One of the ways to overcome the problem with surface currents is passivating overgrowth. At the same centre of excellence a novel material concept is being developed for LWIR detection. This new material contains a superlattice of vertically aligned and electronically coupled InAs and GaSb quantum dots. Simulations show that it should be possible to have LWIR detection in this material. We will present the current status and report results in this research. Robo ; E. Costard ; J. Truffer; A. Nedelcu ; X.
Marcadet ; P. Bois Show Abstract. In the past researchers claimed many advantages of QWIPs. Uniformity was one of these and has been the key parameter for the production to start. An overview of the available performances of QWIPs in the whole infrared spectrum is presented here. We also discuss about the under-development products such as dual band and polarimetric structures. Klipstein Show Abstract.
In an XBn detector the Generation-Recombination G-R contribution to the dark current can be suppressed, giving a lower net dark current, or allowing the same dark current to be reached at a higher temperature than in a conventional photodiode. The ABCS program at SCD began several years ago with the development of an epi-InSb detector whose dark current is about 15 times lower than in standard implanted devices.
This detector is now entering production. Our conventional photodiodes made from T2SL materials with a cut-off wavelength in the region of 4. Characterization results of the T2SL materials and diodes are presented. The crystallographic, electrical and optical properties of the XBn materials and devices are discussed. Parylene-based uncooled thermomechanical array Author s : Onur Ferhanoglu ; M. Novel thermo-mechanical detector arrays with integrated diffraction grating for optical readout were designed and fabricated.
Parylene was used as the structural material due to its high thermal isolation and mismatch properties. Finite Element simulations were performed with length of the bimaterial leg as the optimization parameter. It was observed that only a few microns of isolation leg supported 30 fps applications, leaving rest of the leg to be bimaterial and providing large thermo-mechanical deflections. Optical readout photomechanical imager: from design to implementation Author s : M. Erdtmann ; L. Zhang; G. Jin; S. Radhakrishnan ; G.
Simelgor; J. Salerno Show Abstract. In an optical-readout photomechanical imager, the infrared sensor array is physically separated from the ROIC. The modularity of the optical readout architecture allows for extra design freedom that is not possible in bolometers, negating fundamental trade-offs, such as NETD versus thermal time constant. For successful commercialization, the photomechanical imager must meet application-specific performance and functional targets, and to this end, Agiltron has advanced the photomechanical imaging platform over several technology generations.
Improvements have been made to both the optical readout system and the photomechanical sensor chip, which enabled reductions in size, weight, and power SWAP and NETD over successive generations. Kipper ; D. Arbel; E. Baskin; A. Fayer; A. Epstein; N. Shuall; A. Saguy; D. Veksler; B. Spektor ; D. Ben-Aharon; V.
Garber Show Abstract. The introduction of an uncooled microbolometer image sensor about a decade ago enabled cost reduction of IR cameras. As a result, the available markets grew both in military and civilian applications. Since then, the price of microbolometer was gradually reduced due to introduction of devices with smaller pixel, maturity of the technology and quantity growth. However, the requirement for a vacuum package still limits the price of microbolometer based cameras to several thousands of dollars. Sirica's novel wavelength conversion technology aims at breaking this paradigm by being uncooled and vacuumless, lowering IR camera prices by an order of magnitude, opening the way to new mass markets.
In the last years, the development efforts focused on development of the conversion media. Recently, a parallel effort for the integration of the conversion layer together with other detector components has started. Packaging of detector components, such as conversion layer, pumping light source, dichroic filter, and their coupling with silicon CMOS image sensor have great importance from a price-performance point of view. According to the company's business-development roadmap, the detector prototype should be available during the first quarter of Almasri Show Abstract.
Film composition was varied by adjusting RF power applied to the silicon target and by varying the oxygen flow of the gas mixture in the deposition chamber. The atomic compositions of Si, Ge, and O in the deposited thin film were determined and analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy EDS. The influence of changing Ge and Si and O compositions on temperature coefficient of resistance TCR , and resistivity were studied. Different fabrication scenarios have been used to vary the Ge, Si and O concentrations.
The highest achieved TCRs and the corresponding resistivities at room temperature were Neikirk Show Abstract. The use of a cross-shaped patterned resistive sheet as an infrared-selective absorber, including the effects of a SiNx mechanical support dielectric layer is discussed. These cross patterned resistive sheets are a modified form of classical Salisbury Screens that utilize a resistive absorber layer placed a quarter-wavelength in front of a mirror. In comparison with previously designed patterned resistive sheets that have only a single resistive layer with rectangular patterned holes, here we consider a resistive absorber layer and a support dielectric layer with cross patterned holes through both the resistive absorption layer and the support layer.
A MEMS-less infrared pyroelectric sensor that employs an active detection mechanism based on a strontium bismuth tantalate SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 ferroelectric sensing material is described and compared to passive modes of operation. A model is based on fundamental performance of ferroelectrics in which the polarization state of the material is actively interrogated enabling improved signal to noise ratio, greater effective pyroelectric coefficient, and chopper-less design.
