Publicado pela mesma. Parceria com Chris Naughton. Cativos na mente os pensamentos pertubam minha alma. Dilatam-se os desejos. Cativos na mente os pensamentos plenificam todo o meu ser. Desse mar de duvidas, sairei ileso? O que achar se um girassol me adivinhar? O tempo quer te levar! E se eu te toco sem resposta? Since the Corps owns land on either side of Lake Oahe, Dakota Access must obtain an easement from the Corps to dig the tunnel for the pipeline underneath the lake on federally owned lands.
The three federal agencies asked that the pipeline company voluntarily pause all construction activity within 20 miles east or west of Lake Oahe. The company refused. If Dakota Access is found to have knowingly damaged a historic or cultural resource with the intent of sidestepping the National Historic Preservation Act, the Corps cannot issue the easement.
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Meanwhile, Chairman Archambault has called on the Department of Justice to conduct an investigation into heavy-handed police tactics and possible civil rights violations. They also expressed concern at reports of intimidation, harassment and prosecution of Indigenous peoples exercising their right to peaceful assembly at Standing Rock. In a letter to President Barack Obama, Sen. Bernie Sanders asked that the president urge the Corps to stop construction within a mile between Highway and the Missouri River.
Finally, Sanders wrote that all federal permits should be suspended until the Corps completes a full cultural and environmental review. There is renewed hope for the Water Protectors. On November 1, Obama said the Corps is examining whether the pipeline can be rerouted to southern North Dakota to alleviate the concerns of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe and its allies.
Thank you for not using cluster bombs in civilian areas. Thank you for staying the hand of brutality with regard to bunker buster weapons. Samantha Power is the face of American diplomacy at the UN, where she gives ardent voice to American hypocrisy, deceit, intellectual dishonesty, and mockery of the rest of the world. Appalling as her performance has been, her portrayal is accurate, right down to her denial-laden confidence in American exceptionalism. Each month, I have come before you and presented an ever-worsening record of destruction and atrocity, grimly cataloguing the systematic destruction of a country and its people.
While my job is to relay to you the facts, I cannot help but be incandescent with rage. Month after month, worse and worse, and nothing is actually happening to stop the war, stop the suffering. They do not express rage, incandescent or otherwise; they express the snide posturing of politics and tactical advantage. Churkin said that the Russian Federation continued to negotiate with armed groups, continued to deliver humanitarian aid by the ton, and continued the eight-day-old bombing pause.
Churkin said Aleppo was worse because the Al Nusra Front had not yet fulfilled its promise to separate from more moderate opposition forces. Churkin said that negotiation demands were constantly changing, that fighters used civilians as human shields, that a political solution should remain the first priority, and that New Zealand should be thanked for working to build a consensus among the members to end the fighting. Samantha Power responded to the Russian assertion of facts not with rebuttal, but with sarcasm, mockery, and pettiness. Hers is an essentially ad hominem response that allows no credit for a bombing halt of any duration.
And no wonder. Power speaks for a country that bombs others more or less at will for as long as it likes. The US has bombed Afghanistan without serious surcease since , and Iraq almost as long. Mockingly, the ambassador from the country of military shock and awe acts as if her hands are clean from decades of devastation visited upon the region. Power acts as if the US aerial destruction brought to bear on defenseless tribes in Afghanistan and Pakistan or defenseless urban civilians in Syria, Iraq and Yemen had never happened.
Power has nothing to say about American use of depleted uranium weapons that leave their targets — both people and the land — as radioactive threats to human health for generations. Thank you for staying the hand of brutality with regard to bunker buster weapons…. The US manufactures cluster bombs — banned by most of the rest of the world — to sell to the Saudis to use in civilian areas in Yemen.
The US had no hesitation using bunker-busting bombs in laying waste to Iraq. Beyond her heavy-handed mockery, Power offered nothing useful. She might have admitted the constant pattern of American war crimes, especially since , whether torture, kidnapping, imprisonment at dark sites, drone strikes, or any of the other horrific acts of American policy throughout the Middle East since World War II.
William M. Boardman has over 40 years experience in theatre, radio, TV, print journalism, and non-fiction, including 20 years in the Vermont judiciary. For the vast majority of others, hard times keep getting harder. Most jobs created are rotten ones — part-time, low-pay, poor-or-no benefits ones. Most workers need two or three to survive. Real inflation is 9. Phony numbers hide reality.
Social Security recipients are cheated — this year no increase in benefits over , next year the one announced is too minuscule to matter. Williams explained the incumbent party lost the race for the White House every time since when annual real disposable income growth was below 2. In Q II , it was 1. NYT reinvented reality ignored all of the above. The Times is part of the state-sponsored conspiracy concealing dismal reality from the public. Costs of essentials to survive keep rising. Incomes fail to keep pace, so the standard of living for most Americans keeps falling.
Will Trump fix things? What about Hillary? Harder than ever hard times are likely if she succeeds Obama. Her promises otherwise were Big Lies. Times editors conceal ugly truths in boosting her candidacy instead of responsibly opposing it. Visit his blog site at sjlendman. Like Libya, Syria was meant to be swiftly overwhelmed by covert terrorism and military operations backed by the West and its regional allies, as well as a torrent of psychological, economic, and even cyber warfare.
To undermine Iran, which is predominantly Shiite, the Bush Administration has decided, in effect, to reconfigure its priorities in the Middle East. The U. A by-product of these activities has been the bolstering of Sunni extremist groups that espouse a militant vision of Islam and are hostile to America and sympathetic to Al Qaeda. The best candidate for recognition is the little-known Syrian Interim Government, or S.
Unlike many other opposition groups, which are based in Turkey, the S. And early last month, the US would admit that yet another terrorist leader was targeted and allegedly killed — also in Idlib, Syria. Earlier this year, militant groups captured the provincial capital, also called Idlib, as well as other towns and villages. The province of Raqqa fell to Islamic State extremists last year, after IS militants captured its provincial capital, also called Raqqa, in January Islamic State group has since declared the city as the seat of its caliphate, which spans a third of both Syria and Iraq.
