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Understanding the physical basis of qualities, such as redness or pain, has been particularly challenging. David Chalmers has called this the hard problem of consciousness.

Towards An Integrative Theory Of Consciousness: Part 2 (An Anthology Of Various Other Models)

For example, research on ideasthesia shows that qualia are organised into a semantic-like network. Nevertheless, it is clear that the relationship between a physical entity such as light and a perceptual quality such as color is extraordinarily complex and indirect, as demonstrated by a variety of optical illusions such as neon color spreading.

In neuroscience, a great deal of effort has gone into investigating how the perceived world of conscious awareness is constructed inside the brain. The process is generally thought to involve two primary mechanisms: 1 hierarchical processing of sensory inputs, and 2 memory.

Signals arising from sensory organs are transmitted to the brain and then processed in a series of stages, which extract multiple types of information from the raw input. In the visual system, for example, sensory signals from the eyes are transmitted to the thalamus and then to the primary visual cortex ; inside the cerebral cortex they are sent to areas that extract features such as three-dimensional structure, shape, color, and motion.

First, it allows sensory information to be evaluated in the context of previous experience. Second, and even more importantly, working memory allows information to be integrated over time so that it can generate a stable representation of the world— Gerald Edelman expressed this point vividly by titling one of his books about consciousness The Remembered Present. Bayesian models of the brain are probabilistic inference models, in which the brain takes advantage of prior knowledge to interpret uncertain sensory inputs in order to formulate a conscious percept; Bayesian models have successfully predicted many perceptual phenomena in vision and the nonvisual senses.

Despite the large amount of information available, many important aspects of perception remain mysterious. A great deal is known about low-level signal processing in sensory systems. However, how sensory systems, action systems, and language systems interact are poorly understood. At a deeper level, there are still basic conceptual issues that remain unresolved. Gibson and roboticist Rodney Brooks , who both argued in favor of "intelligence without representation". The medical approach to consciousness is practically oriented.

It derives from a need to treat people whose brain function has been impaired as a result of disease, brain damage, toxins, or drugs. In medicine, conceptual distinctions are considered useful to the degree that they can help to guide treatments. Whereas the philosophical approach to consciousness focuses on its fundamental nature and its contents, the medical approach focuses on the amount of consciousness a person has: in medicine, consciousness is assessed as a "level" ranging from coma and brain death at the low end, to full alertness and purposeful responsiveness at the high end.

Consciousness is of concern to patients and physicians, especially neurologists and anesthesiologists. Patients may suffer from disorders of consciousness, or may need to be anesthetized for a surgical procedure. Physicians may perform consciousness-related interventions such as instructing the patient to sleep, administering general anesthesia , or inducing medical coma. In medicine, consciousness is examined using a set of procedures known as neuropsychological assessment. The simple procedure begins by asking whether the patient is able to move and react to physical stimuli.

If so, the next question is whether the patient can respond in a meaningful way to questions and commands. If so, the patient is asked for name, current location, and current day and time. The more complex procedure is known as a neurological examination , and is usually carried out by a neurologist in a hospital setting. A formal neurological examination runs through a precisely delineated series of tests, beginning with tests for basic sensorimotor reflexes, and culminating with tests for sophisticated use of language.

The outcome may be summarized using the Glasgow Coma Scale , which yields a number in the range 3—5, with a score of 3 to 8 indicating coma, and 15 indicating full consciousness. The Glasgow Coma Scale has three subscales, measuring the best motor response ranging from "no motor response" to "obeys commands" , the best eye response ranging from "no eye opening" to "eyes opening spontaneously" and the best verbal response ranging from "no verbal response" to "fully oriented".

There is also a simpler pediatric version of the scale, for children too young to be able to use language. In , an experimental procedure was developed to measure degrees of consciousness, the procedure involving stimulating the brain with a magnetic pulse, measuring resulting waves of electrical activity, and developing a consciousness score based on the complexity of the brain activity. Medical conditions that inhibit consciousness are considered disorders of consciousness. One of the most striking disorders of consciousness goes by the name anosognosia , a Greek-derived term meaning 'unawareness of disease'.

