But after a little while he moves off to the bungalow, and when I follow him later, through the scented dusk hung with fireflies, I find him dancing to the strains of the gramophone, with a rapt and passionate air, clasping in his arms a Chilian lady, the wife of the owner of the bungalow. Her hair, which flows loose, reaching below her waist, is still dripping with sea-water, from her swim. A Czecho Slav, who is of the party, comes and sits on a little sofa by me, and we talk together in villainously bad French, the only two of the party who are not dancing.
The people here, however, tell me that it is out of the question; that never, never in the whole history of the island has there been any schooner taking that route. I do not altogether feel that I am beaten; but as an alternative I think that I may go to Cook Island. Hearing that there is a schooner laid up on the island, being fitted with a new boom, and that she is shortly going on there, I have this morning been out to see her. Such is the languor of the place that, though she lies in a little backwater less than half a mile away, I cannot bring myself to walk there; I must hire a motor, for which I am charged an altogether exorbitant sum.
To board the schooner I had to walk one of the longest planks I had ever crossed, and even when I got there my errand seemed in vain. She is very trim and neat, and is in charge of a friendly Danish captain, but there are only two berths on board and those are in the saloon. Though both of these are taken, the captain seemed to think there was a chance that one of them might be given up at the last moment, but when one has sampled the heat of that saloon and remembers the p. These camphor-wood boxes smell delicious, and so do the clothes which are kept in them, free from all danger of moth.
My chest is three feet long by about a foot and a half broad, and the same depth. It is clasped with brass, with a brass lock, and is, I fully believe, going to be the pride of my life. The Chinaman from whom I bought the box is round like a globe-fish and sleek as a cat. He was very anxious that I should buy a pearl instead of a box, feeling very certain, I should imagine, that even with the pearl I should still find myself unable to do without the box.
The pearl did, indeed, look a far more tempting trifle for immediate purchase, lying upon a scrap of black cloth in the palm of my hand. I have been to the shop several times since, once to buy a pair of straw shoes for the bath-room, and once to buy a little p. I intended to get one bowl only, but this the Chinaman would not have, declaring that nobody ever could, or ever would, drink tea without company, and forced me to take two. When I got home I discovered that one of the bowls was cracked and I had to go back next day to change it, as I believe he fully intended that I should do; whereupon the pearl was once again pressed upon me, at a greatly reduced price.
To-day I walked very slowly past the shop, for I must say that pearl draws me, so that I find my footsteps continually turning in that direction. Seeing me as he stood peering out of his dark shop, the proprietor beckoned me in, looking very sleek and sly; and when I got up to the counter he was p. I took it from him and he made a pretense of hunting for the little piece of black material upon which to show it off, apparently distracted when he could not find it.
As it happened, I had in my bag a powder-puff with a black satin cover. I laid the pearl upon this and walked to the door so as to catch the light, returning at once in a great rage. His eyes met mine blankly for a moment; then he smiled very sweetly, and, curiously enough, with the greatest satisfaction, really liking me for having found him out. Unlocking a drawer, he took out what I called my pearl, twisted in a tiny screw of newspaper. It seemed to me, however, that I had found some basis for refusing to buy it, bolstering up my strength of mind, and with great dignity I walked out of the shop, declaring that I should never come near it again.
Yet I know in my own heart that this particular Chinaman and I shall go on playing the same game for so long as I remain in Papeete.
There are dozens and dozens of Chinese shops here, the most intriguing of all being those of the Chinese druggists. The whole of the ground-floor is a store, while above this is one large room, one smaller room,—which pretends to be set apart for white people,—and a few little semi-private rooms like bathing-boxes, with muslin curtains across the empty doorways, and a veranda set with tables. It is Saturday and the whole place was crowded with people, many of whom had evidently come in from the country, for they all were crowned with fresh flowers.