He waited patiently while his company ate shawarma wraps, still warm after being hand-delivered from a local establishment up the road. He eyed his year-old son Marwan paternally as he dashed back and forth, tiny hands diligently disposing of tin foil and used food wrappers as people finished their meals. After a few moments, one of the journalists asked Sharabati to describe life in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Marwan, now sitting next to him, nodded in agreement. He stared at his feet, fidgeting with the ends of his oversized basketball jersey. The room of journalists sat quietly for a second, unsure of what to ask next.
A journalist holds aloft a sound bomb, used to disperse demonstrators in Hebron. Much has been written about the various causes of the fighting, during which Palestinians are frequently shot dead, often after attacking Israeli soldiers and citizens, usually with knives. Sharabati and his family offered me a glimpse into life under this occupation, detailing the trials endured by many Palestinians who are all too often literally caught in the crossfire.
Even within the notoriously tense West Bank, Hebron is a uniquely combustible city. Locals say this is largely due to the presence of Israeli settlements, which are considered invasive by Palestinians but vociferously defended by Israel Defense Forces IDF and the settlers themselves, who insist they have every right to be there.
Sharabati and his brother greeted me and other journalists on the Palestinian side of the heavily-armed barrier, surrounded by curiosity seekers who stopped to observe the arrival of yet another group of journalists. Hundreds of Hebron residents strolled past as we exited our vehicle, chattering in Arabic while shopping and eating in the heart of the thriving city. Yet the crowds steered clear of the nearby concrete blocks that marked the entrance to the checkpoint.
Israeli sound bombs and empty tear gas canisters littered the pavement in front of a looming, fence-covered military installation, the refuse of efforts by IDF soldiers to dispel various protests that have sprung up during the recent unrest. At the direction of our guide, we passed through the checkpoint one at time, a standard procedure made all the more unsettling in the wake of recent stabbings. A trio of heavily armed IDF soldiers greeted us on the other side, weapons out, as a fourth watched us from above.
After they let us pass, an eerily deserted street opened up before us, a far cry from the teaming masses we left behind a few moments before. Sharabati and his children, for instance, live on the Israeli side of the checkpoint, where only Palestinians with homes can enter if they have explicit permission from the Israeli army. Other areas ban Palestinian businesses, and some forbid them from even walking down the street. The draconian measures are justified by the Israeli government as necessary to ensure security; Sharabati and other Palestinian Hebron residents have few, if any, options for protest.
Although they can vote for leaders of the PA, they cannot vote in elections for the Israeli government, which ultimately controls many facets of their daily life. The decision to stay in their ancestral home in Hebron has not made life easy for Sharabati, or the others who live in his house.
Every member of his family could recount troubling run-ins with authorities and nearby settlers. Even his son Marwan, who struggled to reach the hat rack to put away a scarf during our visit, was reportedly detained by police in October for several hours. His alleged crime: holding a stone. A barrier pierced by bullets used to kill a Palestinian woman in late September. At least three different Palestinians were gunned down near their home during the recent surge of knife attacks, all of which showcase longstanding tensions among area groups.
One occurred in a neighboring section of the city on October 17, when an Israeli soldier opened fire after being stabbed by year-old Palestinian Tarek Ziad Natsha. Natsha died in the hospital. The soldier survived. At least two bystanders disputed this account, and many pointed out that she was behind a barricade when they opened fire. It was the second shooting in less than a month, however, that left a lasting impression on the Sharabati family.
Local Palestinians cited this as proof that the soldiers planted evidence, and the clip quickly went viral. The response from the IDF was swift. When the military learned of the tape, Sharabati said they raided his home, a common occurrence for Palestinians living under military rule. There is always someone awake.
They walk by it every day. Jack Jenkins. Senior Religion Reporter at ThinkProgress. Player of harmonica and ukulele. Le choc du vote de 52 pour cent en faveur du Brexit a donc ouvert une crise existentielle pour la bourgeoisie britannique. John Pilger:. Julian Assange :. Almost no-one is untouchable. The FBI is always trying to demonstrate that no-one can resist us. The Clinton campaign has said that Russia is behind all of this, that Russia has manipulated the campaign and is the source for WikiLeaks and its emails.
The Clinton camp has been able to project that kind of neo-McCarthy hysteria: that Russia is responsible for everything. Hilary Clinton stated multiple times, falsely, that seventeen U. That is false; we can say that the Russian government is not the source. WikiLeaks has been publishing for ten years, and in those ten years, we have published ten million documents, several thousand individual publications, several thousand different sources, and we have never got it wrong.
John Pilger :. The emails that give evidence of access for money and how Hillary Clinton herself benefited from this and how she is benefitting politically, are quite extraordinary. And twelve million dollars from Morocco …. Twelve million from Morocco yeah. For Hillary Clinton to attend [a party]. Can you talk about how the emails demonstrate the connection between those who are meant to be fighting the jihadists of ISIL, are actually those who have helped create it.
Now this is the most significant email in the whole collection, and perhaps because Saudi and Qatari money is spread all over the Clinton Foundation. Even the U. Julian Assange:. In fact, during her tenure as Secretary of State, total arms exports from the United States in terms of the dollar value, doubled. Of course the consequence of that is that the notorious terrorist group called ISIl or ISIS is created largely with money from the very people who are giving money to the Clinton Foundation.
She represents a whole network of people and a network of relationships with particular states. The question is how does Hilary Clinton fit in this broader network? One of the more significant Podesta emails that we released was about how the Obama cabinet was formed and how half the Obama cabinet was basically nominated by a representative from City Bank. This is quite amazing. If you were following the Obama campaign back then, closely, you could see it had become very close to banking interests. The connections with Saudi Arabia are so intimate. Why was she so demonstrably enthusiastic about the destruction of Libya?
What do the emails tell us about that? Barak Obama initially opposed it. Who was the person championing it? Hillary Clinton. She perceived the removal of Gaddafi and the overthrow of the Libyan state — something that she would use in her run-up to the general election for President. Not only did you have people fleeing Libya, people fleeing Syria, the destabilisation of other African countries as a result of arms flows, but the Libyan state itself err was no longer able to control the movement of people through it.
Libya faces along to the Mediterranean and had been effectively the cork in the bottle of Africa. Are they trying to put Trump in the Whitehouse? My answer is that Trump would not be permitted to win. Why do I say that? J ohn Pilger :. There is the accusation that WikiLeaks is in league with the Russians. We have published about , documents of various kinds that relate to Russia. Most of those are critical; and a great many books have come out of our publications about Russia, most of which are critical.