This is a condition in which patients are disabled in some way, most commonly as a result of a stroke , but either misunderstand the nature of the problem or deny that there is anything wrong with them. Patients with hemispatial neglect are often paralyzed on the right side of the body, but sometimes deny being unable to move. When questioned about the obvious problem, the patient may avoid giving a direct answer, or may give an explanation that doesn't make sense. Patients with hemispatial neglect may also fail to recognize paralyzed parts of their bodies: one frequently mentioned case is of a man who repeatedly tried to throw his own paralyzed right leg out of the bed he was lying in, and when asked what he was doing, complained that somebody had put a dead leg into the bed with him.

An even more striking type of anosognosia is Anton—Babinski syndrome , a rarely occurring condition in which patients become blind but claim to be able to see normally, and persist in this claim in spite of all evidence to the contrary. William James is usually credited with popularizing the idea that human consciousness flows like a stream, in his Principles of Psychology of According to James, the "stream of thought" is governed by five characteristics: " 1 Every thought tends to be part of a personal consciousness.

Buddhist teachings describe that consciousness manifests moment to moment as sense impressions and mental phenomena that are continuously changing. The moment-by-moment manifestation of the mind-stream is said to happen in every person all the time. It even happens in a scientist who analyses various phenomena in the world, or analyses the material body including the organ brain. In the west, the primary impact of the idea has been on literature rather than science: stream of consciousness as a narrative mode means writing in a way that attempts to portray the moment-to-moment thoughts and experiences of a character.

This technique perhaps had its beginnings in the monologues of Shakespeare's plays, and reached its fullest development in the novels of James Joyce and Virginia Woolf , although it has also been used by many other noted writers. Here for example is a passage from Joyce's Ulysses about the thoughts of Molly Bloom:. To most philosophers, the word "consciousness" connotes the relationship between the mind and the world.

To writers on spiritual or religious topics, it frequently connotes the relationship between the mind and God, or the relationship between the mind and deeper truths that are thought to be more fundamental than the physical world. The mystical psychiatrist Richard Maurice Bucke distinguished between three types of consciousness: 'Simple Consciousness', awareness of the body, possessed by many animals; 'Self Consciousness', awareness of being aware, possessed only by humans; and 'Cosmic Consciousness', awareness of the life and order of the universe, possessed only by humans who are enlightened.

Wilber described consciousness as a spectrum with ordinary awareness at one end, and more profound types of awareness at higher levels. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with conscientiousness. This article is about cognition. For other uses, see Consciousness disambiguation and Conscious disambiguation. Main article: Mind—body problem. Main article: Problem of other minds. See also: Animal consciousness. See also: Artificial consciousness.

Schema of the neural processes underlying consciousness, from Christof Koch. Main article: Anosognosia. Main article: Stream of consciousness psychology. Further information: Level of consciousness esotericism and Higher consciousness. Medicine portal Mind and Brain portal Philosophy portal. Retrieved June 4, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Psychology of Consciousness.

Prentice Hall. In Honderich T ed. The Oxford companion to philosophy. Oxford University Press. In Max Velmans; Susan Schneider eds. The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Questions of Consciousness. London: Routledge. The Nature of Consciousness: Philosophical debates. Fins; N. Schiff; K. Foley Australia: University of Adelaide. Retrieved August 20, A Dictionary of the English Language. Translated by Scott St. Lewis Studies in words. Cambridge University Press. University Press. The whole works, Volume 2. Hodges and Smith. Dictionary of Untranslatables.

A Philosophical Lexicon. Princeton University Press. Molenaar British Journal for the History of Philosophy. Consciousness: from perception to reflection in the history of philosophy. Oxford Dictionaries - English. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Macmillan Dictionary of Psychology.

Philosophical Studies. Antony Journal of Consciousness Studies. The Concept of Mind. University of Chicago Press. Block; O. Flanagan; G. Guzeldere eds. The Nature of Consciousness: Philosophical Debates. MIT Press. Consciousness Explained. Archived from the original on Consciousness and Experience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Philosophy of Man: selected readings. Goodwill Trading Co. Stanford University. November 5, Retrieved Edward N. Zalta ed. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Summer Edition.

Philosophy of Mind: A Comprehensive Introduction. John Wiley and Sons. Ann Thomson ed. Machine man and other writings. Basic Books. New York: Harcourt Press. The Quest for Consciousness. In: P. Zelazo, M. Moscovitch, and E. Thompson eds. Cambridge University Press, New York.

