Die Briefe, in denen diese Frage behandelt wird, finden sich in dem von Hilde Burger herausgegebenen Briefwechsel Frankfurt: Insel-Verlag, der beiden. Siehe vor allem S. Juli August Fischer, 2 , S. Gilbert erkannt, die freilich in ihrer Argumentation zu weit geht In: Modern Language Review 64 , S. Herbert Steiner Frankfurt: S. Wie Dirk O. Februar an seine Schwester. Und Hofmannsthal teilte Strauss am Die Skizze, die Kessler und Hofmannsthal zwischen dem 8. Abgedruckt in Dramen V, S. Und Kesslers Bemerkung in einem Brief vom Februar Mai Sie freut sich auf die Ehe [ Mary E. So verlegte er die Begegnung kurzerhand in den Salon Gilbert Anmerkung 24 , S.
Niveau der Opernhandlung stark angehoben wird. Soweit die Charaktere. So wurden der der Marschallin Maria-Theresia. Pourceaugnac ist pathetisch im komischen Sinn, weil er eine Zielscheibe des Spottes ist. Im Rosenkavalier dehnte er dieses Versteckspiel auch auf manche Nebenfiguren aus. So grob will Er sein? Gilbert Anmerkung 24, S. Bei Hofmannsthal, dessen lyrische Ader und psychologische Finesse von jeher Bewunderung erregten, erwer52 Ebd.
II, S. Geronte kompromittiert vor der Hofgesellschaft. Faublas im Travesti meldet sich. Faublas erbleicht. Die Liebenden allein. Sophie ab zum Vater. A droite, premier plan, une autre porte.
Reimarus Encounters the Profane
Faublas, qui vient de sortir du lit, est dans sa petite culotte et chemisette de cavalier. Sa robe de nuit est sur un meuble. Und bei Hofmannsthal liest man: Das Schlafzimmer der Feldmarschallin. Neben dem Bett ein dreiteiliger chinesischer Wandschirm, hinter dem Kleider liegen. Auf einem kleinen Sofa links liegt ein Degen in der Scheide. Um wenigstens den Schein des Anstands zu wahren — wie sich sehr bald herausstellen sollte, bei weitem nicht genug, um die moralischen.
Je me souviens de ma Sophie. Je la vis si belle! Ich will nicht den Tag! Da haben Dich alle! Wie der folgende Passus aus einem Brief des Dichters an den Komponisten vom Also [ Wenn man so hinlebt, ist sie rein gar nichts. Aber dann auf einmal. In den Gesichtern rieselt sie, im Spiegel da rieselt sie. Dramen V, S. Et il continua sans regarder sa femme. Hier sehen sich Germanistik und Komparatistik vor eine gemeinsame Aufgabe gestellt.
Annina ebenso : Euer Gnaden werden sich schaden [ Juli an den Dichter schrieb. Oktavian [ Sophie [ Sperrst dich ein. Faninal mit gleichem Spiel zwischen ihr und Oktavian, der immer einen Schritt gegen den Ausgang tut, aber von Sophie in diesem Augenblick nicht loskann : Ah, springst noch aus dem Wagen. Auf Lebenszeit. Wie sich bald herausstellte, war das gar nicht so einfach. Oktavian hat sich gesetzt, sie stehen vor ihm. Mit Leib und Leben. Mondo rubaldo. Im Hintergrund links ein Alkoven, darin ein Bett. September August und Straussens Antwort vom Das gilt es zu beweisen.
Man kann sich vorstellen, wie Hofmannsthals verfeinerter Geschmack auf diesen Edelkitsch reagierte. Beginnen wir mit dem Ingenu libertin. Als er sie sieht, erhebt sich Faublas, wohl mit schuldiger Miene, und entfernt sich ein wenig von Sophie. Doch sobald ihn die Marquise ruft, trennen sich die beiden, und einen Augenblick lang steht Faublas genau in der Mitte zwischen ihnen M F S Sophie macht der Marschallin einen verlegenen Knix. Oktavian zwischen beiden hin- und herpendeln Aber die letzte Entscheidung ist noch nicht gefallen.
So geriet das ganze Libretto in unser Blickfeld. So schrieb Kessler am Hofmannsthal erwiderte am Das eigentliche Publikum verlangt [ Friedrich Nietzsche2. There are surely more than thirteen ways of looking at opera, and any scholar or critic worth his salt is well advised to make up his mind early on as to the kind of approach he wishes to take in a given case. Up to this point in the history of interdisciplinary studies involving the musical drama, theoretical and methodological reflections have been few and far between, and no latter-day Aristotle has come to the rescue to unfold a cogent systematic Poetics of Opera3.
Especially the. Dieter Borchmeyer Frankfurt: Insel-Verlag, , p. It will therefore behoove me to preface my paper with a few observations on the various choices open to the practitioner of Opernforschung in general and its subdivision, librettology, in particular. Needless to say, both Musik- and Literaturwissenschaft err when assuming that either the libretto or the score of an opera can be meaningfully viewed in isolation. An interaction between the two disciplines is absolutely necessary, and an emphasis on one or the other collaborative art at the expense, or to the exclusion, of the other is merely a matter of convenience or professional competence.
Let us illustrate this tripartite and, in the original sense of the word, trivial scheme with a few examples drawn from the literature on Tristan und Isolde. But insofar as chromaticism also subserves a dramatic purpose, even here the literary dimension is not lacking. In short, Wagner, too, seems to treat Tristan und Isolde more or less as a symphonic poem Given the fact that Wagner was an artistic Doppelbegabung of the first order who believed that language and music — the male and female principles — were destined to join hands in marriage, it is hardly surprising that most of the devices he uses, and often introduces, pertain somehow to both spheres of artistic activity and should ideally be judged by those endowed with scholarly Doppelbegabung.