In addition to excellent thermal responsivity in the medium and long wavelength bands and unlimited endurance, the unique design enables selective wavelength tuning of insulating layer and absorber materials to maximize the responsivity at distinct wavelengths. The overall chip size is Each detector consists of three pairs of p-n polysilicon thermocouples with external dimensions of um x um and an internal resistance of 90k ohms. Compatible with standard CMOS processes this bulk micromachined focal plane array delivers near microbolometer performance making very low cost infrared cameras economically feasible.
Using a parameter analyzer A with a TEC temperature controller, a spectrum analyzer and a low noise amplifier, a systemic analysis of the electrical and noise characteristics of nickel oxide film is performed. A negative temperature coefficient of resistance TCR value of 3. The characteristics of the thin nickel oxide film obtained in this study are comparable to those of a-Si. Moreover, the nickel oxide thin film retained a stable state at room temperature.
In addition, we have developed short time constant variants of our standard pixel design to support applications requiring short thermal time constants. The technology is expanding to include a x format megapixel FPA to support higher resolution applications. Trouilleau; B. Noblet; F. Giner; D. Pochic; A. Durand ; P. Robert; S.
Cortial; M. Vilain ; J. Tissot ; J. Yon Show Abstract. This detector has kept all the innovations developed on the full TV format readout integrated circuit ROIC : detector configuration by serial link, two video outputs, low power consumption, wide electrical dynamic range The specific appeal of this unit lies in the high image resolution it provides. The reduction of the pixel-pitch turns this XGA array into a product well adapted for high resolution yet compact systems. In the last part of the paper, we will look more closely at the high electro-optical performances of this IRFPA and the rapid performance enhancement.
We will insist on NETD coupled with wide thermal dynamic range, as well as the outstanding uniformity and high pixel operability, achieved thanks to the mastering of the amorphous silicon technology coupled with the ROIC design.
Aria Vol. 1: La fugue d'Aria
Fraenkel ; U. Mizrahi ; L. Bikov; A. Giladi ; N. Shiloah; S. Elkind; T. Czyzewski; I. Kogan; A. Amsterdam Show Abstract. In the first part the radiometric performance and the challenges involved in achieving the desired pixel sensitivity are discussed. The combination of reduced pixel size and high-end thermal sensitivity can provide smaller light weight systems.
In the second part the ROIC architecture options will be presented in depth. New capabilities and features are enabled by the advanced 0. Explicitly, we address the contribution in terms of system flexibility, simplification and reduced power dissipation. Some vital tasks, such as coarse non-uniformity correction, are done internally thus facilitating the user interface. Han Show Abstract. This paper provides an update of 17 micron pixel pitch uncooled microbolometer development at DRS.
Since the introduction of 17 micron pitch x focal plane arrays FPAs in , significant progress has been made in sensor performance and manufacturing processes. The FPAs are now in initial production with an FPA noise equivalent temperature difference NETD , detector thermal time constant, and pixel operability equivalent or better than that of the current 25 micron pixel pitch production FPAs.
NETD improvement was achieved without compromising detector thermal response or thermal time constant by simultaneous reduction in bolometer heat capacity and thermal conductance. In addition, the DRS unique "umbrella" microbolometer cavities were optically tuned to optimize detector radiation absorption for specific spectral band applications. The 17 micron pixel pitch FPAs are currently being considered for the next generation soldier systems such as thermal weapon sights TWS , vehicle driver vision enhancers DVE , digitally fused enhanced night vision goggles DENVG and unmanned air vehicle UAV surveillance sensors, because of overall thermal imaging system size, weight and power advantages.
Schimert ; C. Hanson ; J. Brady ; T. Fagan; M. Taylor; W. McCardel; R. Gooch ; M. Gohlke; A. Syllaios Show Abstract. Smaller pixels permit fabrication of larger arrays without subverting the field-size constraints of ordinary photolithographic processes. Reducing pixel size also reduces the effects of stress mismatches.
This permits reduction of device thickness, thereby reducing thermal time constant. Because these arrays substantially reduce sensor size, they are becoming the preferred format for most applications, particularly for weapon sights and for head-mounted and UAV applications. The larger array sizes are of interest for pilotage and surveillance.
Uncooled technology transforming the future soldier into a center for surveillance and engagement Author s : Yoram Aron ; Noam Cohen Show Abstract. In this paper we are presenting the ELOP concept of the night vision for the modern soldier. According to this concept the modern soldier's missions are divided into 4 main layers - situation awareness, improved lethality capabilities, target acquisition and surveillance. Based on this concept during the last few years ELOP has developed a family of products for those needs. Those new products are mainly based on the uncooled technology with one exception.
The uncooled technology allows cost eective solution with superior performance in comparison with image intensiers systems by means of better robustness to poor lighting conditions, better immunity to dazzling etc. Those products include thermal monocular, driver thermal sight, thermal weapon sights and hand held thermal cameras. For IR detection, we use silicon single crystal series p-n junctions which can realize high uniformity of temperature coefficient and low voltage drift. We have also developed a low-noise CMOS readout circuit on the same SOI which can calibrate the substrate temperature variation in every frame period, comparing two types of pixels, a bulk-micromachined infrared detection pixel and a non-micromachined reference pixel.