There were men of every color there. No collars were worn even by the white men, while one—an Englishman, I found out later—was in nothing more than a bathing-dress and a very great deal of tattoo. The noise was terrific: if shouting failed to bring a Chinaman, or one of his Tahitian waitresses, the people took up their chairs and banged them on the floor, while all the time an agonizing admixture of many different tunes was strummed upon innumerable guitars, and concertinas mingled with the sounds of a gramophone braying out jazz music—or so-called music.
The Tahitian waitresses, with their flowing hair, moved superbly, and altogether aloof, p. All the ladies of the town were there. There was one, very ugly and badly dressed, but with such an air, such a beckoning assurance that every man in the place turned to look at her as she walked down the room with her breasts thrust out, her shoulders squeezed up high and tight, swinging her hips in the way in which they all do. Coming back along the waterside I found a great number of little schooners and ketches anchored there, pulling at their ropes with a soft whimper, for the tide was going out, endeavoring to draw them with it.
In the stern of one boat some one was playing a guitar and men and women were singing. This serenade was broken into by the most appalling, long-drawn shrieks as I passed the bows, growing louder and louder, more and more piercing, until they ended in one long, horrid gurgle. A sound which made it plain to the meanest imagination that a little pig—and all boats carry them, running about the deck—was being killed for the Sunday p. This morning I came out to stay at Taravao with Maou-u and his family.
An artist from Papeete arrived at the same time, and wanted to be put up, greatly embarrassing Maou-u, for he had promised the guest-house to me. All the meals were taken on the veranda outside, the cooking done over a fire, or, best of all, in a hole in the ground among hot stones, a little distance away. The artist is to have his meals with me on my veranda. In reality I was too happy to sleep. A tiny, pale, gold-skinned boy came and squatted on his hunkers on the floor, gazing up at me as I lay upon my bed.
He fitted in with the general scheme of coloring, for the walls of the guest-house are made of a basketwork of fine, split, goldy-tinted bamboo, and there is a high-peaked roof of plaited palm-leaves bleached to a pale biscuit tint. There are three windows and three very wide doorways. From one of these doorways you look down up the inland lagoon and the causeway; from another upon the great sweep of bay with its islands; the third gives into the garden with its pink and scarlet and rose cannas, crimson and yellow crotons, multi-tinted zinnias, roses and palms.
Every scene, hung like a magic curtain across the doors and windows, is so altogether beautiful that upon whichever side I turn I find myself unable to keep my eyes shut. We make our way along the road for a little, then turn off through deep bush to a bend where p. The three children climb up into the trees, a height full forty feet above the water, and dive, dropping in a sitting position, crossing their legs as they touch it.
Armani, aged nine; Spole, aged seven; and Charlie, only four but tall as a child of six. Both the little girls have long, flowing straight hair, and it is delightful to see them swimming—racing beneath the water, like small fishes, their hair streaming out beside them like fine, elongated, semi-transparent fins. They are totally without fear, though the water is at least ten feet deep. All three children are swift and supple, finely made and fair as golden shadows, for their mother has Alsatian blood and is a beautiful woman with blue-gray eyes.
Maou-u joins his children in the deep water, but we four women go on farther to a place where there is a beach of round pebbles. Following the directions of the others, I have brought a cake of soap, a clean dress, and a princess petticoat with me. I bathe in the petticoat I have on; then when I come out of the water p. And this, it seems, is the rule of the day, to change your clothes twice and bathe twice,—then at night to bathe your feet the last thing before getting into bed.
The three children come running up, and, seeing that I have not yet finished dressing, immediately turn their backs, sitting like three small gold-tinted statues motionless upon the stones at the edge of the water until I am once more presentable. It is only five in the morning, but I could sleep no longer and am sitting on my veranda, waiting for the sunrise, which begins with a silver-gilt diffusion of light over the entire scene.
From the exultation and joy in her voice one might think that such a thing had never happened before. By the time I join her, the outer and inner lagoons are like sheets of gold with crimson roses reflected upon them; the mountains at the back glow with purple and gilt, while p. Already the children are bathing in the inner lagoon, laughing and shouting, splashing golden drops around them; they bring a small fish to show to me, flat and broad and of the color of brilliant blue enamel shot with violet.
