He relies on a store of characteristic patterns. Gary Kasparov's chess rating is 2,, yet when he plays against teams of grand masters rated around 2, simultaneously, he still beats them. He loses only about points of playing strength even though he thinks for seconds, not minutes.
This is true of other expertise. Your doctor probably has diagnosed you before you've finished reciting your symptoms. You cite a study that found that business school students took hours to calculate solutions to problems that experienced businessmen found off the cuff. I think we need to pay much more explicit attention to teaching pattern recognition. I used to teach organizational theory in the business school here, and it was hard because although the students had lived in organizations all their lives, they hadn't thought of them as organizations.
Most of them, in those days, had no business experience. You calculated that experts must have access to something between , and 2 million memory patterns. How did you arrive at the number? It takes at least ten years of hard work -- say, 40 hours a week for 50 weeks a year -- to begin to do world-class work. We found it takes eight seconds to learn a pattern for a day, and quite a lot longer to learn it permanently.
That takes you to the million-pattern estimate, if you allow for certain inefficiencies in learning and also for forgetting. A lot of philosophers quibbled with that. That's because they define thinking as that which computers can't yet do.
They keep raising the bar. Why this great mystique about a word called thinking? What is supposed to be implied by putting it in quotation marks or italics or whatever the hell it is that people do? Why don't we use it like an ordinary term? Do people have mass? Do tractors have mass? Yeah, they both have mass. Does that undignify people? I would simply define thinking in an operational way. If we saw a human doing what we'd call thinking, I'd like to apply the term in exactly the same way to computers.
Be a Number Genius: Flash by Jonathan Hancock - Books - Hachette Australia
Do you think people are afraid that smart software will steal their jobs? I don't know about any computer programs that purport to do magazine writing, but I'll bet there are some good CD-ROMs that teach college courses. It turned out that horses were better at pulling plows than people were at pushing them.
So what's new? This doesn't happen instantly, and people can go and do other things. If you look at what's happening in laboratory science, instruments are taking over the data gathering and the data interpretation. The diagnosis, so to speak, has been taken over in spades. If we succeed in deciphering the genome, it's not going to be because we hired , slaves and put them in a dungeon, but because we got the right computer programs. Innovators may always be in demand, but most professionals sell knowledge they've acquired from others.
Won't software take over that function? It may indeed. But I hate to speculate about just when.
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These things don't happen suddenly, and people have time to adapt. The good career bet has always been to exercise your curiosity and get some general tools that you can apply anywhere. My degrees were in political science, and I haven't had any professional occasion to use political science for 60 years.
You've demystified human intuition as mere pattern recognition.
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How do you explain the way we sometimes instantly see a solution to a problem that had resisted attack for a long time? Insight, you mean. I've modeled that with my colleague Craig Kaplan in an experiment called the Mutilated Checkerboard. We showed subjects a square checkerboard and covered it with 32 dominoes -- one for every two squares. Then we cut off the upper-left and lower-right corners of the board and asked the subjects to either cover it with 31 dominoes or prove that it can't be done. Many couldn't, even after working for hours. When they finally did, they did so in a flash.
Representation is everything.
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For example, if you don't color the board red and black, the problem becomes much harder. That's because the colors give a big hint -- they point to a pattern in the way the dominoes cover alternate squares. You're filling in the blanks for them, the way a computer programmer specifies every last step in an algorithm. I have been much involved since about in an experiment, which is no longer an experiment, for teaching algebra and geometry in middle schools in China.
We're in maybe schools, and it's spreading. Explore Now. Buy As Gift. Overview The books in this bite-sized new series contain no complicated techniques or tricky materials, making them ideal for the busy, the time-pressured or the merely curious. Be A Number Genius is a fun and completely absorbing guide to the magic of numbers, and how to harness their power to improve your professional progress, make better decisions, and solve everyday problems. Product Details About the Author.
About the Author Jonathan Hancock is a teacher and broadcaster. In he became the World Memory Champion; he is also a learning skills consultant and has written numerous books. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. Attack Number 60 War Comic Book. View Product. This is a classic television comic book from the 's This is a classic television comic book from the 's.
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