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Les réflexions générales d'Euripide : analyse littéraire et critique textuelle

That has a tremendous effect on the listener and it creates the proper traumatic emphasis and suffering violence or violent suffering that is able to twist our hearts. These moments are more than beautiful, they are divine. So we forget that the recording is old and that the microphones of the time were not that great, especially in range and that they more or less crushed some peaks in pitch or intensity. It is yet such a pleasure to rediscover that performance.

The general setting is amazing. Some kind of rocky seaside coast with the sea in the back. On that coast the Argo is brought in the middle of the first act to stay. This ship will be the very symbol of the Argonauts, hence all the context behind the plot, but also the locale of the drama. From a boat bringing the Golden Fleece back from Colchis it will become the heart of the drama in the second act since it will be the living though abandoned witness of the love affair and marriage between Jason and Medea, a Medea who is abandoned just like the ship is and both by Jason.

In the third act it will be the seat of a tempest at the beginning and then of the furious eruption of hellish fire and the supernatural descent into hell. At the end the ship is hanging over the stage in mid air. This visualization of the plot is great. It also chooses to set the action in some kind of bourgeois late 19th century society. That is in a way funny, though slightly distorting or anachronic. The two women at the beginning are two simple servants, no more than anonymous women. Here they become some kind of second rank bourgeois women.

The servants themselves have uniforms. But this is secondary, though I find this opening scene too explicit as for that time reference. It becomes a lot lighter and timeless later. The composition in general is systematically elaborate and rich from beginning to end. No recitatives. The dramatic nature of the language is systematically embodied in couples or at most triads of people singing at the same time.

Are they singing together? When it is Jason and Glauce in the first act, yes though Glauce is expressing a great fear and Jason is trying to reassure her that he will be faithful. But all the other couples or triads are systematically confrontations but these confrontations can be of two types: real confrontational dialogues that are more arguments than duets, or parallel monologues that sound like duets but are not.

They sing either against each other or one on top of the other or one under the other or inverting the order constantly backward and forward; upward and downward. This very brutal confrontational style corresponds of course to the situation. Brutal it has to be between Jason and Medea in the first act, and again, though shorter in the second act, and yet in that case he nearly got tricked by Medea, and of course savagely brutal at the end of the third act.

Brutal it has to be when it is Medea who confronts Cleon about a one day delay and the children, and she is such a good liar that he yields. In the third act when Medea is with the children and Neris the brutal confrontation is between the two sides of Medea, the mother and her natural maternal love on one side and the vengeful betrayed wife on the other side. Neris in this scene is just some kind of protection for the children and sinister messenger at the very end to announce the death of the children.

One exception to this confrontational style is the long extremely sad monologue of Neris in the second act where she compares her fate as a slave who has no real personal home to go to and the fate of an exile who has to go everywhere and stop nowhere. This long monologue is not an aria.

It is a deeply mournful dirge that reflects the time when this opera was composed, in Paris. The slaves can always rebel, they will never be able to get free and Medea is a foreigner, is a barbarous non-Greek person and hence is an ethnic slave just as Neris who is also from Colchis is a social slave.

Slaves from all over the world unite! A beautiful dream that ends in blood. And yet there is a lot more in this production. They have tried to center it on normal people, hence they have materialize the magic or dramatic elements and they even demonstrate the opening of the knife and it is caressed by Medea as if it were some pet. That acting gives to the characters a tremendous humanity, perverted humanity maybe yet humanity all the same, so that the final crime that is so revolting in many ways and is duly punished by the damnation of Medea and later Jason who will meet on the bank of the Styx makes the barbaric act the result of passion, love, betrayal, male chauvinism and female vengefulness.

In a way it becomes human and it is a simple ordinary familiar act like all those we can see in the press everyday about a father killing his wife and all his children and either killing himself last or disappearing into thin air. That play, that opera, that acting, that production are the absolute demonstration that man is not good originally and by principle, but ambiguous, ambivalent and that circumstances might make him or her lean towards good or towards evil. There is nothing divine or satanic in that, just plain human nature.