For a few minutes they play about around me, then run back into the water, catching fish in their hands and throwing them up to their two pet frigate-birds, which swoop and swirl above them, mount so high that they are lost to sight, then swoop down again. The children have in general lovely manners: never once since that first afternoon, when Charlie came and sat upon my floor and gazed at me, have they come near me or into the garden when I might be dressing or resting. Directly I begin to p. He is, indeed, exasperating.
For the winds get up so suddenly here that it is not safe to venture far without some one with a strong arm, and we have set our hearts upon getting out to the reef. The canoe is so narrow that only the smallest child can really sit in it: others must perch upon a little board laid across it, or overstride it like a horse. The children hop in as light as birds, but for me, a trifle lame as I am, it is more difficult.
Spole, for all her seven years no bigger than Charlie at four, is as careful of me as though I were a child, supporting me with her minute, wiry person, absorbedly anxious. I sit cross-legged over the narrow canoe, scribbling upon my knee, wearing nothing more than a cotton dress and petticoat, with a bath towel hung over my shoulders to keep off the sun. For p. The water is as clear as glass. In some places it is so shallow that the children jump in and out of the canoe and push it in front of them.
As we near the reef they sit perfectly still, for here the sea is full of currents, dangerous, and deep. Below us are gardens of coral and trees of coral, of every shade of pink and pale mushroom; great flat tables of coral and fairy fine forests of seaweed, green and rose at the bottom of it, shot through and through with small brilliant blue fish.
The frigate-birds, which have followed us out, whirl and plane overhead with a sound like weeping; a sound so penetrating that it pierces the roar of the waves, which arch their great necks above us at the farther side of the reef, dropping in a mass of foam upon it, racing toward us in deep, greedy ripples which rock the canoe violently from side to side. After landing the boy, who is anxious to be back at his work, the children take me in at the mouth of the river and on up it.
The trees on each side are immense, dark, sullen, and threatening, as is so much p. Here are tall and slender mapau trees, with their extraordinary flange-like roots, and trees of a heavier build with large, round, brilliantly green leaves, thick as metal, which the children call hotu. From all alike hang long beards of lichen and a brilliant green parasite like bunches of long satin ribbons; while some of the trees are so thick with the ferns that it is impossible to tell which is fern and which is tree.
The frigate-birds, overcome by boredom as we turn in among the trees, where they can no longer display their swooping, leave us and go back to the shore, where, too lazy to catch fish for themselves, they will, supposing no one goes out in the canoes, sit mewing and complaining throughout the entire day. In their place, however, clouds of shining white birds the size of pigeons, only more lightly built and with fine curved wings, hover round us with a loud fretful cry.
There is another bird, half as large again as a thrush, pale greenish brown, and very slender, with a long curved bill like that of a humming-bird, the smooth aristocratic air of a person whose clothes are very beautifully made by the best tailor. In parts of the river there are deep pools, black, without a ripple; in others the water eddies over such shallows that the canoe can scarcely pass, and the children jump in and out of it, pushing it, chasing the fish.
I should like to draw the mapau trees with their sinister and fleshly roots; but the mosquitos settle upon my hands so thickly that it is impossible; while both my hands and ankles are already so swollen out of shape that we are driven into the open. Coming out of the mouth of the river, caught by the wind, the canoe swings atop of the water so airily that it seems that it might take wing and sweep upward to join the frigate-birds which have come out to meet us, bitterly complaining.
I, who cannot swim at all, find it difficult to take it as gaily as the children, who are like fish in the water. To escape from him and the mosquitos I go out in the canoe with the children. Armani, who is all moods, is in a fit of the blues, and the other two, who love teasing—as all these people do—torment her so that she at last retreats to the extreme stern; sits there with her back turned to us, her fingers in her ears. We go a long way up the coast by innumerable bays, past innumerable islets. The hills are black, the water shining like mother-of-pearl in the moonlight.
