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1. Gi (Justicia)

Another important demographic phenomenon is the falling birth rate over the last 50 years, resulting in one of the most aged populations in Europe. In , over In parallel, the Basque Country has been a source of emigration since the time of the war against the Muslims 10th—15th centuries to the south of the Iberian Peninsula, and to America after the 16th century. From the economic point of view, the Spanish Basque Country was one of the first regions in Spain to be industrialized in the last third of the 19th century, with intense development of heavy industry coal mining, steel production, and shipbuilding and manufacturing industry especially in the second half of the 20th century.

As a result of this economic development and the political autonomy that the Basque Country recovered with the Spanish Constitution of , the region has developed its own Public Health System integrating local health organizations with the previous national health network that had developed in Spain from onwards. The Basque Health System called Osakidetza integrates tertiary and community hospitals, as well as district and health centres, providing universal health coverage to all the population since Together, these characteristics favour the persistence in the region of dominant disorders derived from ancestral dominant mutations and recurrent emergence of some recessive disorders.

In the past 30 years, the discovery of powerful techniques for DNA analysis has dramatically boosted the understanding of the molecular basis of both clearly inherited disorders and others that were previously considered to be nongenetic sporadic disorders. These new technical possibilities and the aforementioned characteristics of the Spanish Basque population have enabled us to identify a number of neurological disorders associated with specific mutations.

These disorders affect both the central and peripheral nervous and musculoskeletal systems and are transmitted both in a dominant and recessive manner Table 1. In contrast, 26 patients harbouring the DN mutation have been reported prospectively to the Registry of the Basque Health Department between January and December Moreover, as well as these 26 prospectively reported cases, a further 12 cases have been identified retrospectively, not having been reported to the registry because they were diagnosed before the registry was created in or because families declined to give consent.

Two main possible explanations for this unusually high incidence of familial prion diseases are proposed. First, ascertainment of cases by the community neurologists is likely to be complete, thanks to the facilities created by the Basque Health authorities after the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis to improve the identification all human prion diseases, particularly variant CJD. A genealogic search through parochial registries up to the XVI century could not identify the probable common ancestor.

For instance, the fatal familial insomnia phenotype is always related to MM or MV genotypes but the reverse is not true, and seven out of 17 patients with a MM genotype in this series presented with clinicopathological features of CJD. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 Steinert's disease , the most common neuromuscular disorder in the adult population, is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness and wasting accompanied by extramuscular features that vary with the age of onset OMIM This prevalence rate cannot be explained by consanguinity in a dominant condition.

The mild symptomatology associated with the newly ascertained cases makes them almost undetectable to the genetic counselling services. Polymeropoulos et al. Nine patients were ascertained across the history among the relatives of the two first generations and another nine patients were diagnosed and examined in the three next generations. Three additional individuals are carriers of the mutations and remain asymptomatic or suffer from a mild pure autonomic failure. The E46K mutation, which substitutes a dicarboxylic amino acid, glutamic acid, with a basic amino acid such as lysine in a highly conserved area of the protein, is likely to produce severe disturbance of protein function as several in vitro studies have demonstrated.

However, we have observed a wide and still unexplained phenotypic variability among the six carriers of the mutation subsequently identified within the same family. Comprehensive and serial neuropsychological assessments indicate that tests of frontal function showed the first alterations in all patients but these vary in severity. Another parkinsonian family member had mildly disorganized sleep architecture whereas the two asymptomatic carriers had minor changes in the PSG findings.

Although several episodes of bizarre behaviour at night were reported historically in the two symptomatic patients, we never observed abnormal behaviour during the PSG studies. No episodes of REM sleep behaviour disorder were recorded in any of these cases. Wszolek et al. So far, seven pathogenetic mutations are known and one of them GS is the most frequent single mutation inducing PD around the world with several geographic origins.

While GS and RC are geographically widespread, the former being found in the Basque Country, it is RG that is the most prevalent in our region and this mutation is rare outside northern Spain. From a clinical perspective, the disease observed in RG carriers is indistinguishable from that observed in noncarriers.

The prevalence of this mutation depends on ethnicity and the place of residence in the Basque country. Of the patients, 3. Interestingly, we have also detected GS carriers among Basque PD patients but the penetrance of this mutation is less complete than that of RG and the study of haplotypes is ongoing.

The first pedigree encompassed seven generations with 12 members suspected to be affected by their history in the four first generations, and 16 examined and affected in the last one. Ten autopsies were performed. In the second pedigree seven affected individuals were ascertained by history in the four first generations and three were diagnosed and examined in the two last ones. One autopsy was obtained.

El camino del Samurai

Their mean age at disease onset was 48 years and they often presented with dysarthria or parkinsonism; all developed Parkinsonism with a pyramidal syndrome, and half had amyotrophy. Other variable features included supranuclear gaze palsy, bulbar palsy, and dystonia. Bushi no ichi-gon o "La palabra de un samurai" trasciende un pacto de confianza y completa fe.


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Soporta todo interiormente, nada de gemidos y lloros. El era un verdadero y completo guerrero. Los factores que hicieron el Bushido son pocos y simples. The Code of Bushido These are the seven principles governing the code of Bushido, the moral guide of most samurai of Rokugan. Be faithful to him and your honor will grow.

Rompedlo, and your name will be reviled by future generations. GI - Honesty and Justice Be honest in your dealings with everyone. Believe in Justice, but not emanating from the others, but your own. For an authentic samurai there are no shades of gray in regards to honesty and justice. There is only right and wrong.