Then the FPA requires no thermo-electric cooler TEC and is mounted on a low-cost standard ceramic package for the consumer products market. Liddiard Show Abstract. In previous presentations to this SPIE forum a new technology was outlined aimed at replacing pyroelectric sensors with resistance microbolometer MOEMS-based sensors capable of vastly superior performance. The technology can be implemented as either a PCB replacement to current sensors, giving extended detection range and ability to sense slow temperature change, or a 'smart' sensor with further performance enhancements and imaging capability.
This paper reports the results of new laboratory and field tests of a laboratory prototype sensor and extrapolates these results to performance of production sensors. In particular, results are presented for NETD, detection range for human targets and detection of simulated electrical faults and developing fires.
Previous results were reported for FPA operated without evacuation and using a low cost plastic Fresnel lens. However with wafer level packaging now becoming widely available in MEMS and CMOS foundries, much high performance can be achieved, opening up many additional applications. Performance of new FPAs designed for vacuum packaging is highlighted. Optical design of an hemispherical, long-wave infrared panomorph lens for total situational awareness Author s : Simon Thibault Show Abstract. The proliferation of security and surveillance missions in urban environments dictates the greater use of optical systems in situational awareness for ground vehicle protection.
The need for total situation awareness requires unique optical based systems combining visible and thermal imaging, advanced image processing, and analytic functionalities. These sensors must provide a full hemispheric field of view with a high refresh rate in low cost and compact packages. The advantages and disadvantages of the panomorph design are compared to reflective, diffractive and other refractive solutions. To meet today's demanding requirements for increased performance, reduced size, lower mass and lower cost, simple lenses containing multiple aspheric surfaces are required.
It is now a common feature that the number of non-spherical surfaces used in an infrared lens design exceeds the actual number of lens elements. Judicious use of single-aspheric, dual-aspheric and asphero-diffractive surfaces provide additional degrees of freedom in the lens design. This is required not only to improve the imaging performance demanded by increasingly reduced pitch detectors, but to do so with solutions that are shorter and lighter whilst also offering excellent image uniformity with minimised stray light.
Non-spherical surfaces also enable a greater diversity of materials to be used such that athermal solutions can be realised without the need for additional lens elements. This paper will review the range of applications that can be satisfied using no more than two optical components; examining the specific benefits that non-spherical surfaces can provide.
Consideration will also be given to future developments where enhanced functionality can be achieved by using computational imaging techniques. Examples will be given for optical designs that are suitable for numerous military applications including weapon sights, driver's vision enhancement and remote weapon stations. Snyder ; Jay N.
Vizgaitis Show Abstract. The increased desire for multispectral infrared optical systems in compact packages significantly complicates the optical design of such systems. Add in the fact that multiple spectral bands are now imaging on the same detector, and the optical designs become quite challenging. The availability of materials over the desired multiple spectral bands that transmit well with the desired dispersion properties further complicates the design.
Designing optics for good performance in the SWIR 1. Reflective designs are often limited because of packaging limitations. In this paper, multiple approaches are designed and examined to find the best balance between risk, performance, and size. The analyzed design studies include the use of traditional MWIR materials, harmonic diffractive lenses, and alternative materials that will require further development to be used in a tactical environment.
Ring around the image, a pocket full of problems Author s : Troy A. Palmer Show Abstract. This paper will explore an unwanted side effect of shortwave or near infrared optimized lens assemblies operating in low light conditions. Particular attention will be paid to those designs encountering a bright source in an otherwise low light scene; i. The impact of bright features in very low levels can produce degrading artifacts or noise and greatly hinder image quality.
The aforementioned effects will be demonstrated for both the SWIR optimized lenses and their visible light counterparts. The artifacts of traditional optical and mechanical geometries and their inherent problems will also be covered as well as how one might lessen their impact on image degradation and thereby improve system sensitivity. Thin film metal oxide coatings have been used for commercial electromagnetic filters from the UV to infra red regions for over half a century.
Deposition onto a substrate has typically been accomplished using vapor deposition techniques and more recently sol-gel methods. These coatings provide very good optical performance under abrasion, thermal cycles and variable humidity when applied on substrates with similar thermal and mechanical properties. When conventional metal oxide coatings are applied to flexible, relatively soft substrates such as polymers, mismatches in mechanical properties can reduce interfacial adhesion or accelerate mechanical failures.
The authors recently showed that a thin film polymer nanocomposite can be applied on a polymer substrate and maintain adhesion even under high strains. This paper describes the demonstration of an IR mirror using fifteen discrete layers with an IR-reflectance that exceeds 90 percent at nm and transparent in the visible spectrum. We will present the results with thin film stacks containing over 15 discrete layers for IR mirror applications, and our recent work shows that the technology can produce thin film stacks containing 30 layers or more.