And important changes are introduced.

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It starts when Medea, Jason and their children arrive in Corinth running away from Iolcos after the death or assassination of the king Pelias. The first scene is in fact Medea burying on the beach the chest of her witchcraft with all her charms and tools, including her wand and the Golden Fleece. Then comes Creon and Jason begs for hospitality. The invitation is extended to the children and even Medea. This last one is invited by Creusa herself. But some herald arrives from Delphi where the Amphictyons of the Amphityonic League are administering some kind of justice over the various independent Greek kingdoms and cities.

They were seized by the son of Pelias and they decided that the culprits responsible for the death of Pelias are Jason, Medea and the children. The herald asks for these to be delivered to him to be taken back to Delphi for trial and execution. Creon refuses for Jason and the kids who are taken care of by Creusa.

But he refuses to extend his protection to Medea and banishes her from Corinth. At this moment the kids are called by Medea and they refuse to come. From there the delirium that seizes Medea over is going to work its deadly curse. Creon brings the chest some slaves have recovered from the beach and asks Medea to open it and deliver the Golden Fleece to him. She does open the chest and delivers the Golden Fleece but at the same time she recuperates her sorcery and witchcraft, and her vengeance is going to build up, especially when Jason proposes her to take one child but to let the children choose and both children refuse bluntly to go with her.

She takes them in and lets them sleep while she sends her slave Gora to Creusa to deliver some presents. When Gora comes back the palace erupts into flames. We will learn later Creusa is dead. Creon comes but Medea goes inside where the kids are. The kids are killed by their mother and it is Gora who announces it.

He is rejected. In fact Greek mythology is slightly more complex. Phrixus and Helle were the children of Athamus and the goddess Nephele. When Athamas remarried, the children's stepmother, Ino, became jealous of them and plotted to get rid of them. She arranged to have seed-corn roasted so that it would not sprout. When the crop failed, messengers were sent to consult the oracle at Delphi, and Ino persuaded the messengers to say that that the oracle required the sacrifice of Phrixus to restore fertility to the fields.

Before Phrixus could be sacrificed, however, Nephele sent a golden ram which carried both children off through the air. She then abandons Jason to his exile. This version is interesting because it makes it a lot more credible than the monstrous vision that is generally given. Jason betrays Medea to save his own head as for the death of Pelias and he brings all charges onto Medea to get through. Then the children rejects their mother who frightens them. Then she is only the toy in the hands of fate: she kills her rival Creusa, both as the one who is stealing Jason and stealing her children.

Then she kills the children who reject her as their mother. Then she goes away on a sacred visit to Delphi and abandons Jason to his exile. It will be used later by Aribert Reimann to write the libretto of his opera Medea created in Frankfurt in It starts at the foot of the walls of Corinth with Medea burying her sorcery chest along with the Golden Fleece.

Medea is singing alone a long dirge at her fate and Gora her nurse comes up to widen the commentary and tell us what this burying means. The contrast of the soprano and the mezzo-soprano is very effective in a music that unwraps its sentences like some ribbon in a wind, or maybe a little bit more than a wind. Gora tells us the story of the flight of Medea, Jason and the children after the death of Pelias in Iolcos. She is also in a way the accuser reminding Medea of her crimes or acts.

Medea compares the burying of the chest to the burying of the past. She sounds completely cut off from reality thanks to the music, lighter, more erratic and more distant in the back. Her dream of a new life is shrilly contradicted by the music that introduces Jason who requires Medea to become a Greek woman and he gets Gora away since she reminds him of Colchis too much. Jason asserts his paternity on his children.

He reminds her of how people look at her as a barbarian, and she feels betrayed in a way, already dispossessed by her impossibility to push aside her origin. Kreon comes and greets Jason as a stranger but Jason defends himself. He defends himself against the accusation of being responsible for the death of Pelias. But he does not answer how he died.