In the 6 The letter was addressed to Franz Brendel and published on 9 September, ; it is reproduced in the Dokumentarbiographie, pp. Berlin: Duncker, , p. Gerhard Schuhmacher Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, , pp. Among the features that enjoy what might be called dual citizenship in the land of opera, the most obvious, and obsessively treated, is the leitmotif. Indeed, in some of its applications it must be regarded as a quasi-literary device transferable to literature Thomas Mann.
Jahrhundert, ed. Salmen Regensburg: Bosse, , pp. Since it was intended for performance in the theater, Tristan und Isolde shares certain basic structural features with all plays; hence the option of treating it within a dramaturgical framework, following the examples set by Francis Fergusson14 and Kerman, whose analysis of the paroxysmal cycle experienced by Tristan in Act III is primarily, though not exclusively, structural In fact, thematology as practiced by a long string of critics from Wolfgang Golther to Michael S. Batts and Egon Voss has long been a staple of Tristan und Isolde criticism The fifth chapter of Michael S.
A third road toward the comprehension of Tristan und Isolde as a literary phenomenon — the one, curiously enough, least travelled in the year reception of that masterpiece — is the verbal or linguistic one. The few efforts that have been made to assess the work from this point of view have been largely polemical. The piece. Dietmar Holland Hamburg: Rowohlt, includes several of the essays previously mentioned.
On the lexical level, Wagner, who prided himself on being a perceptive etymologist, excels or, in the eyes of his severest critics, sins in proliferating neologisms, some of which form part of a carefully designed pattern. Syntax is another subject warranting closer scrutiny than has so far been accorded it, for simply to affirm that the text is muddled throughout and an early example of willed unintelligibility is an act of critical cowardice. A whole. In fact, in dealing with rhetorical figures, I have already arrived at the level of Gehalt, which must now occupy us for a moment.
Seeking to discover an integral meaning in Tristan and to determine its underlying Weltanschauung has been the occupation of many Wagnerites, often indulged in with a passion rarely encountered in scholarly pursuits. Since I shall face the philosophical issue head-on in the course of analyzing a central passage from Act II, the only kind of approach I need to deal with at this juncture focuses on the sexual issue. With respect to the role of sex in Tristan und Isolde, two scholarly factions are at loggerheads with each other, the one upgrading, the other downplaying its importance.
All textual references will be to this edition. Except in one potentially significant case, the discrepancies between this version and the one found in vol. Stage directors, take care! Whatever the merits of this assessment, the analysis fails to take into account that the text is not strictly Christian and that Tristan und Isolde aims not at renunciation but at fulfillment.
Depending on the mood of the moment and, one guesses, his readings of the day, he planned at different times to end his drama in different ways. Ils sont ensemble et pourtant ils sont deux. See pp. With two mutually exclusive endings, contradictions abound, but may be resolved with reference to Die Sieger, the Buddhist drama about renunciation of carnal love as a precondition for the release from earthly fetters and for rejoining the God in his Nirvana.
This work was to have formed a diptych with Tristan und Isolde. Wagner never proceeded beyond a brief prose sketch39; but the work, pondered for many years, entered the mainstream of his art by way of Parsifal. Two letters to Liszt written within the space of three months indicate how Wagner hoped to extricate himself from the dilemma caused by the conflicting views.
Hatto Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, It is dated 16 May, Martin Gregor-Dellin [Munich: List, ]. Here: pp. We must look, first of all, at the sequence of events relating to the genesis of Tristan und Isolde, in order to ascertain whether the words came before the music prima le parole e dopo la musica As it turns out, the matter is more complicated, and the answer less decisive, than one would wish it to be. The documents at our disposal indicate that Wagner began to think about writing Tristan und Isolde in late The direct impulse for that enterprise was his response to another dramatic 41 Briefwechsel zwischen Wagner und Liszt, p.
Unfortunately, this sketch has not survived. After a two-year period of gestation, Wagner decided in mid to carry out the project. The first musical sketches for Tristan, most likely based on the early outline, were made in December, However, the systematic, sequential Vertonung did not begin until after the libretto was finished. Wagner completed the full score of Act I on 3 April, , in. Zu manchem werde ich wohl auch eher die Musik als die Verse machen.
In January , the score in its entirety was published, but five years elapsed before the premiere of the opera on 10 June, , at the Munich Hof- und Nationaltheater These are the ascertainable facts and the raw chronological data. They do not offer a satisfactory answer to our question as to what came first, the text or the music.
What 48 The so-called Wesendonck-Lieder, which Wagner considered to be studies for Tristan und Isolde, were composed between late November, and early May, Und vor allem steht nicht fest, wie die musikalischen Ideen, die in die dichterisch-szenische Konzeption eingriffen, beschaffen waren. According to Dahlhaus, these Formideen were vague and yet firmly embedded in the text.
This raises the question as to the exact point at which, in the genesis of the work, the embedding took place. A partial answer could, in my opinion, be arrived at on the basis of a detailed comparison between the prose sketch, which already contains a number of. In other words, Tristan und Isolde progressively ceased to be a literary product. I do not wish to prolong the argument unduly, which was broached mainly in order to show that there is no easy solution to the problem and that, with all due respect to Wagner the musician, we do have a right to treat Tristan und Isolde as a verbal construct — a better right, at any rate, than can be claimed by those who choose to treat it as a symphonic poem.
If as a literary scholar I venture occasionally onto territory that is more essentially musical, I do so in full awareness of the pitfalls and quicksands that are in store for me. The evidence I am prepared to offer is so forthright and cumulative that it is strange, even shocking, that it has never been marshalled before. Once again Peckham, shrewd but purblind observer that he is, will serve as our whipping boy.
