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Compliance means acting in accordance with legislation, rules, guidelines and codes of conduct. Our integrity advisors are are impartial, autonomous and bound by confidentiality. They can be contacted by clients and GIZ staff alike. The main duty of the ombudsman is to receive in confidence information regarding economic crimes such as corruption, breach of trust or fraud. GIZ has entrusted Dr. Edgar Joussen with this task. Easy access to information increases transparency in international cooperation, and GIZ supports this with the information it provides.

By communicating and publishing information, GIZ promotes the exchange of knowledge and lessons learned with other organisations. GIZ supports the implementation of international agreements on transparency. GIZ publishes a wide range of information and documents about its work, invitations to tender, services and financial agreements. At GIZ, corporate sustainability is anchored at the top management level.

We have also entered into to a number of voluntary commitments. For us, close cooperation and trust between GIZ and organisations involved in international cooperation and sustainable development is crucial. GIZ's projects and programmes are regularly reviewed with this in mind. GIZ has a wealth of international experience and provides advisory services and projects in more than countries around the globe. GIZ offers regionally adapted strategies with a view to securing the right to food and making rural development a driver of economic growth.

GIZ supports sustainable infrastructure projects that stimulate economic activity and provide the basis for better living conditions. In carrying out its work, GIZ can draw on a wealth of tried-and-tested strategies and methodologies and harness its expertise in a variety of different thematic areas. We support our partner countries in alleviating the structural causes of violent conflict and developing capacities for peaceful conflict transformation. We strive to promote basic social values such as equal opportunities, solidarity and participation, which form the basis for a peaceful society worth living in.

GIZ assists its partners in establishing democratic systems and networks across all social groups.

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GIZ supports its partners in identifying the many causes of environmental risks and helps modernise environmental policy at all levels. GIZ assists its partner countries in improving economic framework conditions, removing bureaucratic obstacles and establishing suitable support structures. Never before have there been as many refugees as there are today. GIZ works across the globe to provide support for refugees and migrants, stabilise host countries and tackle the root causes of displacement.

GIZ offers a wide range of services to governments, companies, international institutions and private foundations. GIZ supports the German Government in achieving its objectives in the field of international cooperation for sustainable development. GIZ supports the EU in a variety of ways, from expert advice to practical project implementation. GIZ operates on behalf of not only the German Government, but also international organisations and other countries. Governments and institutions around the world commission GIZ to implement their national programmes for driving forward sustainable development.

GIZ contributes to sustainable development around the world: some examples and tangible results are presented as feature projects. GIZ is a forward-thinking company offering a range of job opportunities in diverse fields across the globe. GIZ offers personal career development, a work-life balance, and an exceptional package of social benefits.

GIZ reports regularly on job opportunities within the company for new recruits and existing staff members. GIZ is always on the lookout for experienced and committed individuals for its work around the globe. Find out more about what we do through our news and publications. Information on the latest events can also be found here. Approach The project supports rural people living inside conservancies and community forests, whose livelihoods depend on the effective implementation of the CBNRM policy. At conservancy level, it assists in improving good governance in areas such as decision making, sound financial management and proper implementation of conservancy constitutions.

Women in particular receive support in representing their needs and interests in decision making processes. Moreover, the project helps to reduce human-wildlife conflicts and supports approaches that combat wildlife crime. The conservancy approach creates a strong incentive for people in rural areas to protect their natural resources.

However, conservancies still face a number of challenges that prevent them from realising their full potential. The effects of climate change are amongst the factors with far-reaching implications on the livelihoods of rural communities. In addition, not all conservancies have the potential to derive incomes for their members, in particular those on marginal land with little wildlife. Conservancies, integrated community forests and households, which depend on natural resources, have increased their revenues through the diversification of income.

The project supports rural people living inside conservancies and community forests, whose livelihoods depend on the effective implementation of the CBNRM policy.


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In a broader sense, it also includes the roughly , residents of all 82 conservancies throughout Namibia who will mainly be addressed through the national level support of MET. The services provided by GIZ draw on a wealth of regional and technical expertise and tried-and-tested management expertise. GIZ works to shape a future worth living around the world. Its corporate actions are guided by the principles of sustainability. In addition to two registered offices in Germany and two representations in Berlin and Brussels, GIZ operates from around 90 offices worldwide.