She refuses to believe what is being said about Jason. She defends him and questions Medea who asserts she did not kill and then father and daughter turn to the kids. At once a rivalry appears between Kreusa who wants the kids and Medea who requires her motherhood to be respected. Kreon invites Jason and the kids inside but not Medea. Kreusa intervenes and invites her.

Kreusa calls for understanding to her father who authorizes her to be taken by Kreusa. But yet he maintains his decision to keep Medea out of the city because of the fear she inspires. The musical interlude before the second act is dominated by percussions and wind instruments and it creates a very bleak and menacing atmosphere out of which Medea and Kreusa come a capella and then accompanied by single notes on the piano at first. Kreusa tries to teach Medea how to play music on a harp but Medea is unable to do it.

When Jason arrives Medea tries to sing a song to him, on the advice from Kreuza to sing a song he likes. But he gets angry at her insistence. And when he accepts to listen, she is unable to play nor sing. Jason reminds the two ladies of the song Medea sang to charm the dragon and then accuses Medea to only carry hate and death in her flaming eyes.

Jason rejects Medea because of her fiery and fierce eyes. The fact that the herald is a countertenor gives to his intervention an unreal sound, a somewhat supernatural sound. He is of course speaking from afar, Delphi, from a higher court, the Amphictyons, and he brings a decision of this court and a sentence at the same time that cannot be refused because it is supposed to be the voice of the gods.

She was called in to cure his sickness and she practiced a limited bleeding on him, but then apparently things went wrong and his bandages were ripped off and he bled to death. The herald is like speaking under shock in successive puffs of a few words stringing up the tale with the music joining the various pieces of the puzzle together. He finally gets some amplitude when he dictates the sentence of the court: Jason and Medea must be banished. Kreon then puts Jason under his protection and he announces at the same time he is going to marry his daughter Kreusa to him, and Medea has till next morning to go away: she is banished, but not the children.

Medea protests in an outstanding forceful self-defense that negates the accusation. She announces she is going but will be back for vengeance. The music at this moment is a real symphony of hate and discord that sounds so strong and powerful that we feel some mysterious hand behind the curse, banishment and vengeance. But it is when Kreon discovers Medea is the one who has the Golden Fleece. Medea comes and refuses to go if she cannot speak to her children.

A change in music and tone brings a Medea in confrontation with Jason alone who is trying to charm Jason and maybe seduce him into giving her what she wants, hypnotizing him.

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She evokes love as her motivation and invites Jason to fly with her. When she asks for the children, he refuses and yields: she can get and take one away, but the children will have to choose themselves. And the decision of the children is negative. Then she invokes demons and loses all control over herself. But she realizes she does not have any power without her chest. She exchanges the opening of the chest and the delivery of the Golden Fleece against the permission to have the children for a last visit.

And after opening the chest she gets her powers back too. Gora then takes the bewitched present to Kreusa when the kids arrive. Then she expresses her intention not to let her children to a stranger and it is when the cataclysm hits Kreusa and the palace. The music at this moment is perfect for that kind of upside down din and disorder, when the children are discovered dead in their turn.

Percussions, drums of all types and pitches are used to evoke this diabolical ending of the vengeance. We can then move to the fourth act and conclusion of the opera. Jason and Medea meet in some wilderness, both banished and forever estranged one from the other. Jason tries to get her back to accompany him in his solitude by declaring his love anew but she rejects him and announces her decision to go to Delphi and bring the Golden Fleece back to where it belongs. The music during that whole scene is suspended in thin air, notes separated and not even echoing one another, out of phase, in total disarrayed disorder.

And the last word is just what the composer wants us to believe, that this story was all nothing but a dream. But the story has really become a nightmare in our civilization and culture. So we can consider it is representative of the first production. The setting is at once visually striking. Only rocks and no vegetation of any sort. The palace itself is a glass box high up over this wasteland with a collapsible staircase for Kreon and Kreusa to come down, but the floor of that box can come down for the second act that takes place in the palace. This contrast of shape and general outlook of the two locales plus the use of the lighting to makes the wasteland natural with day and night and the palace artificial with constant artificial light is very effective, and the final transformation of the wasteland into the exile land of both Medea and Jason is a perfect continuation.