Furthermore these coatings have high flexibility and can be applied to curved polymer substrates. These IR mirrors can withstand thermal cycling and large strains much better than those made using the state of the art techniques. Coatings with high absorption or emission of thermal radiation are often required in infrared, space and cryogenic applications. It is much more difficult to generate a surface which is sufficiently "black" at cryogenic temperatures than at room or elevated temperatures. An experimental study was carried out to compare the thermal emissivity and absorptivity of a variety of black coatings on copper and aluminum substrates at temperatures in the range from 10 K to K and the results are presented in this paper.
The surfaces tested include paints and thin-film coatings. Air Liquide's pulse tube cryocooler systems for space applications Author s : T. Trollier ; J. Tanchon; J. Rey; A. Ravex; J. Buquet Show Abstract. The weight is 2. This product is weighing 5. They are both using dual opposed pistons flexure bearing compressor with moving magnet linear motors in order to ensure very high lifetime. The associated Cooler Drive Electronics is also an important aspect specifically regarding the active control of the cooler thermo-mechanical unit during the launch phase and the active reduction of the vibrations induced by the compressor partly supported by the French Agency CNES.
Willems; T. Benschop ; W. Groep ; J. Weijden ; M. Tops Show Abstract. Developments in these markets required continuous update of the flexure bearing cooler portfolio for new and emerging applications. The cooling requirements of new application have not only their influence on the size of the compressor, cold finger and cooling technology used but also on the integration and control of the cooler in the application. Thales Cryogenics developed a compact Cooler Drive Electronics based on DSP technology that could be used for driving linear flexure bearing coolers with extreme temperature stability and with additional diagnostics inside the CDE.
This CDE has a wide application and can be modified to specific customer requirements. During the presentation the latest developments in flexure bearing cooler technology will be presented both for Stirling and Pulse Tube coolers. Also the relation between the most important recent detector requirements and possible available solutions on cryocooler level will be presented. Split Stirling linear cryogenic cooler for high-temperature infrared sensors Author s : A. Veprik ; S. Zehter; H. Vilenchik; N. Pundak Show Abstract. Infrared imagers play a vital role in the modern tactics of carrying out surveillance, reconnaissance, targeting and navigation operations.
These advantages are primarily due to maintaining the infrared focal plane arrays at cryogenic temperatures using mechanical closed cycle Stirling cryogenic coolers. Recent technological advances in industrial application of high-temperature up to K infrared detectors has spurred the development of linearly driven microminiature split Stirling cryogenic coolers having inherently longer life spans, lower vibration export and better aural stealth as compared to their rotary driven rivals.
Moreover, recent progress in designing highly efficient "moving magnet" resonant linear actuators and dedicated smart electronics have enabled further improvements to the cooler size, weight, power consumption, cooldown time and ownership costs. The authors report on the development and project status of a novel microminiature split Stirling linear cryogenic cooler having a shortened to 19mm cold finger and a high driving frequency 90Hz. The cooler has been specifically designed for cooling K infrared sensors of future portable infrared imagers, where compactness, low steady-state power consumption and fast cool-down time are of primary concern.
Six Sigma method have been applied to manufacturing process of a rotary Stirling cooler: RM2. A team has been gathered involving people and skills acting on the RM2 manufacturing line. Two more root causes have been identified by the team after process mapping analysis: regenerator filling factor and cleaning procedure. Experimental results show that regenerator filling factor impacts process variability and affects yield. Improved process haven been set after new calibration process for test bench, new filling procedure for regenerator and an additional cleaning stage have been implemented.
RM2 manufacturing process is now managed according to Statistical Process Control based on control charts. Improvement in process capability have enabled introduction of sample testing procedure before delivery. Novel compact and low power consuming cooled infrared thermal imagers as used in gyro-stabilized payloads of miniature unmanned aerial vehicles, Thermal small arms sights and tactical night vision goggles often rely on integral rotary micro-miniature closed cycle Stirling cryogenic engines.
Development of EPI Antimonides technology and optimization of MCT technology allowed decreasing in order of magnitudes the level of dark current in infrared detectors thus enabling an increase in the optimal focal plane temperature in excess of 95K while keeping the same radiometric performances as achieved at 77K using regular technologies. Maintaining focal plane temperature in the range of 95K to K instead of 77K improves the efficiency of Stirling thermodynamic cycle thus enlarging cooling power and enabling the development of a mini micro cooler similar to RICOR's KS model which is three times smaller, lighter and more compact than a standard tactical cryocooler like RICOR's K model.
This cooler also features a new type of ball bearings and internal components which were optimized to fit tight bulk constraints and maintain the required life span, while keeping a low level of vibration and noise signature. Further, the functions of management the brushless DC motor and temperature stabilization are delivered by the newly developed high performance sensorless digital controller. By reducing Dewar Detector thermal losses and increasing the focal plane temperature, longer life time operation is expected as was proved with RICOR's K model.