Our [Russia]documents have gone on to be used in quite a number of court cases: refugee cases of people fleeing some kind of claimed political persecution in Russia, which they use our documents to back up. Do you yourself take a view of the U. Do you have a preference for Clinton or Trump? What does he represent in the American mind and in the European mind? It means from an establishment or educated cosmopolitan, urbane perspective, these people are like the red necks, and you can never deal with them.
Because he so clearly — through his words and actions and the type of people that turn up at his rallies — represents people who are not the middle, not the upper middle educated class, there is a fear of seeming to be associated in any way with them, a social fear that lowers the class status of anyone who can be accused of somehow assisting Trump in any way, including any criticism of Hillary Clinton.
If you look at how the middle class gains its economic and social power, that makes absolute sense. I made an asylum application to Ecuador in this embassy, because of the U. They admitted that over a year ago. So that was a brave and principled thing for Ecuador to do. Now we have the U. WikiLeaks does not publish from the jurisdiction of Ecuador, from this embassy or in the territory of Ecuador; we publish from France, we publish from, from Germany, we publish from The Netherlands and from a number of other countries, so that the attempted squeeze on WikiLeaks is through my refugee status; and this is, this is really intolerable.
Tell us what would happen if you walked out of this embassy. I would be immediately arrested by the British police and I would then be extradited either immediately to the United States or to Sweden. We were not certain exactly what would happen there, but then we know that the Swedish government has refused to say that they will not extradite me to the United States we know they have extradited per cent of people whom the U. So over the last fifteen years, every single person the U.
People often ask me how you cope with the isolation in here. They adapt and start to tolerate abuses, they adapt to being involved themselves in abuses, they adapt to adversity and they continue on. So , yes, you adapt. The one real irritant is that my young children — they also adapt. They adapt to being without their father. Do you worry about them? Yes, I worry about them; I worry about their mother. They spent eighteen months in formal, adversarial litigation.
It is an illegal abuse. What is your legal explanation for this? The West has political prisoners. Of course, no state accepts [that it should call] the people it is imprisoning or detaining for political reasons, political prisoners. Here we have a case, the Swedish case, where I have never been charged with a crime, where I have already been cleared [by the Stockholm prosecutor] and found to be innocent, where the woman herself said that the police made it up, where the United Nations formally said the whole thing is illegal, where the State of Ecuador also investigated and found that I should be given asylum.
Those are the facts, but what is the rhetoric? The rhetoric is pretending, constantly pretending that I have been charged with a crime, and never mentioning that I have been already previously cleared, never mentioning that the woman herself says that the police made it up. No wonder Hillary Clinton deleted this email. Her sharing classified information with her daughter shows criminal disregard for national security. Hillary Clinton has repeatedly stated that she believes that the 55, pages of documents she turned over to the State Department in December included all of her work-related emails.
The timeframe for this request is February 2, , to January 31, Constitutional Crisis? WSJ reports Clinton bribery of number two man at the FBI; dissent within ruling powers including the armed forces and intelligence agencies;. Next US presidency will be a dysfunctional one which might lead eventually to a situation of martial law;.
According to the only scientific study that has ever been done of the matter, the US federal government is a dictatorship not a democracy. This was reluctantly reported by the researchers, whose own careers are dependent upon the aristocracy which they were finding actually controls that government. They did this so as for the meaning not to be clear to the US public. Neither scholars nor scholarly publishers wish to insult the people who ultimately are their top funders. The physical sciences are far less corrupt, far more scientific.
The biological sciences are in-between. Or, again, as they said it in their least-obscurantist phrasing of it:. Yet we found substantial estimated effects even when using this imperfect measure. Saying it is samizdat, in the US dictatorship. The simplest but no less accurate way of stating their finding is: the US, at least during the period the researchers probed, which was , was an aristocracy, no democracy at all.
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The country has been taken over by an aristocracy. They know she soon might be. The slam-dunks were just off-limits to them. There are at least six federal criminal laws which accurately and unquestionably describe even what Ms. Thus, conviction under them is far easier. That also presents for the prosecutor the strongest position in the event of an eventual plea-bargain.
They wanted the strongest possible case.
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His presentation was a brazen hoax. But what it shows is that maybe the only way that Clinton will be able to avoid going to prison is by her going to the White House. Motive is important in Ms. DiGenova said that with an open revolt brewing inside the FBI, Comey was forced to go public on Friday with reopening the investigation. In other words: Comey was between a rock the resignation-letters piling up on his desk from subordinates who felt that no person should be above the law and a hard place his ability to stay on at the FBI and not have a scandal against himself bleed out to the public from down below.
He told his wife that he was depressed by the stack of resignation letters piling up on his desk from disaffected agents. However, a serious criminal prosecution of Ms. Clinton would potentially start an unwinding of this dictatorship. The present writer will make no prediction. However, obviously, the results of the election on November 8th will certainly have an enormous impact upon the outcome.
The idea for this book arose from my previous experience writing Democracy in Cuba and the —98 Elections , which concentrated on the electoral process in Cuba. The goal at the time was to respond to the disinformation that there are no elections on the island. In order to write the text, I carried out my research on the spot.
I attended every step of the electoral process, from the municipalities to the national Parliament. Being embedded in this way vastly deepened my approach to understanding the process from within and, along with my photos, allowed me to provide readers with a lively narrative. This work in Havana and in a rural area took place from September to February I was only one of two non-Cubans to have had access to the entire electoral process. This unforgettable professional experience resulted in the first book, in It was published in English and subsequently very well received through my conferences in the U.
You can imagine that, especially in the U. In that country, the preconceived view that there are simply no elections in Cuba is very ingrained. Nonetheless, in general, the book developed a following while also providing me with crucial input to further evaluate my analysis. Today, people in the U. However, despite the positive reception, I did notice that the U. Thus, the idea to write another book began to emerge. In the following years, I further studied democracy and elections in other countries especially in the U. With these unexpected, but welcomed, new events despite their drawbacks and weaknesses and with input from readers in the U.