And all the time we are out, when they are not baiting Armani, the two younger children sing to me in their soft treble voices. When we get back to the causeway Maou-u calls for me to come up to the house and hear his gramophone, playing songs and airs from the grand operas, which he passionately loves. The whole party is sitting under the palm-leaf lean-to, which takes the place of dining- and sitting-room. Maou-u takes Spole on his knee and presses his cheek to hers. They look upon it as a sort of grossness to be overfond of their own, differentiating between them and others.
They are, indeed, equally fond of all children, treating them with a passionate tenderness. If a woman is expecting a child and a friend begs that she may have it when it is born, she will not be refused and another child is taken in its place; so there may be in one family many children of different parentage, though it is impossible to tell the difference between them.
There is no other place for his bed save directly against the openwork bamboo wall, at the other side of which stands my washing-stand, and I am rather afraid that he may awake while I am performing my ablutions. The end has come. I was the offender this time—I under whose mosquito curtain he snored, and snored. I had disturbed him with my fidgeting.
Upon this he turned on me like a cat, hissing and screaming, stuttering with rage. As to my civilization, what was there to be said for it, considering my costume, a rough-dried dress, my bath-towel over my shoulders, my hair in a plait? Of course, this was the end of it, for Maou-u was furious, declaring that he would not have the p. Now he is safely off the premises and we all go down to bathe together with a new sense of peace in our hearts. It is, indeed, almost worth having had him here to realize the relief of his going: the old game of the swings and the roundabouts.
It is after eight and we are all sitting upon the edge of the causeway, with dangling feet, while Maou-u plays very softly upon his concertina. The after-sunset sky is the color of honey; the moon is honey-like; so is the sweetness of the air. Four more days remain to me out here—four entire days and four nights bland with sweetness and pure air: hours like honey distilled drop by drop. Heaven be thanked that I am old enough to p. I am happy now; and throughout four more days and nights I intend to be happy, for no letter can reach me, and whatever may come later I shall have had this: a joy free from rivalry and striving, the fever of love, the strain of triumph; hours like the song of a bird in my heart.
The little schooner for Cook Island has departed without me, no single one of the passengers having changed his mind or been translated to a better world, as I so fondly hoped. It is, indeed, the commonplace, the ordinary, the everyday sort of luck which fails to flow my way, and to such an extent that there has never been any real sequence in my life. Upon a map in Fleet Street I planned out my voyage among the Pacific isles and onward round the world, as confidently as though it were the littlest cross-country journey in England, though if it had been that, everything would have gone wrong and I should have missed every connection p.
I planned it all quite regardless of distance, the difficulties of connections; the truth being that, if I am perfectly determined to do anything, I dare not look too closely into it. I reiterated my intention during the voyage, and people who knew the Pacific laughed at me as a maniac. Only look at the map, and imagine what I should have felt had I taken this seriously; the time, the money involved.
But I simply could not take it seriously. It was like an inoculation which has no effect whatever upon one. Upon inquiring about this schooner, however, I was told very definitely that she was bound for Noumea and never took any passengers. That seemed the end. Not that I was balked by the idea of any one really standing out against passengers, but that I did not greatly care for anything I had heard about New Caledonia. Nevertheless during the week that followed I found myself constantly loitering upon the wharf, p.
She had the air of a boat that is run for nothing but business. Battered by storms, bedraggled by three months at sea, she had not so much as a single inch of clean paint or unrusted iron about her. Despite the fact that she was sailing under the flag of the Panama Republic, for the single reason that she was carrying such a cargo, stored in such a way, as no other country would have tolerated, she hailed from San Francisco.
A queer build of boat, altogether, for I was used to schooners with flush decks, fore and aft. Still I was drawn to her, so drawn that I questioned every one I came across. And yet I could hear nothing. There seemed something elusive about her. The captain and officers must have come and gone in the town, but I could never get hold of them, and though some of the crew, for the most part Loyalty Island boys, were in the Port Restaurant almost every evening, they were usually fighting drunk.