This makes it compatible with very compact battery packages allowing further reduction of the overall thermal imager weight thus making it comparable with the compatible uncooled infrared thermal imager relying on a microbolometer detector in terms of power consumption and bulk. Development trends in IR detector coolers Author s : M. Mai ; I. Wiedmann; C. Rosenhagen Show Abstract. For different IR application specific cooler requirements are needed to achieve best performance on system level.
Handheld applications require coolers with highest efficiency and lowest weight. For application with continuous operation, i. Space applications additionally require extremely high reliability. In other application like fighter aircraft sufficient cooling capacity even at extreme high reject temperatures has to be provided. Meeting all this requirements within one cooler design is technically not feasible. Therefore, different coolers designs like integral rotary, split rotary or split linear are being employed. The use of flexure bearings supporting the driving mechanism has generated a new sub-group for the linear coolers; also, the coolers may either use a motor with moving magnet or with moving coil.
AIM has mainly focussed on long life linear cooler technology and therefore developed a series of moving magnet flexure bearing compressors which meets MTTF's exceeding 20,h up to 50,h with a Pulse-Tube coldfinger. These compressors have a full flexure bearing support on both sides of the driving mechanism. Cooler designs are being compared in regard to characteristic figures as described above. Novel concept for driving the linear compressor of a micro-miniature split Stirling cryogenic cooler Author s : V. Maron; A. Veprik ; L.
Finkelstein; H. Vilenchik; I. Ziv; N. New methods of carrying out homeland security and antiterrorist operations call for the development of a new generation of mechanically cooled, portable, battery powered infrared imagers, relying on micro-miniature Stirling cryogenic coolers of rotary or linear types. Since split Stirling linearly driven micro-miniature cryogenic coolers have inherently longer life spans, low vibration export and better aural stealth as compared to their rotary driven rivals, they are more suitable for the above applications. The performance of such cryogenic coolers depends strongly on the efficacy of their electronic drivers.
The disadvantage of such drivers is that they draw high ripple current from the system's power bus. This results in the need for an oversized DC power supply battery packs and power electronic components, low efficiency due to excessive conductive losses and high residual electromagnetic interference which in turn degrades the performance of other systems connected to the same power bus. Without either an active line filter or large and heavy passive filtering, other electronics can not be powered from the same power bus, unless they incorporate heavy filtering at their inputs.
Such a driver free of sine forming PWM stage and have reduced power peaks in all power conversion components. Nelson Show Abstract. One of the most important characteristics of a cryocooler is its useful operating life. Cryocoolers intended for space environments require cryocoolers with very long lifetimes, as the opportunity for servicing a failed unit is minimal. Tactical cryocooler requirements have increasing followed the trend of the space cryocooler, with required lifetimes reaching tens of thousands of hours.
Acceptance tests show that the performance of the cryocoolers has not significantly degraded over this timeframe. This paper reports the performance of the cryocoolers over the span of the test. Steady-state and cooldown performance at various ambient temperatures are reported. Digital image fusion systems: color imaging and low-light targets Author s : Joseph P. Estrera Show Abstract. Performance metrics for these digital imaging sensors will be presented.
Next, this paper will discuss the effects of user display color in a dual color digital image fusion system. Finally, this paper will present digitally fused imagery and image analysis of long distance targets in low light from these digital fused systems. In this paper we present a VNIR solid state sensor technology suitable for next generation fused night vision systems. This technology is based on a highly optimized low power 0. We describe a H x V pixel prototype sensor based on this technology.
The sensor features 5T pixels with pinned photodiodes on a 6. The 5T pixel architecture enables both correlated double sampling CDS and a lateral anti-blooming drain. The sensor does not have any multiplicative noise. The full well capacity is greater than 40ke-, the dark current is less than 3. The sensor also achieves an intra-scene linear dynamic range of greater than 90dB at room temperature.
Milcent Show Abstract. The FELIN French modernization program for dismounted combat provides the Armies with info-centric systems which dramatically enhance the performances of the soldier and the platoon. Sagem now has available a portfolio of various equipments, providing C4I, data and voice digital communication, and enhanced vision for day and night operations, through compact high performance electro-optics.
The FELIN system provides the infantryman with a high-tech integrated and modular system which increases significantly their detection, recognition, identification capabilities, their situation awareness and information sharing, and this in any dismounted close combat situation.
Among the key technologies used in this system, infrared and intensified vision provide a significant improvement in capability, observation performance and protection of the ground soldiers. This paper presents in detail the developed equipments, with an emphasis on lessons learned from the technical and operational feedback from dismounted close combat field tests. Zinner ; U. Krause; J. Heinrich Show Abstract. This latest "ES - enhanced system" is embedded in the specifications of a network-centric warfare concept with highly equipped soldiers of outstanding capabilities, based on new components.
This light weighted instrument includes a thermal imager to detect an object at m, recognize it at m and identify it at m. The image which is available on two Organic Light Emitting Displays can be viewed through a binocular viewer. It also provides information of the command and control system. With the laser range finder, the Digital Magnetic Compass and GPS it is possible to measure one's own and the target's position.
