at Courtauld Institute of Art in London. The work is a genre painting of an everyday family scene, not a formal portrait. The work was painted outdoors, en plein air, and quickly, probably in a single period of a few hours.

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Gross , is large painting, measuring 8 feet cm by 6. Samuel D. Gross, a seventy-year-old professor dressed in a black frock coat, lectures a group of Jefferson Medical College students. In , anesthesia was used, but sterile procedures were not. The painting depicts a typical Sunday afternoon at Moulin de la Galette in the district of Montmartre in Paris. In the late 19th century, working class Parisians would dress up and spend time there dancing, drinking, and eating galettes into the evening. Like other works of Renoir's early maturity, Bal du moulin de la Galette is a typically Impressionist snapshot of real life.

It shows a richness of form, a fluidity of brush stroke, and a flickering light. They also invent a photographic exposure estimation device known as an actinograph. The Gare Saint-Lazare has been represented in a number of artworks. It attracted artists during the Impressionist period and many of them lived very close to the Gare St-Lazare during the s and s. That same year he exhibited seven paintings of the railway station in an impressionist painting exhibition. He completed several paintings of this subject. The Gare Saint-Lazare is far different than Monet's previous paintings of harbors, boats and oceans that viewers had seen before.

The Gare Saint-Lazare series of paintings lead the viewers through a tour of the train station in different points of the day. Everything dissipates with the steam of the train and turns into a flurry of blended colors. In spite of the impressionist style, the work reproduces accurately the topography of the area, even allowing one to deduce the precise point where the artist was standing while painting. It shows a number of individuals walking through the Place de Dublin, in known as the Carrefour de Moscou, at an intersection to the east of the Gare Saint-Lazare in north Paris.

Although Caillebotte was a friend and patron of many of the impressionist painters, and this work is part of that school, it differs in its realism and reliance on line rather than broad brush strokes. Caillebotte's interest in photography is evident. The figures in the foreground appear "out of focus", those in the mid-distance the carriage and the pedestrians in the intersection have sharp edges, while the features in the background become progressively indistinct. The severe cropping of some figures — particularly the man to the far right — further suggests the influence.

Photograph by Eadweard Muybridge : Sallie Gardner at a Gallop, also known as The Horse in Motion, is a series of photographs consisting of a galloping horse, the result of a photographic experiment on June 15, Sometimes cited as an early silent film, the series and later experiments like it were precursors to the development of motion pictures. The series consists of 24 photographs shot in rapid succession that were shown on a zoopraxiscope. Muybridge was commissioned by Leland Stanford, the industrialist and horseman, who was interested in gait analysis.

The purpose of the shoot was to determine whether a galloping horse ever lifts all four feet completely off the ground during the gait; at this speed, the human eye cannot break down the action. Muybridge arranged 24 cameras, 27 inches apart, along a track parallel to the horse's path, with their shutters controlled by trip wires triggered by the horse's legs.

The stop-action photographs showed the mare lifted all four legs off the ground at certain points during the gallop. Run together, the photographs produced the effect of the horse in motion, or a film. Eadweard Muybridge uses a row of cameras with trip-wires to make a high-speed photographic analysis of a galloping horse.

Each picture is taken in less than the two-thousandth part of a second, and they are taken in sufficiently rapid sequence about 25 per second that they constitute a brief real-time "movie" that can be viewed by using a device such as a zoetrope, a photographic "first". Heat ripening of gelatin emulsions is discovered. This greatly increases sensitivity and makes possible very short "snapshot" exposures. In May , it returned to Dublin for a six-year period. Renoir began the painting in about , using the loose brushwork with dark and bright tones typical of the Impressionist movement.

X-ray photography has shown that the clothing of the female figure was originally different: she wore a hat and her dress had horizontal rows of frills, with white lace at its cuffs and collar, suggesting that she was middle class, whereas the simpler clothes in the revised painting mark her out as a member of the working class, a grisette not a bourgeoise.

The x-ray analysis and then the changing fashions allow the periods of work to be dated with reasonable accuracy. It originally belonged to the composer Emmanuel Chabrier, who was Manet's neighbor, and hung over his piano. The painting exemplifies Manet's commitment to Realism in its detailed representation of a contemporary scene. Many features have puzzled critics but almost all of them have been shown to have a rationale, and the painting has been the subject of numerous popular and scholarly articles. The central figure stands before a mirror, although critics — accusing Manet of ignorance of perspective and alleging various impossibilities in the painting — have debated this point since the earliest reviews were published.