Realizing full well that Tristan und Isolde is all about the principium individuationis, he once again completely misses the mark. There are many ways of looking at Tristan und Isolde conceived as a poem, a symphony or a mixture of both, but also as possible models of or analogues to its underlying world view, that is, the realization that Non-Being is preferable to Being Various religious and philosophical systems advocating the dissolution of self preceded by abdication of the will and its re-absorption into a larger, depersonalized or disembodied, stream may have gone into the making of this music drama, whether directly or indirectly.
Among them are medieval. It is a noun frequently used in Tristan und Isolde. The model that the creator of Tristan und Isolde selected was provided by Indian, specifically Buddhist thought, in which he had steeped himself since It is described at length in a letter to Liszt of 7 June, , whose central for our purposes passage reads: Die Bramanen-Lehre stellt [ This sounds like a slightly foreshortened plot outline for Die Sieger, of which Tristan und Isolde is a secular mirror image, Heilige having here been replaced by Liebende.
Both men were profoundly interested in Buddhism at the time of writing their masterpieces. This mingling of the divine element with the earthly was the Fall from heaven. Logically, then, the act of creation occurs in the Prelude, that is, before the curtain rises, the dramatis personae appear and the action gets under way. Doch Nirwana wird mir schnel1 wieder Tristan. Sie kennen die buddhistische Weltentstehungstheorie. In Act I the wind — objective correlative of the WeltAtem — is still seen as a hostile and destructive force with entirely negative connotations.
Zeigt ihm die Beute, die ich ihm biete! The quotation comes from p. Den Winden Segel und Mast! In analyzing the process by which the world constructed in the Prelude is slowly but surely deconstructed, I shall focus on that portion of the dialogue between hero and heroine in Act II, Scene Two, in which the Ent-Ichung is thematic. Tristan: Isolde: Tristan: Isolde:. Nie erwachen! Tristans Liebe? It is hardly coincidental, for instance, that it is Isolde, rather than Tristan, who stresses the und, 62 I have omitted the stage directions. Ich kann nicht mehr sagen, meine Liebe oder deine Liebe; beide sind sich gleich und vollkommen Eins, so viel Liebe als Gegenliebe.
The strategical blueprint to be used for our subsequent analysis specifies that each stage in the unfolding process of disintegration in Tristan und Isolde be marked and justified. However, since Wagner was an artist rather than a logician, he had to take musico-esthetic factors into account and was not, or was not primarily, concerned with fashioning solid causal links within the chain I shall construct here, rearranging the order in which the steps are presented in the opera so as to lay bare the ideal sequence, or rather sequences, for there are actually two series which run parallel to each other: a short one revolving around the notion of consciousness, and a long one gauged to that of identity.
Pinpointing the stage at which consciousness vanishes, these words terminate the series, whose parts, scattered over the three acts of the opera, make up a pattern that correlates with the inner action. The second, longer, and much more intricate series focuses in its first, phenomenal phase on the way in which the names of the two 64 Leo Spitzer, A Method of Interpreting Literature, pp.
In the first stage, marked by that portion of Act I which precedes the drinking of the love potion, Tristan and Isolde are kept apart inasmuch as their names are not permitted to occur in one and the same line or without intervening text. With the sudden intrusion of external reality, no further progress toward the perfect union of the lovers is made in Act I.
At this point, then, no und is in sight, at least not in the finished libretto. O Wonne! Ich nur dein! Nur dein! Stages two to eight in our schematic presentation are all encompassed within the passage from Act II, Scene Two. We might call the second stage of the irreversible sequence possessive, that is, a condition in which the lovers, still very much themselves, seek to appropriate each other in preparation for the actual exchange of identities that is to follow.
In this case, for instance, anticipatory overlappings occur on the musical plane. The third stage, foreshadowed in the title of the opera and fully thematized in our excerpt, is that in which a perfect balance is struck, but not yet at the cost of lost identities. The und which plays so weighty a role in the central portion of the interchange is used like an anchor to show that, while it is still in place, all is well with the phenomenal world.
This manoeuver is neatly executed, near the end of our key passage in the following verbal exchange: Tristan: Tristan du, ich Isolde, nicht mehr Tristan! Isolde: Du Isolde, Tristan ich, nicht mehr Isolde! This metamorphic act has taken us to the very brink of the world of phenomena which, if Tristan is to have his way, must be thrown over for that of noumena. On the fringes, linking the physical with the metaphysical realm, lies the domain of myth, for which Wagner, throughout his career, displayed a very special affinity.
Whereas mythical figures are embodiments of concrete natural or, as the case may be, abstract supernatural forces, the figures of legend, as Tristan and Isolde, are fictional counterparts of historical or pseudohistorical personages that may ultimately rise to the level of myth. In both cases, it is the names which, firmly affixed to their bearers, offer stability and give permanence. For that reason, the loss of names, resulting in anonymity, entails the destruction of the very fabric of which myths and legends are made, a return to a chaotic sphere in which the principium individuationis has ceased to function and where individuals are, at best, reduced to qualities It would lead too far to ponder the implications of this substitution here.
Like so much else in the opera, this may seem preposterous at first glance; yet it fits perfectly into the pattern that I am here attempting to trace. Sung in unison in the last line, the phrase lifts us to a level of abstraction which transcends the world as Vorstellung or Erscheinung, except for the Ich which stubbornly resists the force of the universal will.
As the world was created by mistake or as a consequence of sin, so, according to Wagner, must it be destroyed. Symptomatically, Isolde remains attached to the world even as she is about to leave it. More specifically, in her case the desired erasure of consciousness is effected in a setting that is truly sensuous, namely through the medium of synesthesia. As a psycho-physical phenomenon, synesthesia, which denotes the fusion or confusion of the senses, entails the breakdown of the highly differentiated human sensorium and a return, quite appropriate in this context, to a more primitive form of multiple perception.