It would include an analysis of democracy as a concept, taking into account the above-mentioned experiences, evaluated by critically analyzing U. The goal was to strongly put forward the view that the U. I am certain that Punto Final readers can appreciate a profound critique of U. To deepen the concept, democracy is explored with a review of the participatory democracy experiences in Venezuela, Bolivia and Ecuador. In addition, there was a need for the Cuban approach to be illuminated through a more critical approach, in contrast to the previous book, so as not to idealize the Cuban political system.
I also decided to investigate the actual functioning of the state in Cuba at the municipal and parliamentary levels after the elections, something that I did not do in the previous book. To conclude my response to your question as to how the idea came about to write my latest book, I consider the publication to be a culmination of my active struggle and political thinking since my university days in Montreal in the s. This involved a loathing of U. Thus, the plan for the book was emerging as my virtual political testament. It was published in English in and in Spanish in It is the easy way out.
This approach avoids scientifically and painstakingly analyzing the inner workings of the system. How the system really operates from the point of view of the grass roots , rather than the stifling straitjacketed vision delimited by the spectacular rivalry of two parties, is bypassed. As will be discussed below, some commentators who relieve their conscience by accusing the U. My approach is based on an original case study of the Obama phenomenon as a natural outgrowth of the American political system since the seventeenth century.
How can one analyze the political process? The role of money in U. It is no secret to anyone. The same applies to the notorious corruption in the political system and the cut-throat unprincipled competition between the two main parties. To concentrate on these features is to fall victim to the U. Harping on the issues presents no real challenge to the status quo. The money, corruption and competition are not the main characteristics. Thus, to be attracted to these attributes is to fall into the trap of the U. In contrast, I examine the process from the point of view of the base, rather than from the top.
First, there is the insatiable individual political opportunism of a presidential hopeful. Second, as a precondition to being nominated and eventually elected, this person must firmly have demonstrated the capacity to co-opt sections of the electorate. This talent, linked to being endowed with personal characteristics e. The overall goal of the establishment is to avoid a revolt against the system by the people, first and foremost by African-Americans, who are traditionally the most left-wing and revolutionary force in that country.
In the case of Obama, at the point when Obama fully reassured the ruling circles as fully documented in my book that he was their man, immense funds flowed into the Obama coffers from the military, health insurance corporations and pharmaceutical companies, not to mention Wall Street. This support was fully backed by the majority of the main printed news media in reality, part of that same corporate elite as well as university student publications endorsing Obama.
In the —08 period, the U. The concern about all of the domestic and international credibility gaps indicated that Obama came in handy. He was not an innocent bystander, since he consciously flashed the right signals to the ruling elite. The decision to support Obama was surely the correct decision carried out by the ruling circle, as one can easily imagine how woeful the situation would have been for U.
This brings us to the second conclusion in this section. The corporate media and their two main parties use the election campaign to promote the two-party system as the only choice. This goal is sacred, since its objective is to suffocate any burgeoning struggle for a left-wing progressive alternative.
As a corollary, the U. He was directly involved with Hillary Clinton in executing it, profiting from the illusion being propagated about a new U. The Honduran resistance was, of course, in a very difficult position from the beginning. However, the White House bought valuable time for itself in the international arena.
It drew out the suspense by falsely claiming that Washington opposed the coup. Some governments in Latin America were also infected by illusions about Obama, thus depriving the heroic Honduran resistance with the regional support it so badly needed. Then came the Paraguay parliamentary coup. The book also shows the hand of Obama immediately after the April 14, Venezuelan Presidential elections in order to destabilize the country.
Obama was interfering in Venezuela right up to , when the Spanish edition of the book was published. There was resistance in the region, but it perhaps would have been far stronger if it had not been contained to a certain extent by U. As documented in my publication, his overture to blacks was skilfully written into both of his books and and two important campaign speeches dedicated to the race issue. While feigning empathy for blacks, he also sent the appropriate buzzwords to assure the ruling elite what they wanted to hear: the U.
Obama jumped into the White House on the trampoline of unbridled individual opportunism. His image, as documented in my book, was carefully groomed by a white Chicago political consultant who specialized in getting blacks elected to positions with already five victories to his credit at the time. This came in handy, for example, at the very beginning of the second Obama mandate in , when young Trayvon Martin was assassinated by an armed vigilante in Florida.
Obama went on TV to openly use the race card to try and co-opt the outrage among blacks and pacify them and their many allies. This approach was combined with the subtle pursuit of impunity. This de facto institutionalized impunity gave the green light to more police killings, as the world is aware. Obama is the worst phenomenon to ever happen to African-Americans. We can thus ask the question: would this have happened if the president were a Republican?
Well, I agree with them on one aspect only: the U. Thus, the U. No analyst or political force in the U. The Obama legacy of co-opting and pacifying African-Americans, combined with impunity to police violence, is now carrying on into the Clinton campaign. She will win the presidency for one of the same reasons that catapulted Obama into power: Obama was called upon by the majority in the ruling circles to co-opt — or at least neutralize — African-Americans. To answer this question, allow me to fast-forward to the current situation in the presidential election campaign, as I feel that readers should be aware of one regrettable phenomenon.
As I work on this interview, I observe that in the U. The ticket is now composed of presidential nominee Dr. The latter is a regular contributor to Black Agenda Report, mentioned above, as well as to Counter Punch, one of the most important alternative websites in the U. As recently as August 18, , Baraka said in an interview that he aims to continue the legacy of W.
Du Bois and Malcolm X, two of the most important historic revolutionaries among progressive Afro-Americans. To become more beautiful in the eyes of God, these girls would do things to their bodies that had the opposite effect, namely to make them ugly and undesirable in the eyes of society. Some turned to even more extreme forms of torture, such as rolling in broken glass, jumping in ovens, hanging from a gibbet, or praying upside down.
At the age of 16 she restricted her diet to bread, raw vegetables, and water, at 21 she stopped eating bread, and from 25 on she ate nothing, according to her biographer Raymond. At the end of her life, she drank no water for a month, and subsequently lay on her deathbed for another three months before she died at the age of Not all of those holy women starved themselves to death, some were cured. After Saint Dominic appeared to the gravely ill Benvenuta, she recovered from her eating disorder and happily indulged in a big bowl of rice cooked in almond milk that her relatives prepared for her.