In , however, a photograph taken from a suitable point of view of a staged reconstruction was shown to reproduce the scene as painted by Manet. Did she enjoy the experience? Look at her expression. Sculpture by Auguste Rodin : The sculpture, The Kiss, was originally titled Francesca da Rimini, as it depicts the 13th-century Italian noblewoman immortalised in Dante's Inferno Circle 2, Canto 5 who falls in love with her husband Giovanni Malatesta's younger brother Paolo.

Having fallen in love while reading the story of Lancelot and Guinevere, the couple are discovered and killed by Francesca's husband. In the sculpture, the book can be seen in Paolo's hand. The lovers' lips do not actually touch in the sculpture, suggesting that they were interrupted and met their demise without their lips ever having touched.

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When critics first saw the sculpture in , they suggested the less specific title Le Baiser The Kiss. George Eastman invents flexible, paper-based photographic film. Van Gogh said he wanted to depict peasants as they really were. He deliberately chose coarse and ugly models, thinking that they would be natural and unspoiled in his finished work: "You see, I really have wanted to make it so that people get the idea that these folk, who are eating their potatoes by the light of their little lamp, have tilled the earth themselves with these hands they are putting in the dish, and so it speaks of manual labor and — that they have thus honestly earned their food.

I wanted it to give the idea of a wholly different way of life from ours — civilized people. So I certainly don't want everyone just to admire it or approve of it without knowing why. It is a leading example of pointillism technique, executed on a large canvas. Seurat's composition includes a number of Parisians at a park on the banks of the River Seine.

Seurat contrasted miniature dots or small brushstrokes of colors that when unified optically in the human eye were perceived as a single shade or hue. He believed that this form of painting, called divisionism at the time but now known as pointillism , would make the colors more brilliant and powerful than standard brushstrokes. Painting by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema : The Roses of Heliogabalus shows a group of Roman diners at a banquet, being swamped by drifts of pink rose petals falling from a false ceiling above.

The Roman emperor Elagabalus reclines on a platform behind them, wearing a golden robe and a tiara, watching the spectacle with other garlanded guests. A woman plays the double pipes beside a marble pillar in the background, wearing the leopard skin of a maenad, with a bronze statue of Dionysus, based on the Ludovisi Dionysus, in front of a view of distant hills. The painting depicts a probably invented episode in the life of the Roman emperor Elagabalus, also known as Heliogabalus, — , taken from the Augustan History.

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Although the Latin refers to "violets and other flowers", Alma-Tadema depicts Elagabalus smothering his unsuspecting guests with rose petals released from a false ceiling. Sunflowers are the subject of two series of still life paintings by the Dutch painter. The earlier series, executed in Paris in , depicts the flowers lying on the ground, while the second set, executed a year later in Arles, shows bouquets of sunflowers in a vase.

In the artist's mind both sets were linked by the name of his friend Paul Gauguin, who acquired two of the Paris versions. After Gauguin's departure, van Gogh imagined the two major versions as wings of the Berceuse Triptych, and finally he included them in his Les XX in Bruxelles exhibit. Eastman patents Kodak roll-film camera.

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It is believed to be the first-ever motion picture on film. It is regarded as among Van Gogh's finest works, and is one of the most recognized paintings in the history of Western culture. In the aftermath of the 23 December breakdown that resulted in the self-mutilation of his left ear, Van Gogh voluntarily admitted himself to the Saint-Paul-de-Mausole lunatic asylum on 8 May Housed in a former monastery, Saint-Paul-de-Mausole catered to the wealthy and was less than half full when Van Gogh arrived, allowing him to occupy not only a second-story bedroom but also a ground-floor room for use as a painting studio.

The first commercially available transparent celluloid roll film is introduced by the Eastman Company, later renamed the Eastman Kodak Company and commonly known as Kodak. Gabriel Lippmann announces a "method of reproducing colors photographically based on the phenomenon of interference". William Kennedy Laurie Dickson develops the "kinetoscopic" motion picture camera while working for Thomas Edison.

Painting by Paul Gauguin : Spirit of the Dead Watching Manao tupapau is an oil on burlap canvas depicting a naked Tahitian girl lying on her stomach. An old woman is seated behind her. Gauguin said the title may refer to either the girl imagining the ghost, or the ghost imagining her. The subject of the painting is Gauguin's young native wife Teha'amana called Tehura in his letters , who one night, according to Gauguin, was lying in fear when he arrived home late: " Perhaps she took me, with my anguished face, for one of those legendary demons or specters, the Tupapaus that filled the sleepless nights of her people.