This information and live video sequences can be transferred to the C4I-alliance in wireless mode. It is possible to annotate seen objects with symbols and information. By networking, team members and control officers will have superior information along with possibilities for control of impact and can execute their mission more efficiently. The Video Sight will be used for observation, target detection, recognition and identification, direct and indirect aiming and shooting with ballistic calculation and aiming mark correction, still and video picture capturing and wireless transmission, determination of a located target position by distance and angle to the own position and so on.
To perform all these tasks the Video Sight is equipped with an uncooled IR and a CCD camera, a laser range finder, a digital compass, angle sensors, electronic display, all this sensors highly integrated and controlled by an operating system. The Integrated Soldier System Project ISSP is the cornerstone of Canada's future soldier modernization effort, which seeks to "significantly enhance tactical level individual and team Lethality, Mobility and C4I performance in the complex, network-enabled, command-centric, effects-based digitized battlespace.
Several of these projects focus on the human factors aspects of future technologies, such as IR sensors. Fused systems show promise of augmenting the respective stand alone capabilities of each sensor type, but more work is required to optimize fusion algorithms. The Soldier Integrated Headwear Technology Demonstration SIHS TD project is looking at the human factors aspects of mounting a range of vision enhancement sensors on a helmet, including optimal placement of both sensors and displays with respect to center of mass, total head borne weight, and visual offset and parallax issues.
Overall headwear system weight should be less than 2. These findings have implications on the design of future IR and fused sensor systems for dismounted soldiers. In recent years the TED system has been under development, starting from new SWIR sensor technology, optics and real-time sensor technologies and following with complete system architecture as a soldier mounted optical gun shot detection system with high precision and imaging means. For the first time, the modules and the concept of operation of the system will be explained, with emphasis on new sensor-to-shooter capabilities.
Actual field trial results will be shown. The latest generation of heavily armored vehicles and the proliferation of IEDs in urban combat environments dictate that electro-optical systems play a greater role in situational awareness for ground vehicles. FLIR systems has been addressing the needs of the ground vehicle community by developing unique sensor systems combining thermal imaging and electro-optical sensors, advanced image processing, and networking capabilities into compact, cost effective packages.
This paper will discuss one of those new products, the WideEye II. The WideEye II combines long wave infrared and electro-optical sensors in a degree field of view, single integrated package to meet the critical needs of the warfighter. It includes seamless electronic stitching of the degree image, and state of the art networking capability to allow it to be operated standalone or to be fully integrated with modern combat vehicle systems.
The paper will discuss system tradeoffs and capabilities of this new product and show potential applications for its use. The application of microbolometers in degree ground vehicle situational awareness Author s : David K. Breakfield ; Dan Plemons Show Abstract. The studies consider a range of system options for establishing a close-in, real-time, image-based situational awareness system for day and nighttime vehicle operation.
Multi-spectral imaging assets were utilized in combination with image processing techniques to extend situational awareness and support the operation of armored vehicles during "closed-hatch" exercises. A major operational need for airborne platforms flying in formation is automatic collision alert capability. The paper presents results of operational problem study, system design and field testing demonstration of performance for SAPIR collision alert function targeting helicopter fleets.
Montgomery ; Christine T. Montgomery; Richard B. Sanderson ; John F. McCalmont Show Abstract. Self protection of airborne assets has been important to the Air Force and DoD community for many years. The greatest threats to aircraft continue to be man portable air defense missiles and ground fire. AFRL has been pursuing a near-IR sensor approach that has shown to have better performance than midwave IR systems with much lower costs. SIMAC couples multiple spatial and temporal filtering techniques to provide the needed clutter suppression in the NIR missile warning systems.
Results from flight tests will be discussed. Infrared sensors are crucial to missile defense capabilities for target acquisition, tracking, discrimination, and aim point selection; they serve other military sensing applications as well. The situation is aggravated by the limitation of the small cadmium-zinc-telluride CdZnTe substrates. Over the past three years, SLS technology has progressed significantly, demonstrating experimentally its potential as a strong candidate for future highperformance IR sensor materials.
In this paper, we will discuss the most recent progress made in SLS. We will also discuss MDA's new direction for this technology development. The plan is to use a horizontal integration approach instead of adhering to the existing vertical integration model. This new horizontal approach is to increase the number of industrial participants working in SLS and leverage existing III-V semiconductor foundries.
ARIA : LES CHEVALIERS D'AQUARIUS
Kim ; S. Myers ; N. Gautam; S. Lee ; E. Plis ; S. Noh; L. Dawson; S. Comparison of optical characterization for the identical SL structures based on the nBn and pin designs is reported. Dark current density of 0. At 77 K, the peak responsivity and detectivity are measured to be 5. A focal plane array with a 9. The dark current of individual pixels was measured around 1. This led to a higher dynamic range and longer integration times. The noise equivalent temperature difference reached 23 mK. A multi-wafer molecular beam epitaxy MBE growth process on 3"-GaSb substrates, which allows simultaneous growth on five substrates with excellent homogeneity has been developed.