Isolde experiences this deprivation which for her is an enrichment in a state of complete euphoria. Er sinkt in Isoldens Armen langsam leblos zu Boden. Wie sie schwellen, mich umrauschen, soll ich atmen, soll ich lauschen? There will be no reconstitution of identity, no subsequent recourse to consciousness, no restoration of the sensory apparatus. Language will fail; and how long can music, of which Nietzsche maintains that it antedates the principium individuationis, survive? If empathy has carried the day, listeners and viewers will feel deprived of the chance to follow the pair into the Schopenhauerian Nirvana.
Wagner agonized over the risk he thought he was taking. Dieser Tristan wird was furchtbares! Dieser letzte Akt! Benedetto Marcello 2. Oft 1. Caula Turin: Caula. Von hier an zitiert als Teatro. Im Frankreich des achtzehnten Jahrhunderts galt bekanntlich die Oper als eine Unterart des Dramas, d. Was das Opernwesen bzw.
Von hier an zitiert als Einstein. In: Illuministi italiani. Von hier an zitiert als Saggio. Zitiert bei Reinhard G. Zu den wahren Urhebern des dramma per musica — dem Dichter und dem Komponisten, die E. Fabrizio: Mio signore ad Ali Ali:. Venite innanzi, signori verso la scena. Ecco i pittori ed i lavoranti.
Eco qui il capo delle comparse con trentadue compagni, bella gente e pratica del teatro. Questi sono i tre portinari. Questi sono i due paggi da sostener la colla alle donne. Ecco un bravo suggeritore, capace di suggerire le parole e la musica. Ecco due uomini per dispensare i biglietti. Ecco quei che devono assistere ai palchetti, per dare e ricuperare le chiavi. Questo sa far da orso. Mangiar impresa e impresario. Sensal maledetto. Tu voler Ali precipitar. Jahrhundert bis heute. Siehe hierzu die entsprechenden Hinweise in meinem in Anm. Loro musica perniziosa a i costumi. Riprovata ancor da gli antichi.
Poesia serva della musica. Apostolo Zeno bezieht sich auf sie in einem bei Einstein Anm. Niuna cosa nella formazione di essa fu lasciata indietro, niuno ingrediente, niun mezzo, onde arrivar si potesse al proposto fine.
Welcome to a New Blend of Plastics Expertise
Januar in Pietro Metastasio, Opere, hrsg. Metastasio stand auch mit Algarotti im regen Briefwechsel. Er lobte vor allem die Wahl des exotischen Stoffes. Siehe Algarotti Anm. Die Prosa- und Verssatire als Parodie der gelehrten Abhandlung nimmt innerhalb der Geschichte der Kritik an der Oper zwar einen wichtigen, aber weniger gewichtigen Platz ein. Wie aus Wiels Katalog Anm. The king or hero of the play generally spoke in Italian, and his slaves answered him in English; the lover frequently made his court and gained the heart of his princess in a language which she did not understand.
One would have thought it very difficult to have carried on dialogue after this manner without an interpreter between the persons that conversed together, but this was the state of the English stage for about three years Jahrhunderts eine nicht unwesentliche Rolle. Und wer kennte nicht den Schauspieldirektor? I have introduced the similes that are in all your celebrated operas: the swallow, the moth, the bee, the ship, the flower, etc.
Besides, I have a prison scene, which the ladies always reckon charmingly pathetic. As to the parts, I have observed such a nice impartiality to our two ladies that it is impossible for either of them to take offense. I hope I may be forgiven that I have not made my opera throughout unnatural, like those in vogue, for I have no recitative.
Excepting this, as I have consented to have neither prologue nor epilogue, it must be allowed an opera in all its forms Roberts Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, Air VI. Siehe hierzu in Metastasios Impresario delle Canarie Anm. Dorina: Dopo una scena tragica Vogliono certe stitiche persone Che stia male una tal comparazione.
Senesino takes the principal male character, and his part must be heroic. The other three male parts should be arranged proportionately song for song in the three acts and entrusted to the two women. If the subject demands three women, a third woman may be employed, as there is a third singer here to take the part Siehe Goldonis Opere, hrsg. Hinzu kommt als 6. Zuerst kommt der Dichter an die Reihe.
The Musical Quarterly 34 Wenn in diesem Multiversum bzw. Mi domando il mio nome. Un tomo di commedie francesi, un dizionario, un rimario e la grammatica del Corticelli stavano tutti alla destra del signor poeta; quelli che aveva alla sinistra non ho potuto vedere ehe cosa fossero. Erfundene Stoffe tauchten nur selten. Algarotti Anm. So bedient er sich unentwegt des non sequitur als einer rhetorischen Waffe. Hugo Wolf2. Mai in Hugo Wolfs musikalische Kritiken, hg.
Jahrhunderts4 —, will ich mich im folgenden befassen. Obwohl es sich bei Mignon um ein letzten Endes musikdramatisch verfehltes Werk handelt, das dem Kenner der literarischen Vorlage, d. Es lohnte sich vielleicht, sie auszugraben. Ich betrete also operngeschichtliches Neuland.
Siehe Bd. Eine kurze Zusammenfassung aus der Feder des Autors findet sich in Dissertation Abstracts International 33 , a. Diese Begeisterung war, wenn auch nicht schrankenlos, in der deutschen Kritik vorgebildet. New York , Stuttgart , f. Zu Ary Scheffer und seinen Bildern Mignon regrettant sa. Sevelings aus dem Jahre , in der Wilhelm in Alfred umgetauft wird und Mignon als Fanfan auftritt Aber erst mit Gautier fils, einem der bedeutendsten Interpreten deutscher Literatur um die Jahrhundertmitte, trat der entscheidende Vermittler auf den Plan Die Publikation der Gesamtausgabe von Meyerbeers Briefen ist leider noch nicht bis zu dem hier in Frage kommenden Zeitpunkt gelangt.
