The technologist and clinical pathologist make the somewhat subjective decision of how to divide the peaks into the several fractions. The area under each peak is proportional to the percentage of that fraction in serum. The concentration of protein in each fraction in serum is determined by multiplying the total protein concentration of the fluid obtained from the chemistry analyzer, by the Biuret reaction by the percentage value of each fraction i. The absolute values are then compared to reference intervals for the concerned species, if available.
The contents of the alpha, beta, and gamma bands in serum protein electrophoresis are quite varied, but in most species the most clinically relevant ones can be summarized as follows:. The shape of the electrophoretogram tracing and the quantity of protein in the different fractions provides information about the underlying disease, i. At Cornell University, we currently have reference intervals for dogs, cats, horses, cattle, and alpacas. Hemolysis results in the formation of hemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes.
Types of Biopsies
As indicated above, this response occurs rapidly within hours and decreases rapidly. Direct measurement of positive acute-phase proteins, e.
- Electrophoresis fractions.
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Note, that some acute-phase proteins are increased by drug treatment. Acute-phase proteins found in smaller amounts nanogram or picogram quantities, e. Thus, measurement of specific acute-phase proteins is a more sensitive test of the acute-phase response than electrophoresis. Polyclonal gammopathy in a cat with gingivitis. Inflammation, infection or antigenic stimulation of any cause e. Immunoglobulins produced by lymphocytes and plasma cells in immune responses are from a variety of lymphocyte or plasma cell clones and include a variety of immunoglobulin classes.
Some diseases can produce a concurrent acute-phase response and a polyclonal gammopathy, e. Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus infection in cats, Leishmania infection in dogs, systemic inflammation. In these cases, you will typically see the following ELP pattern:. Immunoglobulin A gammopathy on serum electrophoresis: A diagnostic conundrum. Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; Relationship between paraprotein polymerization and clinical features in IgA myeloma.
Br J Haematol ; Hypercalcaemia due to calcium binding by a polymeric IgA kappa-paraprotein. Ann Clin Biochem ;28 Pt 3 Overestimation of hemoglobin in a patient with an IgA-kappa monoclonal gammopathy. Arch Pathol Lab Med ; Monoclonal gammopathy with double M-bands: An atypical presentation on serum protein electrophoresis simulating biclonal gammopathy. Case Report. Stefano Fanti.
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Multiple Myeloma and Related Serum Protein Disorders
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