Virgins were not the only ones to engage in extreme fasting. Married women and mothers are also known to have practiced it. How closely linked the carnal desires food and sex were in the medieval mind can be seen from the fact that one anorexic, Francesca, poured hot wax or pork fat on her vulva, which caused her excruciating pain during intercourse, and afterward she would vomit and cough blood in her room.
Eventually her husband gave up any claims to her body. As a baby she refused the breast of her sinful wet nurse, and even that of her saintly mother, Bridget, if her mother had had conjugal relations the night before. Fasting was, no doubt, used by some of these women as a way to escape the medieval marriage market, since it not only made them physically unattractive, but also unfit for procreation.
By taking only the host as nourishment, many hoped to achieve a much grander goal, the complete union with Christ, their heavenly bridegroom. In addition to the Christian majority medieval Europe was also home to a sizeable Jewish minority, whose food restrictions were generally more severe than those of the Christians. In the Old Testament, specifically in Leviticus and Deuteronomy, a distinction is made between clean and unclean foods. To eat kosher or pure food extends beyond the mere choice of a certain foodstuff to its production and preparation.
The correct handling of food is especially important in the case of animals, since it was animals that were ritually sacrificed in the temple of Jerusalem prior to its destruction in the first century A. Animals considered clean according to the Jews are those that chew the cud and have cloven hooves, in other words, herbivores.
This excludes the pig, the horse, the camel, and the rabbit. Carnivorous animals are forbidden because the Garden of Eden was a vegetarian one in which no killing was allowed. The list of unclean foods also includes all birds of prey and other birds such as owls and storks; it further excludes carrion and animals that have died of natural causes or disease, or have been hunted and killed by gunshot. Reptiles, snails, and frogs are also forbidden.
Unlike Christians, Jews are strictly prohibited from consuming blood, which is regarded as the signifier of life and seat of the soul. This means that animals must be slaughtered in a ritual manner by cutting their throats and allowing as much blood as possible to drain. Large animals are killed by professional slaughterers who are not only good butchers but also familiar with rabbinical law. The slaughter is supposed to be painless, carried out in one slash that severs the trachea and the jugular. An inspector then determines whether the meat is kosher or whether the animal shows signs of disease.
Fat from below the abdomen of the animal is not to be eaten, as well as the sciatic nerve or at times the entire hindquarter to which it is attached. To remove any remaining blood, the meat is soaked in water, then covered in coarse salt and rinsed again in water. But not only animals have traditionally been subject to strict laws.
Fruits, for instance, were supposed to come from a tree that was more than three years old. When it comes to the preparation of kosher food, the most important law is that of the separation of meat and milk. Even utensils for meat and milk are supposed to be strictly separated, and meals of meat and milk must be eaten a certain time period apart: six hours for Eastern Europeans, three for Germans, and one for Dutch Jews.
Despite the fact that the strict dietary laws of the Jews gave them a sense of identity and acted as a barrier between Jews and non-Jews, Jewish food throughout history has always reflected the culture s of the surrounding region as well. In the Middle Ages, two distinct Jewish food cultures evolved in Europe, one strongly indebted to the Mediterranean world, the other to central and northern Europe. Those belonging to the former have come to be known as Sephardim, and those belonging to the latter as Ashkenazim. The Sephardic or Spanish Jews are steeped in the rich cultural mosaic of medieval and early modern Spain, and their language, Ladino, is a Spanish dialect.
The Ashkenazim, by contrast, speak Yiddish, a late-medieval German dialect with Hebrew words mixed in. While Sephardic cuisine is full of foodstuffs the Arabs had introduced to Europe, eggplant, artichoke, and chickpea among them, Ashkenazi cuisine shows a preference for bagels, gefilte fish, matzoh ball soup, and the like. It is these foodstuffs and dishes, exported to the New World by Jewish immigrants from central and eastern Europe, that today have become synonymous with Jewish food.
Both groups, however, observe the same Jewish festivals, in which food has an important ritual function. The Sabbath is the Jewish counterpart to the Christian Sunday. It begins on Friday at sundown and ends on Saturday at sundown. During this time work is prohibited, and this includes kitchen work such as lighting fires, cooking, curing, grinding flour, or baking. Sephardic cuisine did develop a way for stews, known as adafina, to cook overnight from Friday to Saturday in communal ovens or buried in the ground. On Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish New Year, dates, figs, and pomegranates are traditionally eaten, as are pastries with sesame.
To achieve purity, white foods are eaten, and golden ones, especially those colored with saffron, are supposed to ensure happiness. Sharp, bitter, and black foodstuffs are avoided. Sukkot is also known as the Feast of Tabernacles or booths. Jews celebrate this harvest festival in huts made from plants and branches. The four symbolic plants that are part of Sukkot are the citron, the young shoot of the palm tree, the myrtle bush, and the branch of a willow. Of central importance to Passover is the Seder meal.
Set out on a decorative Seder plate are green vegetables representing new growth, which are dipped in salt water, bitter herbs in memory of the bitter days of slavery, a roasted egg and a lamb-shank bone, which both represent sacrificial offerings in the temple, and a fruit-and-nut paste to remember the building of the pyramids for the pharaohs. Throughout the Middle Ages, the difference in food customs between Christians and Jews was the source of endless conflicts. Since Christians were the overwhelming majority, their use of food to exclude, stigmatize, and demonize Jews often resulted in persecution, forced conversion, or expulsion, most notorious perhaps the decree signed by Ferdinand and Isabella in In an effort to marginalize the Jewish minority, Christian Europe did everything in its might to portray Jews as hostile to the Christian faith, and often it was food that became the focal point.
But the laws of exclusion started much earlier, namely at the very beginning of life, with breast feeding. It was Gregory the Great who forbade Christians to employ Jewish wet nurses, and at the Third Lateran Council in Jews were no longer allowed to employ Christian wet nurses.
As part of the Christian propaganda, Jews were accused of making Christian wet nurses drain their breast milk in the latrine for three days after they had taken Communion. The Synod of Avignon in went even a step further, barring Jews from eating meat on Christian fast days. One way of discrediting Jews was to identify them with their taboo foods, first and foremost the pig. Sculptures depicting the Judensau Jewish pig were found in churches of various German towns, including Nuremberg and Wittenberg.