December 25, Physical Review E. Bibcode : PhRvE.. The Mystery of Consciousness. The New York Review of Books. Gennaro Scientific American Mind. Other Minds. Australasian Journal of Philosophy. Mortal Questions. In Douglas Hofstadter; Daniel Dennett eds. The Mind's I. Animal Minds: Beyond Cognition to Consciousness. SUNY Press. Note: In many stories the Golem was mindless, but some gave it emotions or thoughts. Searle Scientific American.

Bibcode : SciAm. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Spring Edition. Journal of Mind and Behavior. Catching ourselves in the act: situated activity, interactive emergence, evolution, and human thought. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Solso Ed. Consciousness recovered: Psychological functions and origins of thought. Philadelphia: John Benjamins. A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness. Perception: Theory, Development, and Organization.

Psychology Press. Perception and Psychophysics. In Steven Laureys ed. The Boundaries of Consciousness: Neurobiology and Neuropathology. Marcel; E. Bisiach eds. Consciousness in Modern Science. Heterophenomenology explained". The Conscious Mind. Giacino; C. Smart Current Opinion in Neurology. Nature Reviews Neuroscience.

Bibcode : Sci Trends in Neurosciences. I of the vortex: from neurons to self. Nature Neuroscience. Archived from the original PDF on Journal of Neurophysiology. Science Translational Medicine. Butler; Paul R. Manger; B. Bibcode : Natur. Edelman and Giulio Tononi Cotterill Progress in Neurobiology.

Eccles Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. Lindahl; Paul R. Manger; Ann B. Butler Frontiers in Psychology. Huxley The Fortnightly Review. James Lindahl Journal of Theoretical Biology. Popper , John C. The Self and Its Brain. Springer International. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Bibcode : PNAS.. Psychological Review. Budiansky The Free Press.

Nichols; T. Grantham Philosophy of Science. Bibcode : PNAS Phenomenal Consciousness: A Naturalistic Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Polger Fetzer ed. Consciousness Evolving. John Benjamins. Maley; Gualtiero Piccinini Journal of the American Philosophical Association. Psychological Bulletin. Psychology 2nd Ed. New York: Worth Publishers. Allan Hobson ; Edward F. Pace-Schott; Robert Stickgold In Edward F. Sleep and Dreaming: Scientific Advances and Reconsiderations. Content analysis of subjective experiences in partial epileptic seizures. Murphy; S. Donovan; E. Taylor Institute of Noetic Sciences.

States of Consciousness. Studerus; A. Gamma; F. Vollenweider Bibcode : PLoSO Introduction to Phenomenology. Anders Ericsson In Anthony Jack; Andreas Roepstorff eds. Trusting the Subject? Imprint Academic. Note: translating Kant's terminology into English is often difficult. Shevell In Steven K. Shevell ed.

Consciousness

The Science of Color. Peter Michael; Stephan Hacker eds. Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscience. Journal of Vision. Journal of the Optical Society of America. Artificial Intelligence. In Steven Laureys; Giulio Tononi eds. Academic Press. N Engl J Med. Mark Durand; David H. Barlow Essentials of Abnormal Psychology. Cengage Learning. Note: A patient who can additionally describe the current situation may be referred to as "oriented times four".

Archived from the original on August 15, The two most widely accepted altered states are sleep and dreaming. Although dream sleep and non-dream sleep appear very similar to an outside observer, each is associated with a distinct pattern of brain activity, metabolic activity, and eye movement; each is also associated with a distinct pattern of experience and cognition.

During ordinary non-dream sleep, people who are awakened report only vague and sketchy thoughts, and their experiences do not cohere into a continuous narrative. During dream sleep, in contrast, people who are awakened report rich and detailed experiences in which events form a continuous progression, which may however be interrupted by bizarre or fantastic intrusions.

Both dream and non-dream states are associated with severe disruption of memory: it usually disappears in seconds during the non-dream state, and in minutes after awakening from a dream unless actively refreshed. Research conducted on the effects of partial epileptic seizures on consciousness found that patients who suffer from partial epileptic seizures experience altered states of consciousness. Studies found that when measuring the qualitative features during partial epileptic seizures, patients exhibited an increase in arousal and became absorbed in the experience of the seizure, followed by difficulty in focusing and shifting attention.

A variety of psychoactive drugs , including alcohol , have notable effects on consciousness. The brain mechanisms underlying these effects are not as well understood as those induced by use of alcohol , [] but there is substantial evidence that alterations in the brain system that uses the chemical neurotransmitter serotonin play an essential role. There has been some research into physiological changes in yogis and people who practise various techniques of meditation.