And that is what the p. There are no better workers at sea, but once they get on shore with liquor in their heads, and the evil tempers of shores raging in their hearts, they are ill to meet. At this I was off like an arrow from a bow. By this time it was after seven, and the sun seemed to be literally shooting up into the heavens. Every moment it grew hotter; my clothes melted around me, and it was a long walk.
There was, however, or so it was said, no sort of accommodation for passengers. When I persisted, declaring that I was no sort of a passenger, as passengers were generally understood, the head of the company—who had come into the outer office to see what was afoot—shrugged his shoulders.
Of course the skipper could take me if he wished, the company had nothing whatever to do with a matter of this sort; he was a perfectly free agent, part owner, they believed, and they themselves were merely acting as the consignees for so much of the cargo as was being unloaded in Tahiti.
The best thing I could do was to go and see the skipper myself, he added, and very obligingly sent a clerk to show me the way to the new anchorage. I found the schooner swinging out in the stream so as to allow room for the stern of an American tourist boat, fattened with Philistines, and hailed her. I had an idea that I might find him at the Port Restaurant, but I was just three minutes too late there.
I then p. It was, indeed, like following a leaf upon a stream of running water, and every moment I grew hotter and hotter, more and more fiercely determined. I went up and stood by the three of them. The two tall, heavily built men in white sun-helmets, drooping a little from the tropics, stood with their backs to me. But the captain was facing me: a small wiry, gray-haired man in a gray suit, with a straw hat a little on one side; a small gray moustache; very square shoulders, a look of great activity, and the most intelligent, the clearest and cleverest, the most sympathetic and mirthful hazel eyes that I have ever seen.
These eyes met mine and we stared straight at each other, into p. Still they went on talking. When they came to a pause, however, it was to him alone I spoke—straight out, with no idea whatever of an introduction:. With his bright gaze still full upon me, smiling, showing a set of the very whitest teeth imaginable, he answered, and I was sure it was with reluctance:. You see, we have no sort of accommodation for passengers. For a little while longer we talked together; then the skipper said that he had things to see to; that p.
I knew that I might be making a fatal mistake in letting him out of my sight, but there seemed nothing else for it. Directly I was away from him my heart began to fail me. I was not so sure of the passage as I had been. Devastated by racing about in the heat of the day, I felt my will-power weakening, and, realizing this as fatal, as if to clinch it I forced fate—went straight to the bank and drew out all the money I had there; then to the post-office, where I ordered all my letters forwarded to Wellington, to await there further instructions. After this I went on to the Chinese laundry, where I paid my bill and took away my bundle of linen—fortunately washed and dried, though unironed—telling myself that now everything was in train I should certainly get my passage upon the schooner.
I met with no success, and began packing. A quarter of an hour later the telephone-bell rang. When I answered it—with death in my heart—I found it was one of the clerks from the shipping-office, ringing up to tell me the captain had just been in and declared that it was quite impossible to take me. At this I was mad, and so wound up that, feeling it would be impossible to stay on tamely where I was, I started off again, in all the dust and heat, to the far end of the town, to the offices of the representatives of the Phosphate Company of Makatea.
On the way I ran into the captain of the schooner, and once again we looked each other very straight in the eyes. On my way back from the Phosphate p. This only made me feel worse, for he said it was the sort of chance that could come to any one only once in a lifetime. The two keepers of the restaurant added that it would be impossible for me to find a better skipper, comforting me but little by the declaration that they would miss me sorely if I went.
After a little while the captain himself came past the veranda where we were sitting and paused at my table. The time of sailing for the schooner had been put off for two hours, so that it would leave at two, the same time as the steamer for Makatea, which I knew would be punctual. I praised myself like a Cheap Jack, extravagantly and without shame: there was no sort of sea that I minded; I could cook; I could darn socks.
He told me about this, pathetically, like a child, with his hand upon his side; told me that there was nobody on board who so much as knew how to wind a bandage, and in this I seemed to find my chance. To hear me, you would have thought that there was nothing on earth that I could not do; that no ship, no hospital on earth, was complete without me.