The same title — The Scream — is the popular name given to each of four versions of a composition, created as both paintings and pastels, by Norwegian Expressionist artist between and The works show a figure with an agonized expression against a landscape with a tumultuous orange sky. The National Gallery in Oslo, Norway, holds one of two painted versions , shown here.

The Munch Museum holds the other painted version and a pastel version from In the upper right corner is a bright field, while the rest of the surroundings are dark. The motif was conceived as a development of Stuck's painting Sensuality Die Sinnlichkeit. The Sin was first exhibited in , at the inaugural exhibition of the Munich Secession, where it caused a sensation. It was bought by the Neue Pinakothek in Munich and became a critical and commercial breakthrough for Stuck. It has since become an emblematic painting for the symbolist movement.

Stuck made twelve known versions of the painting. Painting by Claude Monet : The Rouen Cathedral, Full Sunlight was one of a series, with each painting in the series intended to capture the facade of the Rouen Cathedral at different times of the day and year, reflecting changes in its appearance under different lighting conditions. The Rouen Cathedral paintings, more than thirty in all, were made in and , then reworked in Monet's studio in Monet rented spaces across the street from the cathedral, where he set up temporary studios for the purpose. In , he selected what he considered to be the twenty best paintings from the series for display at his Paris dealer's gallery, and of these he sold eight before the exhibition was over.

When Monet painted the Rouen Cathedral series, he had long since been impressed with the way light imparts to a subject a distinctly different character at different times of the day and the year, and as atmospheric conditions change. For Monet, the effects of light on a subject became as important as the subject itself.

In the late s, Pissarro painted a series of works depicting the boulevards, as seen from his windows, at various times of year. What Are We? Where Are We Going? The inscription the artist wrote on his canvas has no question mark, no dash, and all words are capitalized. In the upper right corner he signed and dated the painting: P. Dupanloup had devised his own catechism to be lodged in the minds of the young schoolboys, and to lead them towards proper spiritual reflections on the nature of life. The three fundamental questions in this catechism were: "Where does humanity come from?

Although in later life Gauguin was vociferously anticlerical, these questions from Dupanloup's catechism obviously had lodged in his mind, and "where? Kodak introduces the Folding Pocket Kodak. Kodak introduces their first Brownie, a very inexpensive user-reloadable point-and-shoot box camera. Judith I reveals a curious symbolic and compositional consonance with The Sin by Franz Stuck: the temptation illustrated by the German painter becomes the model for Klimt's femme fatale by suggesting the posture of the disrobed and evanescent body as focal piece of the canvas, as well as the facial set.

Judith's force originates from the close-up and the solidity of posture, rendered by the orthogonal projection of lines: to the body's verticality and that of Holofernes' corresponds to the horizontal parallels in the lower margin: those of the arm, the shoulders joined by the collier, and finally the hair base. Kodak introduces the film format. Arthur Korn devises practical telephotography technology reduction of photographic images to signals that can be transmitted by wire to other locations. Wire-Photos are in wide use in Europe by , and transmitted to other continents by Painting by Pablo Picasso : The Old Guitarist depicts an old, blind, haggard man with threadbare clothing weakly hunched over his guitar, playing in the streets of Barcelona, Spain.

At the time of The Old Guitarist's creation, Modernism, Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, and Symbolism had merged and created an overall movement called Expressionism which greatly influenced Picasso's style. Furthermore, El Greco, Picasso's poor standard of living, and the suicide of a dear friend influenced Picasso's style at the time which came to be known as his Blue Period. In the early s, nearly forty percent of all college dorm rooms had a poster of this painting on the wall. The painting is Matisse's most important work in which he used the Divisionist technique advocated by Signac.

Painting by Maxfield Parrish : The Dinky Bird , an illustration from Poems of Childhood exemplifies Parrish's characteristic use of androgynous figures. To a modern eye, Parrish's early work — characterized by himself as "girls on rocks" — may bring to mind the words kitsch or schlock or schmaltz or maudlin, but to many who were enduring the Great Depression or World War II, his images, like Busby Berkeley musicals, inspired a bit of hope — an imagining that things did not always have to be this bad. During those hard times, many a lower middle class American living room had one or more cheap Parrish prints, sometimes just a page from a magazine, adorning the wall.