Some research with brain waves during meditation has reported differences between those corresponding to ordinary relaxation and those corresponding to meditation. It has been disputed, however, whether there is enough evidence to count these as physiologically distinct states of consciousness.

The most extensive study of the characteristics of altered states of consciousness was made by psychologist Charles Tart in the s and s. Tart analyzed a state of consciousness as made up of a number of component processes, including exteroception sensing the external world ; interoception sensing the body ; input-processing seeing meaning ; emotions; memory; time sense; sense of identity; evaluation and cognitive processing; motor output; and interaction with the environment.

The components that Tart identified have not, however, been validated by empirical studies. Research in this area has not yet reached firm conclusions, but a recent questionnaire-based study identified eleven significant factors contributing to drug-induced states of consciousness: experience of unity; spiritual experience; blissful state; insightfulness; disembodiment; impaired control and cognition; anxiety; complex imagery; elementary imagery; audio-visual synesthesia ; and changed meaning of percepts. Phenomenology is a method of inquiry that attempts to examine the structure of consciousness in its own right, putting aside problems regarding the relationship of consciousness to the physical world.

This approach was first proposed by the philosopher Edmund Husserl , and later elaborated by other philosophers and scientists. In philosophy , phenomenology has largely been devoted to fundamental metaphysical questions, such as the nature of intentionality "aboutness". In psychology , phenomenology largely has meant attempting to investigate consciousness using the method of introspection , which means looking into one's own mind and reporting what one observes.

This method fell into disrepute in the early twentieth century because of grave doubts about its reliability, but has been rehabilitated to some degree, especially when used in combination with techniques for examining brain activity.

The Evolution of Consciousness - Yuval Noah Harari Panel Discussion at the WEF Annual Meeting

Introspectively, the world of conscious experience seems to have considerable structure. Immanuel Kant asserted that the world as we perceive it is organized according to a set of fundamental "intuitions", which include 'object' we perceive the world as a set of distinct things ; 'shape'; 'quality' color, warmth, etc. Understanding the physical basis of qualities, such as redness or pain, has been particularly challenging.

David Chalmers has called this the hard problem of consciousness. For example, research on ideasthesia shows that qualia are organised into a semantic-like network. Nevertheless, it is clear that the relationship between a physical entity such as light and a perceptual quality such as color is extraordinarily complex and indirect, as demonstrated by a variety of optical illusions such as neon color spreading.

In neuroscience, a great deal of effort has gone into investigating how the perceived world of conscious awareness is constructed inside the brain. The process is generally thought to involve two primary mechanisms: 1 hierarchical processing of sensory inputs, and 2 memory. Signals arising from sensory organs are transmitted to the brain and then processed in a series of stages, which extract multiple types of information from the raw input. In the visual system, for example, sensory signals from the eyes are transmitted to the thalamus and then to the primary visual cortex ; inside the cerebral cortex they are sent to areas that extract features such as three-dimensional structure, shape, color, and motion.

First, it allows sensory information to be evaluated in the context of previous experience. Second, and even more importantly, working memory allows information to be integrated over time so that it can generate a stable representation of the world— Gerald Edelman expressed this point vividly by titling one of his books about consciousness The Remembered Present. Bayesian models of the brain are probabilistic inference models, in which the brain takes advantage of prior knowledge to interpret uncertain sensory inputs in order to formulate a conscious percept; Bayesian models have successfully predicted many perceptual phenomena in vision and the nonvisual senses.

Despite the large amount of information available, many important aspects of perception remain mysterious. A great deal is known about low-level signal processing in sensory systems. However, how sensory systems, action systems, and language systems interact are poorly understood. At a deeper level, there are still basic conceptual issues that remain unresolved. Gibson and roboticist Rodney Brooks , who both argued in favor of "intelligence without representation".

The medical approach to consciousness is practically oriented. It derives from a need to treat people whose brain function has been impaired as a result of disease, brain damage, toxins, or drugs. In medicine, conceptual distinctions are considered useful to the degree that they can help to guide treatments. Whereas the philosophical approach to consciousness focuses on its fundamental nature and its contents, the medical approach focuses on the amount of consciousness a person has: in medicine, consciousness is assessed as a "level" ranging from coma and brain death at the low end, to full alertness and purposeful responsiveness at the high end.