By this time I was perfectly determined against Makatea, able to sit up and take some solid nourishment, in which the captain joined me. The upshot of the whole thing was the suggestion that I might, anyhow, come on board and see her; satisfy myself that there was no sort of room. The two mates looked at me very wryly when I stepped on board. The very small amount of deck in any way clear was filthy. I thought the question of sleeping on deck might well be fought out later. Up on deck again, we went over the whole thing afresh.
I felt him giving in, and at last with a long-drawn sigh he capitulated—and for the quaintest of reasons.
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That settled it. Still, for me to go as a passenger was against all regulations, and I must sign on as one of the crew—stewardess on a vessel where there never was, had been, never would be any other woman to attend to. I left my possessions heaped together on the poop-deck, met the captain at the p. I am now back on the schooner and part of her. I have got my deck-chair open and am sitting writing, feeling as completely at home as though I had never been anywhere else.
There is auxiliary steam, and the engineer is trying to get the engines going, but without much success, as it seems, though every now and then a dense puff of smoke laden with soot belches forth from a tin chimney belonging to the donkey-engine, immediately above my head. I write a little and sleep a little, write a little more and sleep a little more, thickly peppered over with smuts. Somebody brings me a mug of black coffee. Not that it matters in the least. Here I am, here I stay. There is no wind, and as our engines refuse to do anything beyond smoking, a small tug comes and draws us out to a fresh anchorage between the Quarantine Island and the shore.
This little island is now a green black; Moorea, p. The tourist steamer lying against the wharf shows a hundred lights. Here, on board the schooner, the last meal of the day is over: pea-soup, meat and vegetables, and strong black coffee. As usual on this sort of boat no one at table spoke, unless to growl out some request.
There is also an American engineer who strikes me as being permanently dyspeptic, and very near permanently disgruntled by the ways of the strange contraption for which he is responsible. Though it was still so early, daylight had gone from the little skylight atop of the saloon, and the hanging lamp was lighted. In the galley, which opens out of it, a blue-robed Chinaman hovered over gleaming copper pots, while another Chinaman waited at table.
The captain did not come down, for he is suffering so much from his broken ribs that the steep companionway causes him the intensest anguish. He has an engaging accent, half American, half French, and is amazingly like a bright-eyed bird, interested in everything. Even now, when his face is constantly twisted with pain, he is eager and alert; more alive than any man I have ever met. He tells me that he does not go down to his cabin at night, as he has been unable to lie down since his accident; sleeps as best he can sitting upright upon the tiny settee in the little wheel-house, or easing the pain by standing with his arms folded, almost level with his chin, atop of the locker.
So, if I like, I can have his cabin until the store-room, in regard to which I am perfectly silent, can be cleared out. I found the captain, in the wheel-house, standing with his head down upon his arms. He was groaning a little, but the moment he heard me he glanced up with his indomitable smile. The first mate was on watch and I sat for a long p. I went below again, and lay upon the bunk, spreading a grass mat upon it for coolness. I sat up, clasping my hands round my knees, and tipping back my head, fed upon the beauty of the Milky Way almost immediately above me. There was in the air a delicious smell of freshly roasted coffee, and the second mate, who was on watch, fetched me a mug—for it was baking-day, when the Chinese boys are astir before two, making coffee and lighting the stove.
The air was delightful beyond words; the second mate and I smoked and talked of Sweden, where I was staying last summer. How odd life is! It came over me with a gust of mirth—the extreme oddness of its ups and downs. To think that I should be squatting on the deck of a p. On board this boat one eats and drinks everything one ought not to—meat three times a day and lashings of black coffee.
It does not seem that one is likely to sleep overmuch. Last night—the first night really at sea—I could not bear the thought of being below, and had a mattress on the poop-deck right against the stern rail. Accord- ing to the Finns, it was in " the midst of Heaven," and the Kalevala attributes to it the same magical properties of making the desert blossom like the rose, as were assigned to the Holy Grail — " Fetch the cow-horn from a distance, Fetch it from the midst of heaven ; Bring the mead-horn down from heaven, Let the honey-horn be sounded.