In addition to the shareholder and the supervisory board, the management board is one of the three statutory organs of a limited liability company under German law GmbH.

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GIZ makes data and documents available to the general public on its work, the impact of its work, financial results and staff numbers. The Board of Trustees advises the company on key issues relating to its development. The Board has up to 40 members who are appointed for a five-year term and who act in an honorary capacity.

The Private Sector Advisory Board provides a platform for dialogue between the private sector and international cooperation organisations.

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It consists of representatives of business and industry associations. They form the basis for the trust placed in us by our clients, partners and staff. Compliance means acting in accordance with legislation, rules, guidelines and codes of conduct. Our integrity advisors are are impartial, autonomous and bound by confidentiality. They can be contacted by clients and GIZ staff alike.

The main duty of the ombudsman is to receive in confidence information regarding economic crimes such as corruption, breach of trust or fraud. GIZ has entrusted Dr.

Edgar Joussen with this task. Easy access to information increases transparency in international cooperation, and GIZ supports this with the information it provides. By communicating and publishing information, GIZ promotes the exchange of knowledge and lessons learned with other organisations. GIZ supports the implementation of international agreements on transparency. GIZ publishes a wide range of information and documents about its work, invitations to tender, services and financial agreements. At GIZ, corporate sustainability is anchored at the top management level.

We have also entered into to a number of voluntary commitments. For us, close cooperation and trust between GIZ and organisations involved in international cooperation and sustainable development is crucial. GIZ's projects and programmes are regularly reviewed with this in mind. GIZ has a wealth of international experience and provides advisory services and projects in more than countries around the globe.

GIZ offers regionally adapted strategies with a view to securing the right to food and making rural development a driver of economic growth. GIZ supports sustainable infrastructure projects that stimulate economic activity and provide the basis for better living conditions. In carrying out its work, GIZ can draw on a wealth of tried-and-tested strategies and methodologies and harness its expertise in a variety of different thematic areas.

We support our partner countries in alleviating the structural causes of violent conflict and developing capacities for peaceful conflict transformation.

The State Of Community-Based Natural Resource Management in Southern Africa

We strive to promote basic social values such as equal opportunities, solidarity and participation, which form the basis for a peaceful society worth living in. GIZ assists its partners in establishing democratic systems and networks across all social groups. GIZ supports its partners in identifying the many causes of environmental risks and helps modernise environmental policy at all levels.

GIZ assists its partner countries in improving economic framework conditions, removing bureaucratic obstacles and establishing suitable support structures. Poaching was also minimized, thus adopted to provide an opportunity for rural participation resulting in reduced levels of illegal wildlife off-take [47]. The programme was to be achieved was an effective strategy that promoted the sustainable through consumptive wildlife tourism, with local com- harvesting of wildlife species through tourism develop- munities being at the forefront of all the tourism projects.

Kolawole 5 tourism development has the potential to promote been reduced from an estimated in to about biodiversity conservation. The reduction in wildlife numbers was a despite the various challenges faced by community-based result of a combination of factors such as drought, heavy approaches, they the approaches do have a role to play poaching by local people, government officials and the in environmental conservation. Elsewhere, it is argued South African security forces [50].

In the Caprivi com- that CAMPFIRE is a long-term programmatic approach to munal area, Red lechwe declined from around 12 in rural development that uses wildlife and other natural to around in , partly because of poaching, resources as a mechanism for promoting devolved rural and giraffe and wildebeest disappeared from East Caprivi institutions and improved governance and livelihoods in the s [52].

Local perceptions and attitudes towards [45]. The cornerstone of CAMPFIRE is the devolution of conservation and conservation officials were described rights to benefit from, dispose of and manage natural as negative and hostile by the For example, some resources. Attitudes of local communities shows that tourism development has a role to play in can thus be described to have been negative towards promoting the well-being of local people, environmental wildlife conservation and wildlife managers. As a result conservation and the participation of local people in the of the negative attitudes, wildlife disappeared from the decision-making process that concerns their lives and former Ovamboland area north of the Etosha National environment [45].

Park, and there were also sharp declines in other regions [55]. Tourism develop- system. For example, in the early s, wildlife numbers, ment in Namibia is also taking place in the rural areas including species such as the endemic mountain zebra, where the majority of poor people of Namibia live. As a were declining [50]. Farmers viewed wildlife as competi- result, CBNRM through the conservancy system is used tive to livestock and therefore a cost rather than a benefit.