Entsprechende Angaben in H. Blaze de Burys Buch Meyerbeer et son temps, Paris Stein in einem in der Zeitschrift Comparative Literature 22 publizierten Aufsatz. Schirmer in New York erschienenen Ausgabe des Klavierauszugs. Mignon jedoch gar nichts produziert. Was die Struktur bzw. Zwar handelt es sich hierbei vordringlich um Anweisungen des Verfassers an den Regisseur, doch wendet sich der Autor auch an den Leser und, wenigstens indirekt, an den Zuschauer.
Auf S. However, we intend to defend in this article not only that the theory of the fact of reason is in accordance with the results of KrV and that it therefore can be incorporated in the critical-transcendental philosophy, but also that the Kantian answer is plausible, in consideration of the theoretical fragility of moral consciousness. Besides, we intend to show that the figure of moral consciousness, as Kant presents it in KpV , can be better explained, on the basis of an article by Dieter Henrich, through the notion of sittliche Einsicht.
Castillo, Monique. Casullo, Albert. Jonathan Dancy and Ernest Sosa op cit. Central to his discussion is a conceptual framework that involves three distinctions: the epistemic distinction between a priori and a posteriori knowledge, the metaphysical distinction between necessary and contingent propositions, and the semantic distinction between analytic and synthetic propositions.
Within this framework, Kant addresses four primary questions: What is a priori knowledge? Is there a priori knowledge? What is the relationship between the a priori and the necessary? Is there synthetic a priori knowledge? This paper presents the contemporary discussion of these questions and offers some responses to them. Caygill, Howard. Cavallar, Georg. Sharon Byrd and Joachim Hruschka Kantian Review Cecchinato, Giorgia.
Selected Articles , pp Trubetskoy in the book The metaphysical assumptions of knowledge Cesa, Claudio. Gli Scritti su Kant di Silvestro Marcucci. Chalanouli, Christina. Cheetham, Mark A. Nanjing: Jiangsu mei shu chu ban she, Cheng, Chung-ying. Chepurin, Kirill. Chignell, Andrew. A perennially influential way of reading this compressed argument is as a kind of causal inference: in order for us to make justified judgements about the order of our inner states, those states must be caused by the successive states of objects in space outside us.
Here I consider the best recent versions of this reading, and argue that each suffers from apparently fatal flaws. It says that the Forster criticizes philosopher Immanuel Kant for various insufficiencies, such as his inability to interpret Pyrrhonism rightly and his failure to overcome Pyrrhonism rightly interpreted. The Philosophical Review : Cholbi, Michael. Although the previous appeals of Kantians e. Here I off er an account that meets these constraints. Central to this account is the contention that some suicidal agents, because they are unable to fashion a rational conception of their own happiness, are diminished with respect to their dignity of humanity, and as a result, lack the pricelessness that makes prudential suicide wrong on a Kantian view.
Chong, Chaehyun. Chrisman, Matthew. In this paper, I explore some constructivist and expressivist options for responding to this objection. My conclusion is that, although both constructivists and expressivists can capture other surface-level features of ethical thought and discourse, the possibility of ethical knowledge causes special problems for these versions of irrealism. I end with some comments about where I think irrealists should begin to look for a response to these special problems, which points, somewhat surprisingly, towards an alternative inferentialist form of irrealism about epistemic and ethical thought and discourse, which is inspired by Sellars.
Cicovacki, Predrag. Clark, David L. He notes that the circumstances surrounding the Treaty of Basle, signed in by the Prussian king Frederick William II with France, challenged the limits of peace for Kant. Clarke, Jean, and Robin Holt. Through an analysis of the narratives of 12 entrepreneurs, we suggest there are three dimensions to reflective judgement in entrepreneurial contexts: 1 Social Performance; 2 Public Challenge and; 3 Personal Autonomy. Whilst the entrepreneurs were alive to the importance of commercial return, their narratives demonstrated further concern for, and commitment to, standards that they rationally and imaginatively felt as being appropriate.
In our discussion, we integrate the findings into existing theoretical categories from entrepreneurship studies to better appreciate ethics within the context of value creation. Clewis, Robert. My piece concludes that genuine instances of an aesthetic judgment of sublimity can be elicited by art, not just nature. I emphasize the important role that rational and moral ideas play in the judgment of the sublime, introduce and defend the notion of impure sublimity, and discuss examples of artworks that evoke sublimity.
I conclude that we should not assume that the phenomenology of the artistic sublime is qualitatively different from that of the natural sublime. David Baggett. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, Review of Metaphysics 63 : Cobben, Paul. Cohen, Richard A. Cohnitz, Daniel. Colombo, Chiara. Colombo, Enrico. Rivista di Storia della Filosofia 65 : Kant e-Prints 5.
Cook Philip A. Costa Rego, Pedro. Cowling, Sam. Cramer, Konrad. Cramer, Wolfgang. Creath, Richard. Kant , by Daniel Leserre Warum scheint die Sprache keinen Platz in der kritischen Philosophie zu haben? Croitoru, Rodica. Revista de Filosofie 57 : Crotti, Ornella. La bellezza del bene: il debito di Hannah Arendt nei confronti di Immanuel Kant.
Crowe, Benjamin D. The aim of this paper is to explore one significant and underexamined aspect of this relationship, i. Furthermore, Fichte excludes from philosophy some of the subdisciplines of rational theology allowed by Kant. Crowther, Paul. The Kantian Aesthetic. From Knowledge to the Avant-Garde. Kant and the thought of K. Marx in his work Capital. In this way we individuate the common points of both the authors, aiming to the possibilities, that this philosophical conjunction can bring in the order of the philosophy of right to the present and the future of our societies.
Kant-Studien : Cuffaro, Michael. While these commentators are correct, the picture they present of the connections between Bohr and Kant is painted in broad strokes. Cummiskey, David. Cunico, Gerardo. Dahlstrom, Daniel. Dancy, Jonathan, and Ernest Sosa, eds. A Companion to Epistemology , 2nd ed. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, The categorical imperative theory of duty, promulgated by the philosopher Immanuel Kant, is contrasted with the classical conception of virtue set forth by the philosopher Aristotle.