Targeting both the Jewish blood taboo and the Jewish and Christian taboo against eating fellow humans, it was alleged that Jews practiced a ritualistic form of cannibalism by stealing, torturing, and slowly killing Christian children for their blood, which they supposedly consumed with their friends. In a similar vein, Jews were at times also accused of desecrating the body of Christ in the form of the host by torturing it until it began to bleed or caused miracles to happen.
See, for instance, Guualterus H. John and Doreen Weightman London: Cape, Beardsworth and Keil, Sociology on the Menu, Elborg Forster and Patricia M. Bynum, Holy Feast and Holy Fast, Kevin P. Simeon Stylites is one monk who supposedly accomplished this feat. Simpson and E. Weiner, 20 vols. See ibid. Bynum, Holy Feast and Holy Fast, 60f. Wiswe, Kulturgeschichte der Kochkunst, Morton W. Quoted in Magennis, Anglo-Saxon Appetites, Magennis, Anglo-Saxon Appetites, Bloomfield, The Seven Deadly Sins, 66f.
Gentry, ed. Rudolph M. Bell, Holy Anorexia, x. Bell, Holy Anorexia, 19f. Bynum, Holy Feast and Holy Fast, f. Knopf, , esp. Roden, The Book of Jewish Food, —25; esp. Roden, The Book of Jewish Food, Roudinesco, ibid. E, principalmente, mais de 20 mil restos de plantas.
Paulo" de 5 de julho de Eros luta por "eternizar-se" numa ordem permanente. Ela assume uma nova racionalidade. Pode ser o oposto. A "natureza conservadora" dos instintos acabaria repousando num presente realizado em sua plenitude. A morte deixaria de ser uma finalidade dos instintos.
The maristan and its role in Nasrid Granada Alhambra Introduction Islamic Spain has left enough material remains to present a fruitful field of study for archaeologists and architectural historians. Prominent structures such as palaces and mosques have inspired many academic studies, as they have throughout the Islamic world. However, edifices such as health-care buildings do not attract the same attention.
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One such is the maristan, or hospital, founded in fourteenth-century Granada. The maristan of Granada is situated in a valley next to the River Darro on the periphery of the Albaicin urban area, which extends to the north. Across the river to the south risesthe hill on which the Alhambra palace is located. This Muslim hospital is the only one in southern Spain that survived into modern times, but it is mentioned by only a limited number of scholars. The edifice is now reduced to ruins, so this chapter is based upon a combination of archaeological findings and historical records.
Although the maristan was founded in the fourteenth century, it survived as a building until the nineteenth century, changing in function several times. After the late fifteenth-century conquest of Muslim Granada by the Catholic Spanish monarchs, the maristan was turned into a mint known as the Casa de la Moneda, a role it occupied until the seventeenth century.
In it became the property of the Convent of Belen. However, this was not fully carried out, as the southern side had been integrated into neighbouring buildings. In the twentieth century the building was rebuilt to serve as a residence, which was itself partly demolished in Archaeological excavations commenced the same year. The nineteenth-century drawings by the architect Enriquez made prior to the destruction of the building are subject to question, since they appear to conflict with the findings from the excavations.
Furthermore, references to this hospital in sources concerning Islamic Granada are rare. No one other than him was rightly guided to [do] this since the initial [Muslim] conquest [of Iberia], despite its great necessity and the evident need. Concern for religion and a pious spirit spurred him on. Dwellings, a large court, copious flowing water and fresh air were prepared, along with store rooms and basins for ablutions, the regular provision of wages and good organisation — it was a greater [act of] philanthropy than the hospital in Cairo — with its wide court, sweet air, water gushing from fountains of marble and black stone rippling like the sea, and overhanging trees: he gave his agreement to me and allowed me to create it by his permission, and I carried it out by the goodness of his spirit.
Although the work of Ibn al-Khajib provides some information about the relationship of the hospital to the rest of the city and the wider landscape, this area requires further investigation. Even though the aesthetic and sanitary qualities of its valley location are obvious, in my view the placement of the maristan in its specific position has greater significance. Using a combination of historical sources and archaeological evidence, the present study seeks to understand the symbolic topography of the maristanin relation to Granada and the Alhambra.
Initially, the walled city of Granada was restricted in area, centred on what is now the church of San Nicolas at the top of the hill of the Albaicin district. This is believed to be the location of the pre-Islamic city. Probably in existence since the seventh century BC, this settlement was under Roman rule until its occupation in the fifth century BC by the Visigoths.
The south remained under constant Muslim rule until , when its last Muslim rulers, the Nasrids, were defeated by Ferdinand and Isabella and their domain became part of early modern Spain. In the first centuries after the conquest, Granada was not as important as the nearby city of Elvira Ilbira , located to the north-west, a Roman foundation that had also served as the Visigothic provincial capital and was used by the Umayyads as their provincial centre in turn.
Elvira began to decline in the late tenth century, possibly as a result of the military reforms of the Umayyad minister, Ibi Abi Amir al-Mansur, which weakened its defence by redistributing its Arab garrison. Ziri, for help and a large manhaja Berber contingent arrived in the vicinity. As civil unrest in al-Andalus grew the Zirids decided to transfer to a more defensible location than the existing settlement on the plain.
Buluggin noted in his memoirs: "It was unanimously agreed that the whole population would choose for themselves some high mountain and a fortified position at great altitude. There they would build their homes and then move to the new site lock, stock and barrel. They would make it their headquarters and desert Elvira. Their eyes lighted on a lovely plain filled with both rivers and trees. All the land around was watered by the Genil, which has its source in the Sierra Nevada. They were quick to perceive that from its central position the mountain on which the city of Granada now stands commanded all the surrounding country.
In front lay the Vega, on either flank al-Zawiya and al-Sath, and behind the Jabal district. They were enthralled by the site and, all things being fully considered, they came to the conclusion that it lay in the heart of a prosperous region among a concentrated population and that an attacking enemy would be able neither to besiege it nor to prevent anyone from leaving or entering on any mission required by the welfare of the inhabitants.
They therefore began to build there, and all of them to a man, both Andalusian and Berber, took upon themselves the task of setting up home there. Elvira then went to rack and ruin. In the war-torn atmosphere of early eleventh-century al-Andalus, security was apparently of the utmost importance. Additionally, the prosperity of the region would allow the population to thrive in a time of peace. Furthermore, the move of the Elvirans does not appear to have been marked by any discontent on the part of the Granadans. This must have been the hill opposite the Alhambra, across the river Darro, now part of the Albaicin area.
