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And Fast's Hotel in Jerusalem was suddenly evacuated, sentry boxes placed at its entrances and rumours spread that it was to become Allenby's advanced headquarters in preparation for a renewal of the Transjordan campaign eastwards towards Amman and Es Salt. During the concentration of Allenby's force on the western end of the front line, German and Ottoman aircraft were unable to carry out reliable aerial reconnaissances as the British and Australian aircraft had almost complete dominance of the skies.

Only four of their aircraft succeeded in crossing the lines during the period of concentration prior to Megiddo, as against over during one week in June. Though these deceptions did not induce Liman von Sanders , commander of the Ottoman Army in Palestine , to concentrate his forces on the eastern flank, nor did he concentrate his forces on the western flank. Allenby was thereby able to concentrate a force, superior by five to one in infantry and even more in artillery, on the Mediterranean flank opposing the Ottoman XXII Corps, where the main attack was successfully made.

Military Deception and Strategic Surprise!: 1st Edition (e-Book) - Routledge

Britain's Royal Navy made extensive use of Q-ships to combat German submarines. Looking like a civilian sailing vessel or a decrepit tramp steamer — but actually carrying concealed heavy guns — a Q-ship's function was to appear to be a helpless target, luring a submarine to the surface to try and sink the ship with the sub's deck gun and thus save its limited supply of expensive torpedoes for bigger targets. Once the U-boat had surfaced, the Q-ship would immediately run up the Royal Navy's White Ensign flag and would use its previously hidden on-board guns to sink the sub.

The Soviet military doctrine of Russian military deception also called maskirovka was developed in the s, and used by Zhukov in the Battles of Khalkhin Gol against Japan. For example, the Field Regulations of the Red Army stated that "Surprise has a stunning effect on the enemy. For this reason all troop operations must be accomplished with the greatest concealment and speed. Before Operation Barbarossa , the German High Command masked the creation of the massive force arrayed to invade the USSR and heightened their diplomatic efforts to convince Joseph Stalin that they were about to launch a major attack on Britain.

Maskirovka was put into practice on a large scale in the Battle of Kursk , especially on the Steppe Front commanded by Ivan Konev. The result was that the Germans attacked Russian forces four times stronger than they were expecting. The German general Friedrich von Mellenthin wrote "The horrible counter-attacks, in which huge masses of manpower and equipment took part, were an unpleasant surprise for us The most clever camouflage of the Russians should be emphasized again. We did not.. Amongst the Western Allies, several individuals pioneered deception at both the strategic and operational level.

Dudley Clarke and his 'A' Force, based in Cairo , developed much of the Allied deception strategy from early Operation Camilla deceived the Italians into thinking that the British intended to retake British Somaliland from the north with an amphibious attack from Aden. However, instead of moving their troops to meet the potential amphibious landing, the Italians withdrew into Eritrea and were in greater strength when the genuine attack occurred. Clarke thus learned that the focus of military deception is not what you want the enemy to think but what you want him to do.

Deception played an important part in the war in North Africa. Steven Sykes built a dummy railhead to protect the real railhead at Misheifa for Operation Crusader. British and American troops used false signals and double agents to deceive German intelligence as to the location of the invasion.

Strategic Military Deception

Dummy equipment played a negligible role as the Germans were unable to carry out aerial reconnaissance over England. The Germans awaited the Pas-de-Calais landing for many weeks after the real landings in Normandy, diverting several divisions from the battle for Normandy. In the Pacific theater, Japan continued its diplomatic engagement with the United States through late November and into early December , even while the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was being planned and after the attacking ships had actually sailed, in secret, from their base in the remote Kuril Islands in northern Japan, bound for their eventual destination several hundred miles northwest of Hawaii.

The fleet proceeded in secrecy, clinging to the foggy latitudes of the northern Pacific Ocean and maintaining radio silence as it approached its target so as to avoid premature detection. The attack on Dec. In recent years, Japanese researchers and historians have asserted that formal notice had not been given to the U.

Army Air Forces B bombers flying off of the U. Navy aircraft carrier USS Hornet was conducted under similar conditions of top secrecy, resulting in a virtually complete element of surprise.

Military deception

The air crews were directed to not throw out empty fuel cans or other debris from their planes in flight, lest such a trail of debris lead potential Japanese pursuers back to the Hornet, and to make no markings on their maps for the same reason, lest those documents fall into enemy hands. When President Franklin D. Roosevelt was asked by reporters after the raid where the attacking planes had come from, he added to the mystery by playfully answering " Shangri-La " — the name of the fictional utopia high in the Himalayas made popular in the novel Lost Horizon.