The stage director and costume designer decided to entirely project the opposition of red and white in the text onto the costumes. Medea and the children are dressed in red at the beginning, and Gora the Colchian slave in some kind of purple. The Corinthians are in white. Jason who is dressed in some kaki color at the beginning, him being a soldier, dresses in white when he is accepted by Kreon.

Later the children will be dressed in white after having been accepted in Corinth. The final dressing changes are also striking since Medea will be dressed in the Golden Fleece, over her red dress, and Jason will just be huddled up on the stage against a rock wrapped up in rags supposedly deprived of clothing of any sort. The opera is thus visually centered on the opposition between Greeks and Barbarians, Greeks and foreigners, Greeks and exiles.

Jason is shown all along as an obnoxious man who took Medea for sexual satisfaction and nothing else. His real love was Kreusa and both elements show as soon as Jason comes on stage and rejects Medea in all possible ways, gestures, attitudes, tone, language, and of course dressing code. It shows when Kreusa appears and especially when Kreusa tries to teach Medea a Greek song and then Jason comes and he is at least gross and cruel even when Kreusa tries to make him behave more humanely.

He has rejected Medea completely for reasons that have to do with her ethnic origin more than anything else. His love declaration at the end appears as a cynical way to get some kind of death comrade, a companion to die with. The Herald scene is phenomenal. The choice of a countertenor is a very good idea, but the way he is dressed in a silver long coat and his attendants in dark grey long coats make him and them stand out as some kind of angels or messengers of the gods, as he says he is. But also as these justice bounty hunters who used to wear such dusters when running after criminals.

His attitude is very authoritative with everyone even Kreon. Seven spears, a number from the gods. This order given to them to go away is vain and powerless, as she is since she buried her magic at the beginning of the opera. We feel Medea thinks Jason is not able to take her the way she is in spite of all.

Even at the end he does not want her the way she is because if he did he would go to Delphi himself to confront the Amphictyons. Bach, quoted from the Bible itself and the meaning it has when it is pronounced by Jesus on the cross is transported in the context of this opera and Medea is literally transformed if not transmuted from an infanticide to the simple tool of the gods against the sectarian rejection of anyone just because this one is different. Of course to have that meaning the libretto has taken some liberty with the myth about the killing of Pelias which is more or less made accidental, whereas in the myth it is definitely purposeful, though indirectly, from Medea.

That systematic suspended singing with vocalises that end up in thin air over and over again keeping our ears in suspension is very effective to keep our attention in suspension too. Never can we just let ourselves go into some kind of easygoing enjoyment. Always are we kept alert and awake as for the motivations and the meanings of actions and characters. Percussions are particularly important for bleak and tense moments. Even in these moments when the music is so perfectly adapted to its aim we cannot let go because that perfect music is telling us to wake up and watch out and drop all pre-constructed ideas if not pre-conceived prejudices.

I am a little bit surprised because it is rather short as for creativity, especially when compared with Italian operas. The plot itself is heavily borrowed from Euripides. Medea is a monster, a barbaric monster who kills her children. Che lutto! Che sanguinoso di! There is no possible redemption. And the crime against the children is the central event of the end after the crime against Creusa.

The duplicity of these people is emphasized by the fact that, from the very first scene, the promise for Creusa to marry Egeo, the king of Athens, is broken without any discussion or compensation. Then the marriage of Jason and Creusa is performed without any discussion with anyone. The three people concerned just decide without any legal discussion that the first wedding has no value, in spite of the children that are taken away from Medea. They are shown as being egotistic, sectarian, absolutely jingoistic about foreigners that they reject after exploiting them.

Medea is rejected because she is Colchian and Jason is accepted because he is Greek. This version even kept the dragon and the flying away of Medea, which is quite spectacular in an opera but rather schematic as for the meaning of the plot. Note that this monster who invoked the spirits of Hell, the goddess of Hell, Hecate, is escaping into the sky, since supposedly she is a descendant of the sun.