The conservancy approach is and farmers had no control over it. Prior to Namibia based on the assumption that if a resource is valuable and adopting the conservancy legislation, wildlife were con- landholders have the exclusive rights to use, benefit from sidered to be pests and competition to subsistence agri- and manage the resource, and if the values derived from cultural livelihoods [53, 54, 56]. This assumption falls permits to carry out various forms of hunting on their within the general CBNRM framework as practiced in land.

In addition, farmers could sell, capture and relocate Eastern and Southern Africa. The conservancy approach wildlife in terms of the new provisions [50]. To facilitate the con- maintain wildlife on their land because of its commercial servancy system, the Namibian Government devolved value. The new legislation now offers farmers the management authority over wildlife to communities.

As a opportunity to develop wildlife as a sustainable income result, the conservancy system provided the institutional generating resource. There was also an increase in the dis- tion and implementation of the conservancy system in tribution of different species and the reintroduction of Namibia, there was a constant decline in natural resour- certain species to districts where they formerly occurred, ces, especially wildlife species.

In the Kunene communal leading to an overall increase in the diversity of species on region located in north-west Namibia there was a major freehold land. Gradually, a wildlife industry developed on reduction in wildlife numbers prior to the introduction of freehold farmland based on consumptive uses such as the conservancy system [50]. For example, by , the sport hunting, culling for meat, trophy hunting, and live elephant population had been reduced to about from sale, and on non-consumptive uses such as photographic an estimated in s.

Black rhino numbers had tourism [57, 61]. Protected areas, not only in Namibia but [50, 56, 58]. In the north-west, springbok, oryx and also in most of the developing world, face a challenge of mountain zebra populations have recovered from severe potential conflicts along park borders with communal drought and illegal hunting in the early s [50]. These people. Land uses of park neighbours often conflict with increases have been confirmed by aerial censuses of the park objectives of conservation.

Another measure of conservation ated incentives for neighbours to practice compatible land success is the extent to which game animals can be uses. Conservancies, which in many areas now manage translocated into communal area conservancies with suf- concessions in adjacent parks to maximize community ficient confidence that the local communities will protect benefits in creating such incentives [62, 56, 50]. In several the wildlife [50]. Namibia is the only country in the world areas, adjacent to conservancies, community forests and where black rhino are being moved by government into national parks are now working together in joint man- communal areas.

The monitoring and land-use planning, and more effective increase in the number of predators indicates a good level anti-poaching activities and fire management [62, 50]. Jones also notes Some of the initial building blocks towards biodiversity that populations of cheetah were also reported to have conservation in rural areas include the positive changes of stabilized in recent years, while leopard have increased, attitudes by local people towards natural resource utili- with numbers of all predators being well above pre- zation and management [64]. Since the implementation conservancy levels.

In east Caprivi conservancies, the of the conservancy system, there has been a change hyena population appears to be stable while leopard and of attitudes of local communities towards conservation wild dog are increasing. Weaver and Petersen [56] argue especially towards wildlife in conservancy areas [56]. This therefore is zones, reintroduction of game to facilitate faster recovery an achievement for biodiversity conservation in Namibia.

Such servation in conservancies is largely a result of tourism recoveries have been documented in Caprivi, Nyae Nyae, benefits that freehold farmers and local communities and the entire northwestern Namibia, where annual game derive from tourism development in their respective counts since have shown increasing population areas.

For example, after a decade of implementing trends. This is also in [62]. Of the between them. Kolawole 7 meat produced through activities such as trophy significantly to biodiversity conservation. The most significant cash benefit conservation.


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The reduction in illegal wildlife take-off in to individual people living in a conservancy comes in the community areas suggests a positive relationship between form of direct employment in positions that have been tourism and conservation [65, 41, 44]. Other authors affirm that income from equivalent in extent to the Parks and Wildlife Estates of wildlife-based tourism from the trophy-hunting revenues Zimbabwe [45].

Wildlife populations particularly those of are being returned as cash directly to conservancy com- elephants in CAMPFIRE areas have also increased in 10 mittees, who in turn, use the income to pay salaries of years of its inception. CAMPFIRE is recognized for having community game guards and other conservancy staff reduced or contained veld fires in various districts.