The months preceding the Cuban Missile Crisis involved a complex deception and denial campaign. The Soviet attempt to position nuclear weapons on the island nation of Cuba in Operation Anadyr in occurred under a shroud of great secrecy, both to deny the United States information on the deployment of these missiles to the island and to deceive the United States' political leadership, military, and intelligence services about Moscow's intentions in Cuba.

The parameters of Anadyr demanded that both medium- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles be deployed to Cuba and operable before their existence was discovered by the United States, and the Soviet General Staff and Soviet Communist Party leaders turned to radical measures to achieve surprise in this manner. Perhaps the most fundamental deception in Operation Anadyr was the deployment's codename itself, which is associated with the sparsely populated and somewhat inaccessible areas of the Russian north, certainly did not suggest an operation in the Caribbean.

Only five senior officers on the general staff, moreover, were privy to the details of the deployment or its actual location during the planning. The plans that were made were even handwritten to deny knowledge of the operation to even a single secretary. Prior to the voyage to Cuba, troops awaiting the journey were restricted to barracks prior to departure and were denied contact with the outside world.

Soviet soldiers constructed false superstructures with plywood to hide the ships' defenses and even on-deck field kitchens. Metal sheets were placed over missiles and missile launchers to prevent detection by infrared surveillance. Agricultural equipment and other non-military machinery was placed on deck to add to the subterfuge.


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Once underway, the Soviet troops were not allowed on deck, except at night and only in small groups. Instructions to the troops and ships' crews were carried by special couriers to deny Western intelligence services the opportunity to intercept electronic communications regarding the operation. The ships' captains received instructions which revealed their final destination only after they had put out to sea. Soviet denial and deception measures were equally rigid upon the ships' arrival in Cuba. The Soviet vessels unloaded at eleven different ports to complicate American surveillance.

Military equipment was offloaded only under cover of darkness. The same applied to major troop movements, and all Soviet military positions were generally in sparsely populated areas of the island. The Soviet troops were even forbidden to wear their uniforms. Simultaneously, the Soviet media trumped the massive agricultural assistance that the Soviets ostensibly were providing to their Cuban comrades as a false explanation for the men and equipment. The Soviet denial and deception campaign in Operation Anadyr, which led to the Cuban Missile Crisis, proved highly effective, and the eventual discovery of the missile emplacements only occurred after they were operational.

Thus, the operation was a success. In the Yom Kippur War between Israel and the joint forces of Egypt and Syria, Egypt used a deception to fool the Israelis about the timing of the attack. President Anwar Sadat created an annual maneuver well in advance, which tricked the Israelis to thinking that the moving forces were in fact part of this drill.

The Egyptians also created the impression that they were going to attack several months before the war, making the Israelis announce an emergency draft. Since the draft was rather expensive, the Israeli government, including prime minister Golda Meir , was reluctant to repeat it when the real attack took place.

After an aircraft hijacking had occurred on board an Air France plane in late June and the hijackers had diverted it to Entebbe Airport in Uganda , threatening to kill all of the captive Jewish and Israeli passengers if their demands were not met, the Israeli Defense Forces planned a rescue mission. Israel kept pursuing diplomatic efforts to free the hostages while the raid was being planned in top secrecy, giving the outward appearance that it would not pursue military action.

When the raid was launched, the advance party of IDF commandos invading the airport rode in a black Mercedes Benz automobile made up to look like Ugandan leader Idi Amin 's personal limousine, followed by two Land Rover vehicles similar to those customarily used by Amin's entourage in order to confuse the guards at the airport perimeter, so as to buy the raiding party extra time. The ruse was only partly successful, as one of the guards realized it was a trick, precipitating a gunfight in which the element of total surprise was lost, although the overall raid still turned out successfully.

In , France, heretofore Israel's main supplier of advanced weaponry, abruptly cancelled a contract to build patrol boats for Israel's navy, declaring an arms embargo and refusing to release the last five boats built under the contract, even though they had already been paid for. In response the IDF mounted an elaborate scheme involving, on paper, the legal purchase of the boats by a supposed civilian company for ostensibly non-military purposes. Secretly staffed by crews of Israeli navy officers and seamen disguised as civilians who gradually arrived at the French Atlantic seaport of Cherbourg , the five boats, without proper authorization, slipped out of the harbor on the night of Christmas Eve , sailing into a winter storm.

They made it through the storm, eventually reached the Mediterranean Sea and completed the more than 3,mile voyage to Israel safely. The ruse — which the Israelis called "Operation Noa" but which came to otherwise be known as the Cherbourg Project — was assisted by some sympathetic mid-level French shipyard and commercial officials, but the higher-ups in the government were kept totally in the dark about what was going on in the several months of preparations leading to the boats' secret departure.