Consciousness is of concern to patients and physicians, especially neurologists and anesthesiologists. Patients may suffer from disorders of consciousness, or may need to be anesthetized for a surgical procedure. Physicians may perform consciousness-related interventions such as instructing the patient to sleep, administering general anesthesia , or inducing medical coma.

In medicine, consciousness is examined using a set of procedures known as neuropsychological assessment. The simple procedure begins by asking whether the patient is able to move and react to physical stimuli. If so, the next question is whether the patient can respond in a meaningful way to questions and commands. If so, the patient is asked for name, current location, and current day and time.

The more complex procedure is known as a neurological examination , and is usually carried out by a neurologist in a hospital setting. A formal neurological examination runs through a precisely delineated series of tests, beginning with tests for basic sensorimotor reflexes, and culminating with tests for sophisticated use of language. The outcome may be summarized using the Glasgow Coma Scale , which yields a number in the range 3—5, with a score of 3 to 8 indicating coma, and 15 indicating full consciousness.

The Glasgow Coma Scale has three subscales, measuring the best motor response ranging from "no motor response" to "obeys commands" , the best eye response ranging from "no eye opening" to "eyes opening spontaneously" and the best verbal response ranging from "no verbal response" to "fully oriented". There is also a simpler pediatric version of the scale, for children too young to be able to use language. In , an experimental procedure was developed to measure degrees of consciousness, the procedure involving stimulating the brain with a magnetic pulse, measuring resulting waves of electrical activity, and developing a consciousness score based on the complexity of the brain activity.

Medical conditions that inhibit consciousness are considered disorders of consciousness. One of the most striking disorders of consciousness goes by the name anosognosia , a Greek-derived term meaning 'unawareness of disease'. This is a condition in which patients are disabled in some way, most commonly as a result of a stroke , but either misunderstand the nature of the problem or deny that there is anything wrong with them.

Patients with hemispatial neglect are often paralyzed on the right side of the body, but sometimes deny being unable to move. When questioned about the obvious problem, the patient may avoid giving a direct answer, or may give an explanation that doesn't make sense.

Patients with hemispatial neglect may also fail to recognize paralyzed parts of their bodies: one frequently mentioned case is of a man who repeatedly tried to throw his own paralyzed right leg out of the bed he was lying in, and when asked what he was doing, complained that somebody had put a dead leg into the bed with him. An even more striking type of anosognosia is Anton—Babinski syndrome , a rarely occurring condition in which patients become blind but claim to be able to see normally, and persist in this claim in spite of all evidence to the contrary. William James is usually credited with popularizing the idea that human consciousness flows like a stream, in his Principles of Psychology of According to James, the "stream of thought" is governed by five characteristics: " 1 Every thought tends to be part of a personal consciousness.

Buddhist teachings describe that consciousness manifests moment to moment as sense impressions and mental phenomena that are continuously changing. The moment-by-moment manifestation of the mind-stream is said to happen in every person all the time. It even happens in a scientist who analyses various phenomena in the world, or analyses the material body including the organ brain. In the west, the primary impact of the idea has been on literature rather than science: stream of consciousness as a narrative mode means writing in a way that attempts to portray the moment-to-moment thoughts and experiences of a character.

This technique perhaps had its beginnings in the monologues of Shakespeare's plays, and reached its fullest development in the novels of James Joyce and Virginia Woolf , although it has also been used by many other noted writers. Here for example is a passage from Joyce's Ulysses about the thoughts of Molly Bloom:.

To most philosophers, the word "consciousness" connotes the relationship between the mind and the world. To writers on spiritual or religious topics, it frequently connotes the relationship between the mind and God, or the relationship between the mind and deeper truths that are thought to be more fundamental than the physical world. The mystical psychiatrist Richard Maurice Bucke distinguished between three types of consciousness: 'Simple Consciousness', awareness of the body, possessed by many animals; 'Self Consciousness', awareness of being aware, possessed only by humans; and 'Cosmic Consciousness', awareness of the life and order of the universe, possessed only by humans who are enlightened.

Wilber described consciousness as a spectrum with ordinary awareness at one end, and more profound types of awareness at higher levels. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with conscientiousness. This article is about cognition.

An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers.