This income is allowing con- of land use conflicts between agricultural production and servation activities to be conducted at the grassroots wildlife management. It is also acknowledged for mini- level, and facilitating involvement and ownership of con- mizing poaching or the illegal wildlife off-take in CAMPIRE servation activities by the broader community. The areas. In Namibia, research has shown that over the years, exercise of responsibility, regaining of some control over many freehold farmers now view wildlife in a new light and wildlife and wanting wildlife for its existence value, appear are beginning to maintain wildlife on their land because of to have provided sufficient incentive for many residents of its commercial value [56].

Local leaders in communal areas have [60]. There was also an increase in the distribution of also been keen to see the re-introduction of wildlife that different species and the reintroduction of certain species had disappeared. Often it is the older people who place to districts where they formerly occurred, leading to an the most intrinsic value on wildlife, while younger people overall increase in the diversity of species on freehold are more interested in the jobs and income that can be land.

Wildlife population trends now indicate that wildlife derived from wildlife. In this regard, people living in numbers have recovered in conservancies in the north- communal lands in Namibia are not driven by financial western and north-eastern parts of Namibia in the last 20 incentives alone but by other factors such as control or years [58]. These increases have been confirmed by aerial ownership of wildlife resources in their local areas.

Since the imple- mentation of the conservancy system, there has been a Conclusion change of attitudes of local communities towards con- servation, especially towards wildlife in conservancy areas. The effectiveness of tourism through community-based In the case of Botswana, Zimbabwe and Namibia, approaches like CBNRM in achieving biodiversity con- tourism, as embarked upon through community-based servation has mixed results.

For example, some of the projects has proved to have the potential to positively CBNRM projects in the Okavango Delta have collapsed contribute to biodiversity conservation. This is partly while others have succeeded and have significantly because of the direct and indirect economic benefits that benefited participating villages economically and in the local communities derive from tourism through the conservation of natural resources [62]. Such benefits have improved local have also argued that community-based approaches and livelihoods in these villages [41].

Economic benefits from programmes are not wholly failures [62, 63]. Those that community-based tourism projects indirectly make local fell short did so for reasons that are now understood people to become interested in promoting biodiversity [63, 21, 64—67]; some projects remained essentially pro- conservation. In addition, some projects recognition of the link between conservation, tourism and were designed and imposed by outsiders to meet pre- improved livelihoods e. As such, local com- defined goals, with little local control.

As such, were generally insufficient to counter local resentment this implies that tourism benefits are a pre-requisite and opposition, and often accrued inequitably adding to to biodiversity conservation by local people in tourism perceived injustice. Kiss A. Is community-based ecotourism a good use of conservation downplays criticisms by scholars e. Trends in Ecology and Evolution ;19 5 —7. Twyman C. Participatory conservation? Community-based natural resource management in Botswana.

Geographical tion and rural development. In addition, the positive Journal ; 4 — Conserving wildlife in Africa: integrated conservation and development projects and suggest that it is erroneous to make a sweeping general- beyond. BioScience ;50 7 — Spiteri A, Nepal SK. Although some writers have strongly Environmental Management ;— Stronza A. Anthropology of tourism: forging new ground for projects need to be judged individually based on the ecotourism and other alternatives. Annual Review of political, social and economic factors in particular areas Anthropology ;— Gibson C, Marks S.

Transforming rural hunters into instruments to recognize the importance of socio-cultural conservationists: an assessment of community-based wildlife dynamics of the people in the drive towards biodiversity management programs in Africa. World Development conservation and rural development in general [70].

Community-based Natural Resource Management

Mbaiwa JE. Wildlife resource utilization at Moremi game reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, References Botswana. Journal of Environmental Management ;77 2 — Coria J, Calfucura E. Ecotourism and the development of PLoS Biol ;7 6 :e Kaimowitz D, Sheil D. Conserving what and for whom? Why Brown K. Innovations for conservation and development. Biotropica ;39 5 — Wunder S. Ecotourism and economic incentives — an 3.

Hamilton AC. Medicinal plants, conservation, and livelihoods. Ecological Economics ;— Biodiversity Conservation ;— Kruger O. The role of ecotourism in conservation: panacea 4.