Stonborough-Wittgenstein, a member of the prominent and wealthy Viennese Wittgenstein family, was a sister of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein and the pianist Paul Wittgenstein. She was the subject of a portrait painted for her wedding by the artist Gustav Klimt Stonborough-Wittgenstein and other members of the Wittgenstein family were among Klimt's most important patrons , which was sold in by her son Thomas and may now be seen in the Neue Pinakothek gallery in Munich.

Aside: The painting appears briefly behind Ava, an AI robot, in the film Ex Machina a film that is an excellent exploration of artificial intelligence, the nature of consciousness, and passing a Turing Test. Woman with a Hat was at the center of the controversy that led to the term Fauvism. It was also a painting that marked a stylistic shift in the work of Matisse from the Divisionist brushstrokes of his earlier work to a more expressive style.

Its loose brushwork and "unfinished" quality shocking viewers as much as its vivid, non-naturalistic colors. Although the Fauve works on display were condemned by many — "A pot of paint has been flung in the face of the public", declared the critic Camille Mauclair — they also gained some favorable attention. The painting that was singled out for attacks was Matisse's Woman with a Hat. Painting by Gustav Klimt : The Kiss Lovers was painted by the Austrian Symbolist painter Gustav Klimt between and , the highpoint of his "Golden Period", when he painted a number of works in a similar gilded style.

A perfect square, the canvas depicts a couple embracing, their bodies entwined in elaborate robes decorated in a style influenced by both linear constructs of the contemporary Art Nouveau style and the organic forms of the earlier Arts and Crafts movement. The work is composed of oil paint with applied layers of gold leaf, an aspect that gives it its strikingly modern, yet evocative appearance.

The portrait was commissioned by the sitter's husband, Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer, a Jewish banker and sugar producer. It is the final and most fully representative work of Klimt's golden phase. The portrait was the first of two depictions of Adele by Klimt — the second was completed in ; these were two of several works by the artist that the family owned. Painting by Ivan Grohar : The Sower Slovene: Sejalec , is an image of a peasant sowing seeds on a ploughed field in an early and foggy morning. It has been a metaphor for the 19th-century myth of Slovenes as a vigorous nation in front of an unclear destiny, a symbol for the Slovene nation that sows in order that it could harvest, and a depiction of human interrelatedness with the nature.

It is also a reflection of the context of Slovene transition from a rural to an urban culture. It has become one of the most characteristic and established Slovene creations in visual arts. Each figure is depicted in a disconcerting confrontational manner and none are conventionally feminine. In this adaptation of Primitivism and abandonment of perspective in favor of a flat, two-dimensional picture plane, Picasso makes a radical departure from traditional European painting.

This proto-Cubist work is widely considered to be seminal in the early development of both Cubism and Modern art. Les Demoiselles was revolutionary and controversial, and led to widespread anger and disagreement, even amongst the painter's closest associates and friends. Matisse considered the work something of a bad joke, yet indirectly reacted to it in his Bathers with a Turtle. Braque too initially disliked the painting, yet perhaps more than anyone else, studied the work in great detail.

And effectively, his subsequent friendship and collaboration with Picasso led to the Cubist revolution. Henri Matisse coins the term "Cubism" — the first Cubist exhibition opens in Paris. This plaster was exhibited at the Armory Show and published in the Chicago Tribune, 25 March This early plaster sculpture is one of six casts that Brancusi made of the —08 The Kiss. The original stone carving is in the Muzeul de Arta at Craiova, Romania. His abstract style emphasizes simple geometrical lines that balance forms inherent in his materials with the symbolic allusions of representational art.

Here, the shape of the original block of material is maintained.

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  6. The Autochrome plate is introduced. It becomes the first commercially successful color photography product. The painting prompted art critic Louis Vauxcelles to mock it as being composed of cubes which led to the name of the movement. This painting by Braque was refused at the Salon d'Automne in Louis Vauxcelles recounted how Matisse told him at the time, "Braque has just sent in [to the Salon d'Automne] a painting made of little cubes".

    The critic Charles Morice relayed Matisse's words and spoke of Braque's little cubes. The motif of the viaduct at l'Estaque had inspired Braque to produce three paintings marked by the simplification of form and deconstruction of perspective. Braque withdrew the two in protest, placing the blame on Matisse. Kinemacolor, a two-color process known as the first commercial "natural color" system for movies, is introduced. The title refers to either of two related paintings made between and The first, preliminary version is Matisse's study for the second version.