These are said to compose the foundational principles of most standard codes of business ethics. The existentialist ethics of the philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, described in his book Being and Nothingness , are also described. These are said to be a more suitable touchstone for professional ethics in the field of design, since Sartre portrays ethical choice as a creative act. Da Silva Wellausen, Saly. According to Foucault, the philosophical speech in the Occident has built a part of its identity in this issue of the government of self and others , which was in Kantian question about the Lights.
De Boer, Karin. Debona, Vilmar. From this, take the concept of the acquired character in Schopenhauer as a middle way between the intelligible character and the empirical character, that can make the world of phenomenon less determinated. De Jong, Willem R. This history evinces considerable continuity but also some important discontinuities.
The analytic-synthetic distinction has to be seen in the first place in relation to a science, i. Looking especially to the place and role of logic it will be argued that Kant, Bolzano and Frege each developed the analytic-synthetic distinction within the same conception of scientific rationality, that is, within the Classical Model of Science: scientific knowledge as cognitio ex principiis. But as we will see, the way the distinction between analytic and synthetic judgments or propositions functions within this model turns out to differ considerably between them.
Dekens, Olivier. Comprendre Kant. Paris: A. Colin, Delaney, Neil. The essay revolves around a case in which a husband or wife is tempted to infidelity. It is argued that resistance to the temptation is optimally grounded in love for the spouse rather than simply in a duty to resist initiated perhaps through promise or vow. This is not, however, to undermine altogether the significance of promises of this sort; it is rather to put a proper emphasis on the sentiment of love as an effective spring to action and to suggest that the sentiment itself ideally brings a past promise or vow of fidelity into present relief in a choice situation.
Section 2. Deligiorgi, Katerina. Hegel Bulletin Den Uyl, Douglas J. See : Rasmussen, Douglas B. Den Uyl. Denis, Lara, ed. Sharon Byrd, Allen W. Johnson, Patrick Kain, Thomas E. Hill, Jr. Topics include the relation between right and virtue, property, punishment, and moral feeling. Their diversity of questions, perspectives and approaches will provide new insights into the work for scholars in Kant's moral and political theory. This contradicts the position, shared by Kant and Dean, that people who lack good wills have ethical obligations — including the obligation to strive for a good will.
Endoxa 25 : De Rocha, Munira Gottardello. In section 1 I focus on the objective pole and go into the question with Kant and Strawson of what someone assumes about the objective world when he or she experiences it. At the end of section 3, though, I show that sheer corporality in itself is not enough to form the subjective unity that is needed for experience: a further step is required. James R. O'Shea and Eric M. Rubenstein op cit. Dewalque, Arnaud. It suggests that a step forward toward a more promising understanding of this historical background can be made if we focus, not on the much-discussed, controversial position of Kant, but rather on the straightforward position of some main representatives of classical neo-Kantianism.
Dicker, George. Forster European Journal of Philosophy 18 : Dickson, Michael, ed. See : Domski, Mary and Michael Dickson, eds. Dietzsch, Steffen. Husum: Husum, Dimitrov, Stefan. Reason is considered here as based on the principle of a reflective logico-ontological self-sufficiency. The conscience, respectively, is viewed as based on the principle of the spontaneous and free affiliation to a transcendent source of regulative sense. These two higher faculties, being founded on different principles, in some circumstances fall into heteronomy. The thesis proposed is that the ascertaining of a subordinative accordance between the reason and the conscience can be considered as the way out from this heteronomy.
DiSalle, Robert. Dlugach, Tamara Borisovna. Dobe, Jennifer Kirchmyer. The author comments on the reflective nature of aesthetic judgments and their relationship to understanding and imagination. Kant suggested that although they are subjective, judgments of taste should have universal validity with common sense forming the subjective principle of the Fourth Moment. Dobko, Taras. In particular, we attempt to show that the experience of happiness, far from being heteronymous in its character and origin, is rather a distinctive experience of personal autonomy.
Dolins, Francine L. See : Mitchell, Robert W. Revista de Estudios Orteguianos 20 : Domski, Mary. To make my case, I first consider the account of geometrical reasoning Kant presents in his prize essay, a text in which geometrical certainty is tied to the power that the mind or understanding has to perceive the geometrical objects presented before it. Mind : Chicago: Open Court, I, Von der Form der Anschauung zur formalen Anschauung.
The author focuses on the question, whether the Biblical Christ, as a real historical person, is the personification of the idea of the absolute good and moral perfection. Dorussen, Han. Dowling, Christopher. Doyle, Thomas E. Rather, they seem strongly connected to the western moral assumptions about what kind of government or people can be trusted with a nuclear arsenal.
In this paper, I critically examine the western assumptions of the immorality of contemporary nuclear proliferation from an international ethical stance that otherwise might be expected to give it unequivocal support — the stance of Kantian nonideal theory. In contrast to the uses of Kant that were prominent during the Cold War, I advance and apply a sketch of a Kantian nonideal theory that specifies the conditions although strict conditions under which nuclear proliferation for states like Iran is morally permissible even though the NPT forbids it.
Duran, Xavier, and Patrick McNutt. The contracting or exchange objective in any transaction is to arrive at a mutually satisfactory outcome, an equilibrium point. With opportunism, a free rider problem may well arise; if so, a partial solution emerges. This has to be avoided. Practical implications - It is argued that the decision not to engage in opportunistic behaviour, for example, by any one individual, may be rooted in a personal sense of duty or influenced by the ethical values and beliefs embedded within the culture of the organisation or the firm.