Mono- and bispectral SL camera systems with different pitch and number of pixels have been fabricated. Those imaging systems show excellent electro-optical performance data with a noise equivalent temperature difference NETD around 10 mK. Ion-implantation and diffusion of dopants were evaluated for selective doping of the electrical junction region in planar photodiodes. Residual damage remains when superlattice structures are implanted with Te ions with an energy of keV and a dose of 5x10 13 cm -2 , at room temperature.
Planar p-on-n diodes were fabricated using selective Zn diffusion. The I-V characteristics were leaky due to G-R and tunneling in the homojunction devices, for which no attempts were made to optimize the n-type absorber doping level. Work is underway for the implementation of planar diodes with the n-on-p architecture through selective Te diffusion. However, the limited size and strong infrared absorption of GaSb substrates prevent large format type-II superlattice infrared imagers from being realized. In this work, we demonstrate type-II superlattices grown on GaAs substrates, which is a significant step toward third generation infrared imaging at low cost.
The device performances of Type II superalttice photodetectors grown on these two substrates are compared. Pellegrino ; R. DeWames Show Abstract. Sofradir IR detectors are being deployed in a lengthening line of space applications earth observation, atmospheric observation, scientific missions, etc At first glance, one may ask what do detectors for space applications have in common with detectors for tactical applications?
On the one hand, space applications require far fewer quantities and IR detector reliability and electro-optical performances must be exceptionally high. Tactical applications, on the other hand, look to quantities in the thousands per year, delivered at low cost. As opposed to focusing on the differences, Sofradir is taking advantage of these two areas.
Firstly, space applications are developing new advances and technologies that can later be introduced in the production of IR detectors for tactical applications, thereby increasing their quality and reliability. In addition, Sofradir can better satisfy space application requirements for failure rates, as these can only be demonstrated with the large number of detectors manufactured, which tactical applications provide.
This advantage is only possible because the core of the technologies and manufacturing processes are common to both applications. As a result, this approach offers a continuous cycle for reliability of IR detectors, accelerating reliability growth in production, and at the same time meeting requirements for space applications. Breiter ; J. Wendler ; H. Lutz; S. Rutzinger; K. Hofmann; J. Ziegler Show Abstract.
This is in both bands still a good match referring to the optical blur spot size and detector performance. Due to the compact design, the modules are equally well suited for new programs as well as retrofits of 1st GEN systems. The major advantage of MCT, the tunable bandgap i. The same technology including charge transimpedance amplifier for the low flux in the SWIR is available in a half TV x configuration. The read-out integrated circuit ROIC provides among other features 8 outputs for high frame rates up to Hz.
D'Souza ; E. Robinson; M. Stapelbroek ; W. Wong; M. Skokan ; H. Shih Show Abstract. Consequently, there is no substrate to absorb the visible photons as in backside-illuminated detectors and these 2. Detectors in x 6 arrays with varying thickness of CdTe passivation layers were fabricated to investigate the visible response of the 2. Focus here was in acquiring array level data in the visible region of the spectrum.
In addition, a model that takes into account the complex optical properties of every layer in the HDVIP photodiode architecture was developed to predict the QE of the detectors in the near infrared and visible wavelength regions as a function of CdTe thickness. Measured QE as a function of wavelength is not a good match to the model QE probably due to limitations in the measured QE and knowledge of optical constants that are input into the model.
Large-format HgCdTe focal plane arrays for dual-band long-wavelength infrared detection Author s : E. Smith ; A. Gallagher; T. Kostrzewa; M. Brest; R. Graham ; C. Kuzen; E. Hughes; T. McEwan; G. Venzor; E. Patten; W. Radford Show Abstract. Missile seekers are designed to acquire targets of interest at long ranges and discriminate targets from clutter. The use of dual-band long wavelength infrared detector technology provides the ability for these seekers to combine these operations into the same package with enhanced performance.
Increasing the format size of dual-band longwavelength FPAs and tailoring the detector design for specific long-wavelength bands enables seekers to be designed for increased field-of-view, longer target acquisition ranges, and improved accuracy. This paper will review in further detail the aspects of detector design, MBE wafer growth, wafer fabrication, and detector characterization that are contributing to development and demonstration of high performance large format dual-band LWIR FPAs at RVS.
Hipwood ; C. Jones ; J. Price ; M. Wilson; C. Maxey ; J. Fitzmaurice ; P. Knowles Show Abstract. This paper describes the fabrication and performance of our LW Hawk arrays. The detectors are staring, focal planes consisting of HgCdTe mesa-diode arrays bump bonded to silicon read-out circuits. The HgCdTe structure is grown on GaAs and consists of an absorber layer sandwiched between wider band-gap cladding layers.
Device processing is wafer-scale. This is an extension of the work reported in previous years with the innovation of dry etching for mesa isolation. The GaAs substrate is removed after bump bonding to minimise the thermal stress on cooling. The technology will be described. Results will be presented which show operability of The results of various imaging trials will also be presented. Gravrand ; Ph. Chorier Show Abstract. As the wavelength gets longer ie the semiconductor gap gets smaller , the physic of photodiodes asks for numerous technological improvements to keep a high level of detection performance.