There are different opinions among military pundits as to the value of military deception. For example, the two books that are usually considered the most famous classics on warfare Sun Tzu 's The Art of War and Clausewitz ' On War seem to have diametrically opposed views on the matter. Sun Tzu greatly emphasizes military deception and considers it the key to victory. As a more modern example, British military writer John Keegan seems to come close to Clausewitz' opinion in this particular matter, despite normally being highly critical of Clausewitz.

In his book Intelligence in War: Knowledge of the Enemy from Napoleon to Al-Qaeda he gives several historical examples of situations where one side held a great information advantage over its opponent and argues that in none of these cases was this decisive in and of itself for the outcome. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Prehistoric Ancient Post-classical Early modern Late modern industrial fourth-gen. Blitzkrieg Deep operation Maneuver Operational manoeuvre group.

Grand strategy. Military recruitment Conscription Recruit training Military specialism Women in the military Children in the military Transgender people and military service Sexual harassment in the military Conscientious objection Counter recruitment. Arms industry Materiel Supply chain management.

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The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with Western culture and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: French Revolutionary Wars.

Main article: American Civil War. See also: Siege of Mafeking. Further information: Russian military deception. See also: Operation Anadyr. Main article: Operation Entebbe. Main article: Cherbourg Project. War portal. London: Thames and Hudson. Page 6 and throughout. Kursk: the greatest battle, eastern front Presidential History Blog. Pages — The Germans awaited the Pas-de-Calais landing for many weeks after the real landings in Normandy, diverting several divisions from the battle for Normandy. In the Pacific theater, Japan continued its diplomatic engagement with the United States through late November and into early December , even while the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was being planned and after the attacking ships had actually sailed, in secret, from their base in the remote Kuril Islands in northern Japan, bound for their eventual destination several hundred miles northwest of Hawaii.

The fleet proceeded in secrecy, clinging to the foggy latitudes of the northern Pacific Ocean and maintaining radio silence as it approached its target so as to avoid premature detection. The attack on Dec. In recent years, Japanese researchers and historians have asserted that formal notice had not been given to the U. Army Air Forces B bombers flying off of the U. Navy aircraft carrier USS Hornet was conducted under similar conditions of top secrecy, resulting in a virtually complete element of surprise. The air crews were directed to not throw out empty fuel cans or other debris from their planes in flight, lest such a trail of debris lead potential Japanese pursuers back to the Hornet, and to make no markings on their maps for the same reason, lest those documents fall into enemy hands.

When President Franklin D. Roosevelt was asked by reporters after the raid where the attacking planes had come from, he added to the mystery by playfully answering " Shangri-La " — the name of the fictional utopia high in the Himalayas made popular in the novel Lost Horizon. The months preceding the Cuban Missile Crisis involved a complex deception and denial campaign. The Soviet attempt to position nuclear weapons on the island nation of Cuba in Operation Anadyr in occurred under a shroud of great secrecy, both to deny the United States information on the deployment of these missiles to the island and to deceive the United States' political leadership, military, and intelligence services about Moscow's intentions in Cuba.

The parameters of Anadyr demanded that both medium- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles be deployed to Cuba and operable before their existence was discovered by the United States, and the Soviet General Staff and Soviet Communist Party leaders turned to radical measures to achieve surprise in this manner. Perhaps the most fundamental deception in Operation Anadyr was the deployment's codename itself, which is associated with the sparsely populated and somewhat inaccessible areas of the Russian north, certainly did not suggest an operation in the Caribbean.

Only five senior officers on the general staff, moreover, were privy to the details of the deployment or its actual location during the planning. The plans that were made were even handwritten to deny knowledge of the operation to even a single secretary. Prior to the voyage to Cuba, troops awaiting the journey were restricted to barracks prior to departure and were denied contact with the outside world.

Soviet soldiers constructed false superstructures with plywood to hide the ships' defenses and even on-deck field kitchens. Metal sheets were placed over missiles and missile launchers to prevent detection by infrared surveillance. Agricultural equipment and other non-military machinery was placed on deck to add to the subterfuge.

Once underway, the Soviet troops were not allowed on deck, except at night and only in small groups. Instructions to the troops and ships' crews were carried by special couriers to deny Western intelligence services the opportunity to intercept electronic communications regarding the operation. The ships' captains received instructions which revealed their final destination only after they had put out to sea.

Soviet denial and deception measures were equally rigid upon the ships' arrival in Cuba. The Soviet vessels unloaded at eleven different ports to complicate American surveillance. Military equipment was offloaded only under cover of darkness. The same applied to major troop movements, and all Soviet military positions were generally in sparsely populated areas of the island.

The Soviet troops were even forbidden to wear their uniforms. Simultaneously, the Soviet media trumped the massive agricultural assistance that the Soviets ostensibly were providing to their Cuban comrades as a false explanation for the men and equipment.