Management may therefore decide not to abuse their discretionary power; workers may opt not to shirk. The paper builds on a new approach to understand governance and ethics insofar as a firm teaches people morality. The paper should be of value to shareholders, workers and management, trade unions and commentators on the theory of the firm. Duro, Paul. Dwyer, Philip. Dyck, Corey W. Revised version appears as chapter five of Dyck Ebert, Theodor. Eine Stellungnahme zu Wolffs Metakritik. In particular I point out that if, as Wolff claims, the nota notae relation in Kant is restricted to subordinated concepts, then it can hardly serve as a principle for syllogistic logic, as Kant claims.
Kant mistook what are parts of the proofs for the validity of moods in figures two to four as parts of these moods themselves. Edel, Geert. Waldkirch: Ed. Gorz, Edgar, Scott. It mentions the use of transcendental deduction in explaining the cognitive interpretation for the solution on the problem of understanding. Edlin, Douglas E. Instead, the Kantian and common law process of judging requires that judges combine their own subjective response with a reflective judgment that is claimed as valid by virtue of the form of its reasoning and expression according the methods and sources of the community in which and to which the judgment is rendered.
Provided that the judge can perform the adjudicatory function impartially and independently, without any improper interest or influence tainting the decision making process, the judge remains free to decide for herself. That is the sort of judgment that is recognized by the community as intersubjectively valid and which best contributes to the ongoing process of understanding art and law. Edmundson, William A. Ethics : Elsenhans, Theodor. Hamburg: Severus-Verlag, Emundts, Dina.
Enchev, Kristiyan. According to that modus I try to throw a light on the possibility to be construed supplementary categorial correlations so that to cope successfully with the experience content keeping in mind the critical-metaphysical requirement to avoid the loop of direct category ontologization. Engelhardt, Jr.
Hegel, and Elizabeth Anscombe. Anscombe in her observation that without God the significance of morality is changed, as the word criminal would be changed if there were no criminal law and criminal courts. Severed from any metaphysical anchor, morality gains a contingent content from socio-historical context and its enforcement from the state. Anscombe is vindicated.
Absent the presence of God, there is an important change in the force of moral obligation. Engelland, Chad. The promise of the phenomenological Kant motivated Heidegger to engage Kant repeatedly. In four phases and with reference to Husserl, Heidegger interpreted Kant as first falling short of phenomenology , then approaching phenomenology , then advancing phenomenology , and finally again approaching phenomenology and after. In the last phase, Heidegger does not reject the phenomenological Kant. Engstrom, Stephen. Reath and Timmermann op cit.
Enns, Phil. Enskat, Rainer. Erlewine, Robert. Monotheism and Tolerance: Recovering a Religion of Reason. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, Ertl, Wolfgang. Escamilla-Castillo, Manuel. However, we lack a theory that explains them according to the formation of the modern state.
Nevertheless, the preventive and resocializing theory of Bentham succeeded eventually. But is this a liberal theory? We contrast the explanations of H. Hart and Frederick Rosen in order to lay the groundwork for a liberal theory of the meaning of legal sanctions. With this statement he situated himself against centuries of humanism. Esposito, Costantino. Essen, Georg, and Magnus Striet. Kant e a teologia. Esser, Andrea. Estes, Yolanda. Esteves, Julio. Finally, it is argued that the purported parallelism collapses because, among other things, the data of a philosophical moral theory are completely different in nature from the data in linguistics.
Etxeberria, Arantza. Faggion, Andrea. Fahmy, Melissa Seymour. According to Kant, the kind of love which is commanded by duty is practical love. Falkenburg, Brigitte. Federicis, Nico de. Kant e le relazioni internazionali: diritto, politica, storia , by Massimo Mori Feger, Hans.
Feldmeijer, F. In de ban van noodzakelijkheid: Kants ethiek als weerspiegeling van zijn tijd. Fenves, Peter D. Fernandes, Paulo Cezar. O problema da pena de morte. Lehner Ferrari, Massimo. Ferrer, Diogo. Ferron, Isabella. Ferry, Jean-Marc. Paris: Cerf, Fetscher, Justus. Ficarrotta, J. Kantian Thinking about Military Ethics. O eclipse da moral. Fincham, Richard. Thomas Nenon op cit. Fioraso, Nazzareno. Fisch, Menachem. It focuses on the biases of the major themes of philosopher Immanuel Kant: the strong commitment to framework-dependency of all scientific knowledge and the commitment to self-critical stance to free-willed and reflective self-governance.
Kant notes that both ideas are not associated since the framework made explicit and analyzed in the First Critique cannot be regarded as a normative system. Fischer, Norbert, ed. Kants Grundlegung einer kritischen Metaphysik. Hamburg: Meiner, Ihre Bedeutung als Anschauungsform des inneren Sinnes und als metaphysisches Problem. Klimmek Die Gottesfrage in der Philosophie Immanuel Kants.
Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder, Fistioc, Mihaela C. Flannery, Kelly. Fletcher, Paul. Arthur Bradley and Paul Fletcher op cit. Flikschuh, Katrin. Paris: Champion, Paris: Ellipses, Fonnesu, Luca. Foreman, Elizabeth. Formosa, Paul. Why does Kant privilege the dinner party in this way? Forrester, Stefan. Rogerson Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 68 : Forschner, Maximilian. See : Fischer, Norbert and Maximilian Forschner, eds. Forster, Michael N.
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Franceschet, Antonio. However, this is hardly satisfactory in practice and has failed to provide a more secure juridical basis for determining significant conflicts among states over when humanitarian force is justified. This support is conditional on the achievement of juridical progress within and among states and has implications for the development of cosmopolitan citizenship. Frank, Martin. Frey, Michael, and Aysun Aly. Firstly, Kant's language is so complex that some Kant researchers and linguists go so far as to deny the translatability of his works into any other language.
Secondly, the special lexical and grammatical characteristics of the Arabic language lead some Arabic intellectuals to doubt the ability of Arabic to express ideas of modern philosophy in general. Notwithstanding these difficulties, Kant's works have been translated into Arabic.