This contradiction should have been captured by Mayr and he should have questioned these two elements and tried to find a solution. Most have gotten rid of the dragon and the escape into the sky, and one even made her go down into earth directly to hell. Here Mayr did not in anyway innovate.

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Apart from the subject the music is post-Mozart and post-Beethoven and yet it overuses the innovations of the Mannheim School of music that produced Mozart, Haydn and Handel, and thus the music and the singing is going up and down the scales over and over again, just what Mozart and Handel had managed to domesticate into one innovation among many others, whereas Haydn had not really overcome the trick. Mayr has not either. We rarely have a rich music supporting the singing rather than accompanying it.

What is systematic in Handel and Mozart becomes exceptional with Mayr: that is to say the use of some instruments to create a dramatic atmosphere. That happens a few times but is far from being systematic. Another characteristic here is that the music is by far of one style, or type. It has difficulties evoking and building a somber and bleak atmosphere that would be very necessary in some scenes. It is a lot easier going, kind of free wheeling, when the scene is light, the atmosphere joyful, or the circumstances military.

Mayr likes trumpets and percussions and a little bit violins but does not use them at the top of their flexible possibilities. The main shortcoming of the singing is that the range of the voices is by far too small: three sopranos, four tenors and one bass. I understand that countertenors did not exist in the 19 th century, but some variations could have been introduced among the women and the men to be able to differentiate the characters better. An opera is also a piece of music that has to be heard, not only seen.

The quality of the singing is clear when you do NOT see the singers only hear them. The show does not only and principally enable you to identify the singers but adds something extra onto the characterization of the singers by their voices and singing. I must say the music is, apart from a very few arias, very humdrum.

It is not a recitative but it is not full-fledged singing, most of the time, it is too often some enriched recitative. It is clear that what I have said concerns the music itself and not its performing which is quite good and agreeable. But performing is only second to the score. Of course that does not increase the variety of voices that still are three sopranos, fours tenors and one bass, or rather bass- baritone. It does not change the fact that the music is post-Mozart and pre-Verdi, hence it has lost the Mozartian creativity and had not reached yet the Verdian power.

But the show is absolutely and flabbergastingly great. The setting as a two-storied structure is a good materialization of the extremely hierarchical Greek society of the time on any kind of criteria: ethnic, social, or whatever. Greeks were the top provided they were free.

The stage director visualizes this fact regularly in the opera. At the very beginning two male slaves fight in front of Creon: one is killed and the other is executed after being crowned the winner. Then three slave women are just put to death on the stage. The Greek society of the time is an extremely blood-thirsty society and all slaves, prisoners or whoever is inferior is the natural target of their desire for blood and killing. They love killing nearly by essence. All along the opera such executions will be staged and realized. This realistic and even gross depiction of this ancient society is strong, effective and to the point.

Medea is not the only one who kills since all those who are members of the aristocracy can kill the way they want all those who are not, for anything they consider a fault or just for their pleasure. Killing is a game, which makes anyone who is not an aristocrat in this society easy and willy-nilly willing game. The Women in the Chorus and Creusa are all red-headed which is absolutely surprising and the meaning is not clear since the two Cochians, Medea and Ismene are black-haired with a very light and dark tinge of red. We could have expected that redhaired-ness to be on the Colchian side, but it is even emphasized by the fact the Corinthian women of the chorus appear the second time all with long red gloves.

The only meaning I can think of is that the Corinthians are identified as blood-lustful. Then the Colchian are far from that level of bloodthirst. The choruses, males and females, vary a lot in costumes and identification. They are sailors, fishermen, soldiers, plain people of all sorts, both women and men.

They are dressed most of the time in some kind of shade of grey and that brings the royal blue of Creusa, the black of Medea and Creon and the light beige of Jason out. Note in this line of visual signs that the two kids will be a boy and a girl, both around 13 or 14 and the boy will come with a red ball that Medea will have in her hands at the very end as a symbol of the kids, but dead by then.