StarCraft 2: THE SURPRISE COLOSSUS!

The Soviet denial and deception campaign in Operation Anadyr, which led to the Cuban Missile Crisis, proved highly effective, and the eventual discovery of the missile emplacements only occurred after they were operational. Thus, the operation was a success. In the Yom Kippur War between Israel and the joint forces of Egypt and Syria, Egypt used a deception to fool the Israelis about the timing of the attack.

President Anwar Sadat created an annual maneuver well in advance, which tricked the Israelis to thinking that the moving forces were in fact part of this drill. The Egyptians also created the impression that they were going to attack several months before the war, making the Israelis announce an emergency draft. Since the draft was rather expensive, the Israeli government, including prime minister Golda Meir , was reluctant to repeat it when the real attack took place.

After an aircraft hijacking had occurred on board an Air France plane in late June and the hijackers had diverted it to Entebbe Airport in Uganda , threatening to kill all of the captive Jewish and Israeli passengers if their demands were not met, the Israeli Defense Forces planned a rescue mission. Israel kept pursuing diplomatic efforts to free the hostages while the raid was being planned in top secrecy, giving the outward appearance that it would not pursue military action. When the raid was launched, the advance party of IDF commandos invading the airport rode in a black Mercedes Benz automobile made up to look like Ugandan leader Idi Amin 's personal limousine, followed by two Land Rover vehicles similar to those customarily used by Amin's entourage in order to confuse the guards at the airport perimeter, so as to buy the raiding party extra time.

The ruse was only partly successful, as one of the guards realized it was a trick, precipitating a gunfight in which the element of total surprise was lost, although the overall raid still turned out successfully. In , France, heretofore Israel's main supplier of advanced weaponry, abruptly cancelled a contract to build patrol boats for Israel's navy, declaring an arms embargo and refusing to release the last five boats built under the contract, even though they had already been paid for.

In response the IDF mounted an elaborate scheme involving, on paper, the legal purchase of the boats by a supposed civilian company for ostensibly non-military purposes. Secretly staffed by crews of Israeli navy officers and seamen disguised as civilians who gradually arrived at the French Atlantic seaport of Cherbourg , the five boats, without proper authorization, slipped out of the harbor on the night of Christmas Eve , sailing into a winter storm.

They made it through the storm, eventually reached the Mediterranean Sea and completed the more than 3,mile voyage to Israel safely. The ruse — which the Israelis called "Operation Noa" but which came to otherwise be known as the Cherbourg Project — was assisted by some sympathetic mid-level French shipyard and commercial officials, but the higher-ups in the government were kept totally in the dark about what was going on in the several months of preparations leading to the boats' secret departure. There are different opinions among military pundits as to the value of military deception.

For example, the two books that are usually considered the most famous classics on warfare Sun Tzu 's The Art of War and Clausewitz ' On War seem to have diametrically opposed views on the matter. Sun Tzu greatly emphasizes military deception and considers it the key to victory. As a more modern example, British military writer John Keegan seems to come close to Clausewitz' opinion in this particular matter, despite normally being highly critical of Clausewitz.

In his book Intelligence in War: Knowledge of the Enemy from Napoleon to Al-Qaeda he gives several historical examples of situations where one side held a great information advantage over its opponent and argues that in none of these cases was this decisive in and of itself for the outcome. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Prehistoric Ancient Post-classical Early modern Late modern industrial fourth-gen.

Blitzkrieg Deep operation Maneuver Operational manoeuvre group. Grand strategy. Military recruitment Conscription Recruit training Military specialism Women in the military Children in the military Transgender people and military service Sexual harassment in the military Conscientious objection Counter recruitment. Arms industry Materiel Supply chain management. The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with Western culture and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject.

You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: French Revolutionary Wars. Main article: American Civil War. See also: Siege of Mafeking. Further information: Russian military deception. See also: Operation Anadyr. Main article: Operation Entebbe. Main article: Cherbourg Project. War portal. London: Thames and Hudson.

Page 6 and throughout. Kursk: the greatest battle, eastern front Presidential History Blog. Pages — Page 6. Operations of World War 2. Retrieved 21 April The Deceivers. Folio Society. The Japan Times. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 23 March Bruce, Anthony London: John Murray Ltd. Delmer, Sefton Erickson, Edward J. John Gooch; Brian Holden Reid eds. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Falls, Cyril Becke maps. London: HM Stationery Office.

Glantz, David Military Deception in the Second World War. London: Routledge. Gribkov, General Anatoli I. Smith Operation Anadyr. Chicago: Edition Q. Hamilton, Patrick M. Handel, Michael I. Gooch John. First published in Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. Published June 8th by Routledge first published June 1st More Details Original Title. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.

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