It will be argued that the way the translators coped with these problems depended on their personal target cultures and the goals they pursued with their translations, and that therefore, the translations have to be considered as facts of a translator's personal target culture. Frey, R. He has in mind by this Kant and W. For many, obligation seems the very core of ethics and the moral realm, and lives more generally are seen through the prism of this notion. This, according to Williams, flattens out our lives and moral experience and fails to take into account things which are obviously important to our lives.
Once we take these things into account, what do we do if they come into conflict with some of our moral obligations, as Williams, in his earlier writings on moral luck, thought to be the case. Friedman, Michael. It discusses the complex interactions among physics, technology, mathematics, politics, philosophy, and religion. It explains the modification of the original philosophical synthesis of philosopher Immanuel Kant by scientist philosophers. It also deals with mutual interactions among the quasi-autonomous cultural processes resulting to unpredictable novelty.
Frierson, Patrick. Fues, Wolfram Malte. It focuses on the evil that is behind the reason having the basic principle of self-determination. It states the principle that reflects the power of judgment that relates to the faculties of human cognition. Fugate, Courtney David. Fujimoto, Kazushi. Fulda, Hans Friedrich. Fulkerson-Smith, Brett A. Fullinwider, Robert K.
It is not so much these general features but the particular forms of moral life under which children and their tutors live that give specificity to duties and rights, content to virtues, and shape to purpose. To navigate successfully through this stuff of moral life, the developing youth needs not only a good heart but a casuistical temper. Gable, Justin C. Gabriel, Markus. Gaier, Ulrich, and Ralf Simon, eds. Zwischen Bild und Begriff. Hieroglyphe und Periodus. Gallois, Laurent. He reconsiders the problem of the junction of sense and intelligible. This article examines its meaning and in what way the Opus Postumum is historically a bridge towards a philosophy of the spirit.
Gao, Guoxi. Garcia-Borreguero, Diego. Gardner, Sebastian. Kritische Schriften, ed. Claus Pias, vol. Kromsdorf: VDG Weimar, Bildung: Essays. Kritische Schriften, vol. VII, ed. Leipzig: im Insel-Verlag, XII, ed. Renaissance: Neue Studien zur Kritik der Moderne.
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London: Hodder and Stoughton, Johannes Brahms. Arles: Actes Sud, Essays, ed. Benjamin Suchoff. Schirmer , vol. The Hungarian Folk Song, ed. Pourquoi et comment recueille-t-on la musique populaire? Geneva: Imprimerie Albert Kundif, Turkish Folk Music from Asia Minor, ed. Weg und Werk: Schriften und Briefe, ed. Bence Szabolcsi. Budapest: Corvina Verlag, Berlioz and the Romantic Century. Third edition. X, pp. Paris: Jean-Jacques Pauvert, Claude Pichois, vol.
Adolphe van Bever, pp. Rotterdam: chez Reinier Leers, London: Chapman and Hall, Lippincott, Batsford, Hugo Vickers. London: Frances Lincoln, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, Sonic Theology: Hinduism and Sacred Sound. Leipzig: Friedrich Fleischer, Ruby Cohn, pp. The Letters of Samuel Beckett, ed. The Grove Centenary Edition, ed. Paul Auster, vol. In Disjecta, pp. Words and Music. The Grove Centenary Edition, vol. III: Dramatic Works, pp.
Vathek, conte arabe. Music, Modernity, and God: Essays in Listening. Gesammelte Schriften, vol. II: Klang und Eros, and vol. III: Neue Musik. Stuttgart and Berlin: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, and , respectively. Kritische Zeitbilder. BELL, Charles. First published under a different title in Fourth edition. Preface by George Joseph Bell. Novels, , ed. James Wood. Etwas zur Charackteristick der Juden. The continuation of the following entry.
The Compendium (Part III)
Neue Berlinische Monatsschrift, vol. Versuch einer Geschmackslehre. Deutsche Menschen: Eine Folge von Briefen. Lucerne: Vita Nova Verlag, Gesammelte Schriften, ed. Tillman Rexroth, pp. Berlin: Ernst Rowohlt Verlag, IV, pt. I, pp. VIII , pp. I: Abhandlungen, pt. II, pt. V: Das Passagen-Werk. Sur Scheerbart. An untitled text in French, lightly corrected by Pierre Missac, probably written towards the end of the s. III: Kritiken und Rezensionen, ed. Hella Tiedemann-Bartels, pp. BENN, Gottfried.
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Henssel Verlag , no. V: Prosa 3 , ed. Souvenirs sur Henri Bergson. XXIII, no. XCIX, no. Fernand Braudel, vol. Paris: Librairie Armand Colin, Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, Paris: Presses universitaires de France, Paris: Librairie Charles Delagrave, Remembering the Future. Les Grotesques de la musique. Paris: A. Voyage musical en Allemagne et en Italie. Paris: Jules Labitte, Paris: Centre national de la danse, Paris: Jean-Pierre Delarge, Crystallizing Public Opinion.
Preface by Johannes Goebel. Dietz , vol. XIII, pt. Gomorrhe, Paris: Chez Charles, Preface by Paul Verlaine. Paris: Alphonse Piaget, VII, no. Preface by Jean Wahl. LXII , pp. Berlin: Wegweiser-Verlag, XX, no. Translated by Jacob Sloan. In Revealment and Concealment: Five Essays, pp. Jerusalem: Ibis Editions, Translated by Jeffrey M. In Revealment and Concealment, pp. The History of the Greek and Roman Theater. Second edition, revised and enlarged. Clark, Die unendliche Heilung: Aby Warburgs Krankengeschichte, ed. Chantal Marazia and Davide Stimilli. London: T.
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I-III: Text, ed. Thomas C. Faulkner, Nicholas K.