The action is supplemented by some actors and probably dancers who do the handy work on the stage. But they are used dramatically too. One is an angel, with wings of course, and he will be some kind of Cupid at one time with a lyre and the other one in bright colors is a simple gigolo, or used as such, to mime the bed scene of the wedding, on stage of course, and the girl he mimed it with will be shot dead afterwards. These extras are making scene shifts and prop-moving easy and they are used as mute dancers now and then. Nothing is changed as for the action and meaning of the opera as it was composed by Mayr, though some short scenes were cut off between big scenes because they are not useful anymore as transitions.

The Corinthians and Jason are depicted as totally untrustworthy: they do not have any faithfulness and do not respect their oaths and promises.

Médée (film, ) — Wikipédia

Medea is shown as a primitive lady when she comes, wearing a grass- dress and plenty of shells and other decorative objects around her neck and long fake but probably sharp fingers like some female Freddy. Medea is then a betrayed person, from beginning to end and she will get into an alliance with Egeo later on who was betrayed too, and is in this production quite young. The great number of chorus members and their dramatic use on the stage enables some important scenes to be massive as for their effects. The attempt by Egeo to abduct Creusa and his subsequent arrest is quite active and violent with several people, women and men, killed and displayed on the stage.

The symbolic self-emasculation of the angel standing on the table between Medea and Jason when it is clear Jason, after some kind of hesitation, will not be regained by Medea is a marvelous invention but of course it does not make Jason hesitate as for marrying Creusa. The emasculation is for us.

The children will have to die and a long scene sets them on the stage with their mother who feeds them, plays with them and yet sings all her suffering because of the task she has to perform. The only real change of this opera is that the opening symphony more than 8 minutes is not performed. The opera starts straight away with the first four scenes.

Wir haben es geschafft. Wir sind mitten im Geschehen. And there will be no dragon and no escape into the sky. We are promised some more violence int his supposedly democratic and philosophical society. And the meaning was the same: a hierarchical society, though it was not shown as blood-thirsty as in this production. The point is to go back to that period and try to understand what the stakes were then in that region of the world, and not how we can or could use it in our modern ideological fight.

The myth as seen by Euripides comes from the 5th century BCE. But what was the anthropological situation in that part of the world before the arrival of the arrival of the Indo Europeans? That part of the world was inhabited by the descendants of Cro-Magnon and later the Gravettians who had regrouped in South-West France and northern Spain, in northern Italy and of course the Balkans during the peak of the glaciation and had reoccupied the whole of Europe after that peak.

When the Indo-Europeans arrived in the Balkans around 3 or 2, years BCE or maybe a little bit earlier they found these populations. The Indo-Europeans arriving in the Balkans were only in a 1 to 4 ratio with the local population they found. This local population has been proved by many linguists and linguistic archaeologists as being of Turkic language and culture.

The Indo-Europeans are from another linguistic family and culture. If you consider that situation the problem is: how can a minority conquer a whole continent, impose their culture and languages to a majority of people four times more numerous than them? The answer is simple and has been done over and over again: recuperate enough of the local culture and integrate it in your own culture and then declare the old culture barbaric, and you win.

As for women in that situation, it is obvious we cannot use modern concepts to understand the situation. The men were the hunters, often away from the base and the women were the gatherers, taking care of their nearlty yearly pregnancies and their children and looking after the base. Is that matriarcal? I do not think so. Is that labor division? I do believe so and that labor division is based on sex for the obvious reason of the long dependence of children and of the necessity to procreate a lot in a society that was expanding over an ever wider territory.

On the other hand the new civilization of the Indo-Europeans is based on the RSI, poet, priest, political leader, military leader of the Middle-Eastern Indo-Europeans or Indo-Aryans, in their Neolithic agricultural development, and with a choice among the tribes of Indo-Europeans arriving in Europe: the Meditarranean culture moved from the domination of the warlords to the creation of political leaders either appointed by a body of selectmen or self- appointed by military force. Just for kicks the Slavs blended the soldier and the priest into the new leaders, the Germans gave the absolute priority to the soldier and warlords, the Celts gave preference to the priest in this case the druids.