The need mainly expressed by the space industry ESA and CNES of very long wave focal plane arrays appears very demanding in terms of dark current, defect density and of course quantum efficiency. This paper aims at presenting a status of long and very long wave focal plane array development at DEFIR for three different ion implanted technologies: n on p mercury vacancies doped technology, n on p extrinsic doped technology, and p on n arsenic on indium technology.
Jones ; C. Maxey ; D. Walker; J. Abbott; N. Shorrocks; P.
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The technology is an extension of our standard LW, described elsewhere, using MOVPE layers grown on GaAs to provide a low cost, large area capability with state-of-the-art performance. While it may be considered that direct injection is not ideal for typical diode impedances expected in the VLW, and alternatives are in design, it is a testament to our technology that the diodes have sufficient dynamic resistance to allow this approach. Our diode design provides low diffusion currents such that at these operating temperatures the arrays are largely limited by trap assisted tunnelling TAT.
Results of dark current as a function of voltage and temperature will be presented along with the array electro-optical performance. Baier ; L. Mollard ; J. Rothman ; G. Ballet ; G. Bourgeois; J. Zanatta; M. Tchagaspanian ; S. Courtas; P. Pautet; P.
Pidancier; L. Rubaldo Show Abstract. The n-type MCT base layer was obtained by indium doping. Planar p-on-n photodiodes were manufactured by arsenic doping, which has been activated by post-implanted annealing in Hg overpressure. As incorporation is achieved either by implantation or by incorporation during MBE growth. Electro-optical characterizations on these p-on-n photodiodes were made on FPAs.
Results show excellent operabilities Comparisons are made between implantation and growth incorporation As doping technologies. Piotrowski ; J. Piotrowski ; W. Gawron; J. Pawluczyk ; M. Pedzinska Show Abstract. We have developed various types of photodetectors operating without cryocooling. Initially, the devices were mostly used for uncooled detection of CO 2 laser radiation. Over the years the performance and speed of response has been steadily improved.
The devices have found important applications in IR spectrometry, quantum cascade laser based gas analyzers, laser radiation alerters and many other IR systems. This was achieved with improved design of the active elements, use of monolithic optical immersion technology, enhanced absorption of radiation, dedicated electronics, series connection of small cells in series, and last but not least, applying more efficient Peltier coolers. The results are very encouraging. Madejczyk ; A. Piotrowski; W.
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- Infrared Technology and Applications XXXV | () | Publications | Spie?
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Rutkowski Show Abstract. Selected growth parameters on morphology state have been discussed. The substrate issues like its quality and crystallographic orientation as well as misorientation play considerable role in final layer smoothness. We study HgCdTe layer thickness on its surface roughness. Extensive characterization studies using accessible equipment and methods: atomic force microscopy AFM , secondary electron microscopy SEM , laser scatterometer and Nomarski microscopy have provided invaluable information about the connection between defect formation and the influence of specific growth parameters.
We have previously reported on the initial development of a multi-linear uncooled microbolometer FPA for space applications. The IRL FPA features three parallel lines of pixels on a 39 micron pixel pitch with parallel integration of all pixels, a complete detector bridge per pixel for offset and substrate temperature drift compensation, and one bit digital output bus per line. The qualification strategy consists of part element and device qualification including proton and total dose radiation, shock, vibration, burn-in, and thermal cycling.
The test conditions and results will be reviewed. In the observation and surveillance fields, there is an increasing demand for infrared modules that can be rapidly turned into a complete autonomous device whether it is for military, security or industrial purposes. Based on this concept, INO has developed a modular 16 bit infrared camera core. The tool can be used to provide a rapid evaluation of an application concept.
Moreover, a complete device can be rapidly designed and build once the concept has been demonstrated. The IRXCore camera core, integrating a x pixel uncooled FPA and providing a bit raw signal output at 60 Hz, gives total access to the detector configuration parameters to ease developers integration process. TECless operation minimizes module size and power consumption.
The device can be used with refractive optics or catadioptric optical objectives. Windowing capability provides flexibility in frame frequency, sensitivity selection, and a choice of operating field of view. In this paper, the camera core will be reviewed as well as its performances. The control software functionalities are detailed and some typical imaging examples will be presented.
Pyroelectric devices require a change in temperature in order to generate a useful signal. Vergara ; R. Dutch - La Branche Lincoln. Dutch - Manhattan Beach Dutch - Les Chroniques de Panchrysia. Dutch - Les Carnets de Darwin. Dutch - La Pension du docteur Eon. Dutch - Les Fils de la Louve. Dutch - Lester Cockney. Dutch - Sept balles pour Oxford. Dutch - Jeune fille en Dior. Dutch - Mermaid Project. Dutch - Sur la route de Banlung. Dutch - Marshal Blueberry. Dutch - Insiders Genesis. Dutch - La vengeance du Comte Skarbek.
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