    The composition or arrangement of dancing figures is reminiscent of Blake's watercolour "Oberon, Titania and Puck with fairies dancing" from Kodak announces a 35 mm "safety" motion picture film on an acetate base as an alternative to the highly flammable nitrate base. The motion picture industry discontinues its use after due to technical imperfections. Rousseau's earlier works had received a negative reception, but poet and critic Guillaume Apollinaire remarked on its debut: "The picture radiates beauty, that is indisputable.

    I believe nobody will laugh this year. It features an almost surreal portrait of Yadwigha Jadwiga , Rousseau's Polish mistress from his youth, lying naked on a divan to the left of the painting, gazing over a landscape of lush jungle foliage, including lotus flowers, and animals including birds, monkeys, an elephant, a lion and lioness, and a snake. Painting by Pablo Picasso : Girl with a Mandolin is an early example of the artist's analytic cubist style.

    He was steadily divesting his paintings of mere likeness, not that this was synonymous with a progressive elimination of the subject: his paintings were becoming more abstract but not entirely so. Painting by Georges Braque : The Portuguese. Petersburg, Russia. It was made using oil paints on canvas. Painting by Giacomo Balla : Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash Italian: Dinamismo di un cane al guinzaglio , sometimes called Dog on a Leash or Leash in Motion, depicts a dachshund on a leash and the feet of a lady walking it, both in rapid motion as indicated by the blurring and multiplication of their parts.

    It is considered one of his best-known works, and one of the most important works, in Futurism. Balla's interest in capturing a single moment in a series of planes was inspired by his fascination with chronophotography. In later, more abstract works created during World War I, Balla used planes of color to suggest movement. In interviews, Duchamp suggested that he had been influenced by seeing stop-motion images and that his aim was to achieve " a static representation of movement, a static composition of indications of various positions taken by a form in movement.

    Thomas Edison introduces a short-lived 22 mm home motion picture format using acetate "safety" film manufactured by Kodak. Vest Pocket Kodak using film. At this time, Kirchner painted several different street scenes that illustrated the chaos of city life and the relationship between men and women. The mass of men in the background do not have any identifying features, but instead appear as a copy of each other.

    Their clothes flow into one another and their non-distinct facial features cause you to connect with the women because they are the only two with a sense of identity. Kirchner uses some anti-naturalistic color in this piece including the skin of the figures which varies between shades of pink and orange as well as the blue and pink shades in the scenery. The anti-naturalistic tones are common in the German Expressionism and his other work during this time period.

    Painting by Georges Braque : Woman with a Guitar. A relatively large painting it is cm by 73 cm, and utilised both oil paint and charcoal. While the painting is abstracted the basic subject can still be seen towards the top in the feminine mouth and eye, as well as the brown trapezoid shape containing the strings of a guitar.

    Painting by Umberto Boccioni : Dynamism of a Cyclist Dinamismo di un Ciclista demonstrates the Futurist preoccupation with speed, modern methods of transport, and the depiction of the dynamic sensation of movement. Futurism was an early twentieth-century movement in Italy that sought to free the country from what the Futurists saw as the dead weight of its classical past.

    The Futurists were preoccupied with the technology and dynamism of modern life. The movement found its expression primarily in literature and art. The sculpture is depicted on the obverse of the Italian-issue 20 cent euro coin. The Futurist movement was striving to portray speed and forceful dynamism in their art. Boccioni, though trained as a painter, began sculpting in He exclaimed that "these days I am obsessed by sculpture!

    I believe I have glimpsed a complete renovation of that mummified art. Oskar Barnack develops a prototype camera for testing 35mm movie film.

    This device, now often referred to as an UR-Leica, was quickly recognized as a miniature camera for producing still images. A dozen years later, the first commercially available 35mm still camera was marketed as the Leica I. Kodak makes 35 mm panchromatic motion picture film available on a bulk special order basis. Photograph by Alvin Langdon Coburn : Vortograph — a kaleidoscopic effect — created by placing mirrors in triangular arrangements around a lens. It depicts an outdoor architectural setting similar to other works by de Chirico at this time.

    This time however, the main focus is a small wall on which is mounted a Greek sculpted head and a surgeon's glove. Below it is a green ball.