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YU - Heroic Value Rise above the masses of people who are afraid to act. Hiding like a turtle in a shell is not living. A samurai must have heroic courage.

7 caminos para seguir la filosofía samurái en tu vida

It is quite risky. Is dangerous. It's living life to the fullest, complete, wonderful. Heroic courage is not blind. She's smart and strong. Replace fear with respect and caution. It's not like the rest of men. Develop a power that must be used for the good of all. He has compassion. Help your peers at every opportunity. If opportunity does not arise, he goes out of his way to find her. No need to prove their strength. A samurai is courteous even to his enemies.

Without this show of respect, we are no better than animals. A samurai receives respect not only for his ferocity in battle, but also by the way they treat others. Authentic Samurai inner strength becomes evident in times of trouble. Meyo - Honor The Authentic samurai has only one judge of his own honor, and is himself. The choices you make and how you carry out are a reflection of who you really are.

Features – The Federal Civil Code of Mexico

You can not hide from yourself. By definition, countries within the civil law tradition -like Mexico 35 — have codes that form an important part of their legal system. Indeed, some of these codes may trace back their ancient legal parentage to the historically famous Corpus Juris Civilis , compiled under the direction and statutory authority of Roman Emperor Justinian in A.

For countries in Latin America with a direct Spanish origin 37 -such as Mexico-, codification works may find an early historical predecessor in the Siete Partidas instituted around by King Alfonso X of Castile and Leon. However, most of the modern codes relate to a common and universal ancestor which is the French Civil Code of , 39 known as Code Napoleon , designed and formulated by Napoleon Bonaparte, then First Consul, as a brilliant, elegant and concise work directed at unifying French private law.


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This explains the fact that, just a few decades after its adoption, this Code exercised a powerful and incisive influence in countries throughout Europe, Latin America, and East Asia for having defined both the substance and the scope of the Civil Law, as well as its format and legal architecture. In Mexico, the Civil Code is at the center of the multiplicity of legal acts and interactions that take place, on a daily basis, principally between and among individuals. The provisions of this Code constitute the crux of private law, i. The provisions in this Code, systematically ordained under each of its four parts i.

Interestingly, as suggested earlier, the reason for adopting a federal civil code for Mexico was not for revising or modernizing the language of the Civil Code but more for recognizing the fact that Mexico City had become an independent political entity. Accordingly, this new political entity -like the other thirty-one States- needed to have its own civil code, separate and formally different albeit substantively identical than the Federal Civil Code of Mexico.

This explains why said legal language was simply taken from one format and then literally poured into the other format without hesitation. Thus, the Federal Civil Code of still contains the core of those norms and principles inspired by the legal philosophy of the early XX century which was enshrined in the Code and which continues to apply now, federally, in the dawn of the XXI century.

Samurai Spain - Samurai Sword - Bushido Code

That code enunciates the most essential rights and obligations of individuals, as an inherent component of their private and personal affairs. Therefore, civil law is to be formulated and codified exclusively at the local level by each individual State.

As a result of the recent social and economic progress at the national and global scale, jointly with the impressive scientific and technological discoveries and developments over the last decades, the legal system entered into a rapid process of diversification and specialization. This process led to the unavoidable consequence of enacting a large and growing number of specific pieces of legislation.

These new legislative enactments not only derive from civil code subjects but also overlap, expand and especially substitute and modernize the provisions of the this code. Today, Mexico is undergoing an exciting and remarkable transformation. For example, a project directed at reforming and improving the administration of justice has already been sent to Congress. The relatively new notion of human rights is acquiring a deeper legal significance, thus enriching the already generous catalogue of constitutional rights enunciated by the Federal Constitution of and becoming a permanent and valuable component of the legal culture of the Mexican people.

These transformations are not limited to the legal arena. Mexico is currently undergoing substantial changes working towards a true democracy, improving its political system, revitalizing the economy, strengthening the national educational system, attempting a better and wider distribution of wealth, recognizing the special rights of children and the elderly, fighting poverty and diseases, and gradually beginning to recognize and protect the special rights of Indigenous peoples who have been abandoned and discriminated against since time immemorial.

There is no doubt that the Federal Civil Code enacted in , like its predecessors, is going to play a decisive and vital role in the transformation and modernization of Mexico. In addition, the same site gives access to the complete texts of federal statutes. See also , in this regard, Jorge A. Mexican Law on the Web. It entered into force on October 1, by decree pu-blished in the D. See Articles 86, 87 and 91; , para. VII; and and , respectively. The national sovereignty rests with the people who exercise said sovereignty through the Powers of the Union in cases within their jurisdiction, and through those of the states in matters that relate to their internal affairs, under the terms established by the Federal Constitution, and those of the States, respectively Art.

See the Diario Oficial of October 25, They contain basic principles of law and should be on interest to U. I, at , Bentham reports that the State of Zacatecas produced a Draft of a Civil Code which was published on December 1, , although it was never formally enacted. A similar draft was formulated in the State of Jalisco in See also Oscar Cruz Barney.

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See Cruz Barney, supra note 13 at For a U. Claggett and David M. Library of Congress, Washington, D. See also Pablo Macedo. Su Importancia en el Derecho Mexicano. Published by the author , at 2. West Group, Vol. I, at But the law must not be a privilege or a means for one class to dominate another. See Andrew Stephenson.