For other uses, see Consciousness disambiguation and Conscious disambiguation. Main article: Mind—body problem. Main article: Problem of other minds. See also: Animal consciousness. See also: Artificial consciousness. Schema of the neural processes underlying consciousness, from Christof Koch. Main article: Anosognosia. Main article: Stream of consciousness psychology. Further information: Level of consciousness esotericism and Higher consciousness. Medicine portal Mind and Brain portal Philosophy portal.

Retrieved June 4, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Psychology of Consciousness. Prentice Hall. In Honderich T ed. The Oxford companion to philosophy. Oxford University Press. In Max Velmans; Susan Schneider eds. The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Questions of Consciousness. London: Routledge. The Nature of Consciousness: Philosophical debates. Fins; N. Schiff; K. Foley Australia: University of Adelaide. Retrieved August 20, A Dictionary of the English Language.

Translated by Scott St. Lewis Studies in words. Cambridge University Press. University Press. The whole works, Volume 2. Hodges and Smith. Dictionary of Untranslatables. A Philosophical Lexicon. Princeton University Press. Molenaar British Journal for the History of Philosophy. Consciousness: from perception to reflection in the history of philosophy.

Oxford Dictionaries - English. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Macmillan Dictionary of Psychology. Philosophical Studies. Antony Journal of Consciousness Studies. The Concept of Mind. University of Chicago Press.

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Block; O. Flanagan; G. Guzeldere eds.

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The Nature of Consciousness: Philosophical Debates. MIT Press. Consciousness Explained. Archived from the original on Consciousness and Experience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Philosophy of Man: selected readings. Goodwill Trading Co. Stanford University. November 5, Retrieved Edward N. Zalta ed. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Summer Edition. Philosophy of Mind: A Comprehensive Introduction.

John Wiley and Sons. Ann Thomson ed. Machine man and other writings. Basic Books. New York: Harcourt Press. The Quest for Consciousness. In: P. Zelazo, M. Moscovitch, and E. Thompson eds. Cambridge University Press, New York. December 25, Physical Review E. Bibcode : PhRvE.. The Mystery of Consciousness. The New York Review of Books. Gennaro Scientific American Mind. Other Minds. Australasian Journal of Philosophy.

Mortal Questions. In Douglas Hofstadter; Daniel Dennett eds. The Mind's I. Animal Minds: Beyond Cognition to Consciousness. SUNY Press. Note: In many stories the Golem was mindless, but some gave it emotions or thoughts. Searle Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Spring Edition. Journal of Mind and Behavior.

Catching ourselves in the act: situated activity, interactive emergence, evolution, and human thought. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Solso Ed. Consciousness recovered: Psychological functions and origins of thought. Philadelphia: John Benjamins. A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness. Perception: Theory, Development, and Organization. Psychology Press.

Perception and Psychophysics. In Steven Laureys ed. The Boundaries of Consciousness: Neurobiology and Neuropathology. Marcel; E. Bisiach eds. Consciousness in Modern Science. Heterophenomenology explained". The Conscious Mind. Giacino; C. Smart Current Opinion in Neurology. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. Bibcode : Sci Trends in Neurosciences. I of the vortex: from neurons to self. Nature Neuroscience. Archived from the original PDF on Journal of Neurophysiology. Science Translational Medicine.

Butler; Paul R. Manger; B. Bibcode : Natur. Edelman and Giulio Tononi Cotterill Progress in Neurobiology. Eccles Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. Lindahl; Paul R. Manger; Ann B. Butler Frontiers in Psychology. Huxley The Fortnightly Review. James Lindahl Journal of Theoretical Biology. Popper , John C. The Self and Its Brain. Springer International. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Bibcode : PNAS.. Psychological Review.

Outline of the Article

Budiansky The Free Press. Nichols; T. Grantham Philosophy of Science. Bibcode : PNAS Phenomenal Consciousness: A Naturalistic Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Polger Fetzer ed. Consciousness Evolving. John Benjamins. Maley; Gualtiero Piccinini Journal of the American Philosophical Association. Psychological Bulletin. Psychology 2nd Ed. New York: Worth Publishers. Allan Hobson ; Edward F. Pace-Schott; Robert Stickgold In Edward F.

Sleep and Dreaming: Scientific Advances and Reconsiderations. Content analysis of subjective experiences in partial epileptic seizures. Murphy; S. Donovan; E. Taylor Institute of Noetic Sciences. States of Consciousness. Studerus; A. Gamma; F. Vollenweider Bibcode : PLoSO Introduction to Phenomenology.