By the late eleventh century the city had extended west and south of the old settlement. Although the maristan was not to be established for another years, its location already represented a significant urban space. It was occupied by a particular kind of wall system known as a coracha Arabic qawraya.
Naghrila, in the mid-eleventh century. Buluggin embarked on a plan to restore and reinforce the defences of the city in an attempt to repel the threat to his autonomy presented by the Almoravids from North Africa. In the Iberian peninsula the main beneficiaries of this process were the monarchs of Castile and Aragon who conquered vast tracts of Muslim territory and reduced Muslim power in the peninsula to the small enclave of Granada where a Arab notable from Arjona, Muhammad b. Yesuf b. Nasr, known as Ibn al-Ahmar, had established his rule.
By this time, the city had expanded beyond the Zirid walls, incorporating the coracha into the built-up area. With this expansion to the banks of the river, and the subsequent construction of the Nasrid irrigation system still in existence today, the coracha became redundant. This earlier structure has been identified as a funduq hostelry on the basis of its groundplan. Sources from the period after the Christian conquest of Granada speak of the General Hospital of the Moriscos. This complex, of which no trace now remains, was almost certainly a Muslim foundation despite its absence from the Islamic historical sources.
They were divided into different sections for men and women and housed a variety of medical specialities, including surgery, ophthalmology, gynaecology and a pharmacy. In some ways they were microcosms of the world outside, including auxiliary facilities such as baths, mosques and madrasas. Approximately m north-east of the maristan stands a minaret, now the church tower of San Juan de los Reyes, indicating the prior existence of a mosque on the site. A similar pattern developed in Marinid Fez.
Most maristans included baths within their premises. Islamic culture connected baths with notions of spiritual as well as corporal purity and purification. It is not coincidental that the architecture and iconography of the royal complex itself evoked the gardens of paradise. The maristan and plague epidemics The need for a hospital in the fourteenth century and thus the foundation of the maristan at this time might be attributed to a contemporary Muslim understanding of the economic importance of keeping the population healthy in a era of epidemic disease.
Ibn Khaldun — , who was in Granada in ,39 recognised that a large population creates wealth but also that cities were hotbeds of disease: the commonest cause of epidemics is the pollution of the air resulting from the denser population that fills it with corruption and dank moisture. At the time of the foundation of the mAristAn in the fourteenth century, outbreaks of plague marked the history of the whole of Europe, including both Christian and Muslim Spain.
The Christian kingdoms neighbouring the kingdom of Granada appear to have suffered greatly from the Black Death. The Church propagated these beliefs and the usual recommendations for counter-measures were limited to flight and prayer, rather than more pragmatic strategies. Hospitals were generally run by religious orders whose experience of treating the body was limited. These were to be built close to the Franciscan houses and were to be under the direction of the guardian and friars. The economic demands of the project appear to have exceeded the original budget by some distance, and these financial difficulties continued: "By Her bequest had become a burden which the Franciscans were not equipped to bear, a fact which raises the question whether the Valencian house, after its initial prosperity Christian attempts to establish and maintain a hospital in fourteenth-century Valencia were thus largely unsuccessful.
Inflation and financial mismanagement were partly responsible, but it is notable that the increased demand created by the various epidemics also formed an impediment to its smooth functioning. Its placement appears to have been determined by available land plots and its association with the monarchy was restricted to its name.
Its association with the Franciscans ensured that it was seen as a religious rather than a medical facility, a hospice for the dying rather than a hospital offering remedies. Such was the poor condition of the hospital that finally the city council decided to take matters into its own hands, questioning the competence of both the Franciscans and the royal house.
This suggests some recognition of its importance for the people of Valencia but also a failure to see epidemics as a medical problem for much of the fourteenth century. By contrast, in Granada the Black Death does not appear to have been conceptualised in the same way and did not lead to a questioning of either the scholarly establishment or the Nasrid rulers.
In fact the second half of the fourteenth century is often seen as a high point in Nasrid political and economic stability. The maristan was founded in at the height of the first plague epidemics, making it possible that the royal endowment was intended to be publicly recognised as an effective state response to the epidemics. Muhammad V would certainly have benefited from such a statement of his power, legitimacy and concern for his subjects. He had returned to power three years before, after a period of political instability and intrigue among the Nasrid elite.
Having regained his throne after the brief reigns of his half-brother and uncle, Muhammad V was keen to present the plague as a disaster for the Christians and minimise its physical and psychological impact in Granada. In addition to being one of the greatest literati and courtiers of his age, Ibn al-Khajib has also gained some notoriety in the west owing to his forthright support of the infection theory with respect to plague.
However, Muslim attitudes to plague differed from Christian ones in significant ways. First, they perceived the plague as a form of martyrdom and mercy for its Muslims victims but a punishment for the infidel. Second, they considered it wrong for Muslims either to enter or flee from a plague-stricken area,providing some rough and ready quarantine.
They were more likely to see the epidemics ravaging the Iberian peninsula as a victory for Islam against the Christians of the north. Moreover, Muslims did not believe in flight and some had a sufficiently scientific approach to deal with the disease from a medical point of view. Ibn al-Khajib was close to Muhammad V and celebrated his foundation of the maristan as a meritorious act from both a religious and a civic perspective.
Certainly it was important to Muhammad V to be seen as victorious in domestic politics and in the perpetual struggle with Christendom, and his response to the plague functioned as a symbol of his victory and a much needed public service. Politics, faith and topography In addition to textual references to the maristan of Granada we also have its foundation stone, which has a long inscription confirming the material presented above.
This inscription stone was originally placed above the main entrance of the maristan and was moved to the Alhambra when the maristan was demolished in the nineteenth century. This stela provides us with valuable information about the date, sponsor and purpose of the complex and is here quoted in full: "Praise be to God. Nasr al-Ansari al-Khazraji. May God in His satisfaction make his works successful, and grant him his hopes for his deep virtue and immense merit, for by [founding the maristan] he has performed a good deed with no precedent since Islam entered these lands, and by it he has embellished the border of honour upon the collar of the vestments of jihad and sought the face of God in his desire for [eternal] reward — and God is possessor of the greatest virtue — and he has prepared a light to spread before him and after him on the day when wealth and children will be of no benefit unless a man comes to God with a sound heart.