Medea is a myth recuperated from an older Turkic tradition and modified to fit in the Greek religion. Recuperation and integration. Medea has to be in a way a godly figure and in another way a monstrous figure to be recuperable and integratable, but at the same time to clearly indicate the divide between Greek and barbaric meaning Turkic culture. We can of course use any mythology to strengthen our modern present struggles, but that is not an interpretation, it is pure recuperation, hence definitely uprooting and betraying its oiginal meaning.

This essay is furthermore very superficial on the question of the triple goddess. The author only consider the name of Hecate and does not even realize that Hecate is a Greek goddess, one identity of the triple goddess, and the author assumes a very recent vision of it maiden mother, crone without seeing that for the Greeks it is Hecate-Selene-Diana, that it is present in all European cultures particularly the Germanic culture, but also the Celtic culture and that we can find triple goddesse or triple Gods as far as India, Egypt, and many other more distant regions of the world. Only to quote the Germanic field, that triple goddess is the Three Bethen.

La Médée d'Euripide

The Nordic one is the Norns, the Roman one is the equivalent of the Greek Triple Goddess but also the Parques that are inherited from an older form in Greek mythology. We all know the three Egyptianj gods and the three main gods of Hinduism are all androgyneous which is quite a blow at the sexual orientation of this essay that is feminist in its initial axiom. So what about killing the children? It is absolutely indispensable for the myth to be integrated inside the Greek mythology and at the same time to state a divide between Greek mythology and the barbarian older order.

I did not discuss the very superficial and debatable summary of the myth given by J. It is inaccurate and apparently worked from memory or summaries that seem at times to remind me of some Wikipedia entries. The ballet is introduced and closed with a commentary in Russian that is translated into English on the screen, since the producer of the DVD is American. It is a summary of the myth of Medea more or less according to Apollonius Rhodius and Euripides. The second and final part of that commentary is enigmatic, contradictory or oxymoronic reducing the actions of God or Gods to nothing really clear.

It has not been remastered for this undated DVD. I am going to make only a few remarks on the ballet.


  • Once Upon This Path;
  • ISBN 13: 9782246390015.
  • Stormy Weather;
  • La Médée d'Euripide: Théâtre (French Edition) - AbeBooks - Euripides: X.
  • Analyse complète de l'oeuvre!
  • The Art of Worldly Wisdom.

The dancing itself is Bolchoi-like, hence very classical, though the choreography is quite creative in this visual production by some special effects that we can imagine were also visible on the stage. The setting is a vast black and white backdrop that represents caves and some pillars and columns, and grimacing faces of demons.

The effect has to be that of a wild mostly unstructured and barbaric world,if that term of barbaric can be used here, since the filiation between Colchis and Georgia is asserted and the Greek and invading nature of Jason and his Argonauts is also clearly stated. The use of masks for demons and demonic dancers enables them to wear their very identify on their faces. This is taken from old Greek dramatic traditions according to which actors were disembodied personae identified by the masks they were wearing, masks that were always amplifying their voices in the old Greek open-airt amphitheaters.

This ballet only uses masks for the demonic characters, including giant hand held masks for the chorus when it is a chorus of demons. Though the tape is of poor quality we can see the whole ballet uses only black and white for the backdrop and some dancers, red for those who are on the side of Medea who alternates black and red, white for the children who are two girls , a mixture of black and red for Jason and those on his side, pale blue for Creuse and of course red for the deadly gown.

The chorus or choruses their cimposition is varying from one use to the next both in sexual arrangements and in costumes and colors, red being for Medea and white and black for more common scenes. Quite often some closeup pictures are superimposed onto the dancers on the stage, which gives some grand feeling and impressive emotion to some scenes. The various concluding scenes that express the drama of the death of Creuse and the children, along with the wrath and total despair of respectively Medea and Jason are quite creative within the classical dancing syntax.

The ballet avoids the special Deus ex Machina of Euripides and some others with Medea going into the sky carried by two dragons, yet a simple special effect makes Medea ascend in some fumes while the dead children are reduced to two red and masked specters or phantoms dancing with a prostrated Jason on the stage. We could really like to see this ballet in a more modern production and a better quality shooting, though the music is rather humdrum and repetitive, sounding at times like some film music.

Some will say it is minimalist. It sure is but the extreme violence of this myth could call for a more animated and agitated type of composition. The legend tells how Jason and the best sons of Greece departed and sailed to the shore of ancient Colchis, in far away Geiorgia in search of the Golden Fleece. It tells the difficulties of their journey, how despite storms and waves the ship finally reaches Colchis. The story also tells how Medea, princess of Colchis, skilled in magic and sorcery, fell madly in love with Jason.

It also tells how Medea helped Jason kill her brother, Apsyrtus, and how to obtain the fabled Golden Fleece. The Argonauts then returned home as heroes with the rich treasure; and with Medea as the faithful wife of Jason. But happiness did not last long; Jason betrayed his wife and children by becoming engaged to marry Creuse, daughter of King Creon of Corinth.

Insulted, Medea became enraged and revenge consumed her mind. But the wrath of Medea had not yet ended. Medea then completed her revenge by killing her own two children. The holy rivers flow in reverse; yet truth remains, but is it really what it appears to be? Wickedness does not have boundries anymore , so kindness has flown away to the sky from the wonderful earth. Many things Zeus manages on Olympus, but the Gods give more, beyond any hope, but the results are not always what is expected.

And for the new ones, they open the immortal way… Such things happen in life. Related Papers. By Dr. Mona Kayyal. By Marie Carriere. Kinkel, p. Le fragmentai 0 1 Kinkel, p. Nauck, o. Ahrens, Soph. Le fr. Accius, Fragm. Litteratur- gesch. Pearson, o. Robert pense [Gviech. Nauck, o, c, p. Christ-Schmid, Grieck, Litteraturgesch. Il se pourrait, d'autre part, comme l'admet E. Bethe Medea-Probleme, Berichte d. Litter alurgesch. Wilamowitz et C. Heldens p. Gruppe, o. Theseus, Did. Kekule, D. Terrakotten, IV2, pi. IV1, p. Grecque, App. Decharme, Rev.

Critique, , I, p. Papyrus f. Biihnenkunst, , Heinemann D. Gestalten d. Theseus, p. Roussel, Bev. Alter t. Weil, o. Rose, Aristoteles pseudepigraphus, p. Levi, Riv. Robert n'en dit rien. En tout cas, les innovations que lui attribue le lexicographe v. C'est par erreur que C. Achelis, De Aristoph. Mais, v. Leo, Hermes, XV, , p. Hel- dens. IL, XVI, 37 ; v. Robert, l. Roussel, o. Frazer, Apollod. Le plus probable, selon P. Roussel o. Heldens,, p. Christ- Schmidt, o. Bloch, o.

Est-ce par inadvertance que C. OEri, Eurip. Roussel, Rev. Beige de philol. Galli, o. Wilamowitz, Hermes, XV, , p. Sur ce drame, v. Biihnenkunst, p. C'est assez douteux. Christ, Gesch. Studien, , p. Wecklein, Ausgew. Mais H. N'est-ce pas simplement, comme l'indique le sch. Drama of the Greeks, p. Patin, o. Cette observation, que M. Patin, l.

La vengeance de Médée - FRH 17

Petersen, D. Croiset, Hist, de la Litt. Cette exposition comprend le prologue, v. Girard, Rev. Weil, p. Weil, l. Bethe Medea-Probleme, p. Kunst D. Frauengestalten im att. Drama, p. Bethe, o. II, p. D'autre part, on a fait observer v. Il est vrai qu'E. Heinemann D. Ges- talten d. Bethe, Medea-Probleme, p. Mais v. Verhandlungen d. Wissenschaften zu Leipz. Klasse, LXX, , I, p.