Its construction began in the second third of the month of Muqarram in the year —6 and what God intended was completed and the pious endowments set up in the middle third of Shawwal in the year —7 and God does not allow the reward of those who do good works and charity to be lost and destroyed, May God bless our Lord Muhammad, seal of the Prophets, his family and all his companions.
The foundation of public buildings was the sine qua non of a ruler. In earlier times, a ruler indicated his power by the construction of a great mosque, which was his prerogative and that of his appointed governors. By the Nasrid period, however,it was the norm for rulers to found madrasas, mausoleums and, on occasion, hospitals.
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Although the primary universal religio-political position of caliph no longer existed in the fourteenth century, many western Islamic rulers perpetuated aspects of the role. This is implied in the case of Muhammad V by his use of the title imam alongside that of sultan, the first denoting religious leadership, the second politico-military power.
It brought the sultan closer to God but also created a triangular relationship between God, the sultan and the people of Granada. It was not an obvious choice of foundation: the inscription claims that it had no precedent in al-Andalus and therefore set Muhammad V apart from other rulers.
Since the Umayyad caliphate of Cordoba, dedication to jihad had been a necessary attribute of a ruler in al-Andalus and Morocco. Although this most obviously meant resistance towards the Christian kingdoms of the north, it also meant extirpation of Islamic heterodoxy and rebellion, which now appear symbolised by the Black Death.
Although other buildings might have fulfilled the same function, the maristan combined the temporal and religious orders in a unique way and had a particular resonance in a period when Granada, like the Christian kingdoms, was suffering grievously from plague epidemics. One may take the symbolism of the maristan one step further.
Within the maristan, the body was healed, giving the soul back its kingdom to rule. Each individual who entered the hospital thus functioned as a microcosm of Granada, the city healed by its ruler, Muhammad V. Conclusions The topographical meaning of the maristan of Granada has formed an intriguing study. In some ways, its positioning adhered to Islamic norms.
It was located near a river with clean, fresh air in an area where religious and ritual buildings such as mosques, oratories and baths clustered. However, its precise position on the site of an earlier fortification on the main ascent to the palace depended on circumstances specific to Granada. The maristan was by definition a place designated for the treatment of disturbed health, and should therefore be seen within this context. During its time, diseases, and specifically outbreaks of plague such as the Black Death, were not only common, but provided a stimulus for social change. In the Christian Spanish kingdoms, the authority of both religious and secular authorities was subject to question by the people.
In contrast, in the kingdom of Granada the plague was used to reinforce the power of Islam and of the king, who was able to present the mAristAn as an expression of victory. In order for the building to play this role it needed to be sited in a clear relationship with the other burgeoning monumental expression of Nasrid success, the Alhambra. Moreover, the clustering of religious structures in the same area provided the inhabitants of the city with a transitional space through which they moved from the mundane commercial and social life of the city to the transcendent royal city above, which symbolised paradise and the role of the Nasrid sultan as mediator between God and his Muslim flock.
I would also like to thank the editors of this book for giving me the opportunity to publish this study and for their valuable comments, help and suggestions. Lastly, I would like to dedicate this work to Dr Layla Shamash, who passed away in By means of designing a craft centre in Granada for her studio as part of my Graduate Diploma in Architecture, I was given the opportunity to get better acquainted with the city. Granada: Imp. Alhambra, , pp. Almagro, A. Orihuela and C. For an account of the latest information concerning the mAristAn as well as proposals for its reconstruction and use, see A.
Almagro and A. Bosque Maurel, Geografia Urbana de Granada. Buluggin, last Zirid Amir of Granada. Leiden: Brill, , p. Baghdad: Dar al-lurriyya, , p. Pasqual de Gayangos. London: Oriental Translation Fund, , vol. Garcia Granados and V. Zaragoza: n. Grabar, The Alhambra. London: Allen Lane, , pp. Dodds ed. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, , —62, p. Harvey, Islamic Spain to Jules Goury, and in and by Owen Jones, Archt. London: O.
Palavras deste paradigma flexional:
Jones, , text accompanying plate Dunlop, G. Colin and Bedi N. Cairo: P. Singapore: Concept Media Ltd, , 20—7. Heck and K. Lippincott eds , Symbols of Time in the History of Art. Turnhout: Brepols, , — Gerli ed. An Encyclopedia. London: Routledge, , — Issawi, An Arab Philosophy of History. Selections from the Prolegomena of Ibn Khaldun of Tunis — London: John Murray, , p.
Hillgarth, The Spanish Kingdoms — Oxford: Clarendon Press, , vol. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, , pp. Menocal, R. Scheindlin and M. Sells eds , The Literature of al-Andalus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , —72, p. Monroe, Hispano-Arabic Poetry. A Student Anthology.
Amira Bennison, personal communication. Maria de la Concepcion Vasquez de Bento. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, , p. By Athena C. Bennison and Alison L. Gascoigne, Routledge, New York, , excerpts p. Rama, Ambos estariam fadados ao desaparecimento. Prepare o bolso. Produzem quatro. Os custos sobem nos Estados Unidos. Texto de Mauro Zafalon publicado na "Folha de S. Quem seriam os defuntos? Paulo" de 13 de julho de Throughout the history of slavery in the Americas, some masters voluntarily manumitted freed their slaves.
A similar scheme prevailed in Brazil and the sugar colonies of the Caribbean. Almost everywhere, female urban slaves constituted the majority of those who benefited from voluntary manumissions and self-purchase. The children of these women were also free. In addition, some free white fathers emancipated their children born of slave mothers; the state also emancipated slaves from time to time for a variety of reasons. The first group of free, or semifree, Africans arrived in the early 16th century with the original European colonists.
The second came during the 19th century, mainly as part of a British-sponsored attempt to provide an alternative source to African slave labor. Besides these free immigrants—of whom about 50, settled in the British and French West Indies—each slave society contained, almost from its beginning, an ever-expanding component of blacks who had been freed by manumission. By the beginning of the 19th century this free population had become a fixture of every slave society in the Americas.
In the New Granada provinces of what today are the independent states of Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador, the free black population in was ,, whereas African slaves numbered only 20,