Signs and Syjnbols of Primordial Man, A. And the forest borders charming, Borders of the marshes fertile. Nor aught we blow with breath, or touch with hand, Was like that music as it came. Jack, having overcome certain notorious giants, arrives at the enchanted castle of the infamous Galligantua. Aided by a wicked conjurer, Galligantua has betrayed many knights and ladies into his castle, and by black magic has transformed them into disgraceful shapes.
And break the black enchantment straight ; So all shall be in happy state. In due course Jack slays the giant, the transformed lords and ladies are set free and return to their proper shapes, and the enchanted castle crumbles away into the air like a wisp of smoke. It was prettily feigned by the story-tellers that the giants devoured sheep and oxen, i. Jacobs, p. Kaufmann, p. So terrible was the endeavour with which Roland sounded his mystic horn that his temples cracked with the eiFort, and the blood streamed from his mouth.
Yet, runs the story, his pains were not fruitless, for " now the Frenchmen listen. This mysteri- ous but never-failing call to arms consisted of a small cross of light wood dipped into the blood of a goat and set aflame at its extremities. At times the symbolic Horn was associated with a Bell which, according to Durandus, typified " acute " and insistent preaching.
The Bell formed an essential element in Oriental religious usage, and in Celtic Christianity it was regarded by new converts as the actual type of the God- head. It is related that when- ever the faith or the right was in jeopardy, a Bell rang in the Temple of the Sangreal and that on the sounding of that Bell a Knight went forth sword in hand in its defence. At the modern consecration of a bell, the Bishop says prayers over it which abound in mystic allusions ; amongst others, to the trumpet destroying the walls of Jericho and the thunder driving back the Philistines at Samuel's sacrifice.
Baring-Gould, p. Kyd, As Titan mounted on the lion's back Had clothed himself in fiery pointed beams, To chase the night and entertain the morn, Yet scarce had Chanticler rung the midnight peal. Peele, 1 He hailed the rising sun and he possessed a crimson comb, which one may surmise, was taken to represent the zigzagged effulgence of the day and the " fiery- pointed beams " of morning. Thus the Cock was doubly sacred to the Sun, and he was regarded as the Herald who announced the Coming of Apollo. To all the breed This busy ray Thou hast assign'd j Their magnetism works all night, And dreams of Paradise and light.
On that occasion a golden cock which is said to be seated on the topmost bough of the Tree of Life does not wait for the dawn, but in honour of the advent of the spiritual sun crows all night long. The character of this allegoric cock is pointed by the statement that when he begins to crow, "all the cocks in the world are thus stirred up and begin to crow. These spirits, so the Chinese think, abhor the truth of the Sun's light and shrink back into the darkness of Hell.
Johnston has several ancient lamps made in cock form. Behold the demons are put to flight! Just recently Chanticler has been rather prominently before the public owing to the genius of M. Rostand, the Proven9al poet. The symbolism of M.
Mahine and the Flower Fairies
Rostand's drama is described by M. He is man as he may be, man as he will be when he has fully realised the divinity latent within him. He typifies the humanity of the future, as well as of the past and the present. Payne- Knight, p. We hail in him a humanity that has learned its supreme lesson, that has reached a point in its evolution when it not only perceives the Ideal, but is willing to die for it ; when it is not only ready to die for it, but — infinitely more difficult task — to realise it in its daily life.
He will believe in his heaven- appointed task, even though heaven itself seems against him, even though the sun has risen while he, Chantecler, listened, entranced, to the voice of the Nightingale. Si je chante, exact, sonore, et si, sonorc, Exact, bieii apres moi, pendant longtemps encore, Chaque ferme a son Coq qui chante dans sa cour, Je crois qu'il n'y aura plus de nuit! Let all mankind cherish lofty ideals, love the light, desire the light, summon the light in its daily aspirations, and lo, the light is there, illumining the world — the inner world — for ever.
A lightning substance through his being runs ; A flame he knows not of illumes his clay — The cosmic fire that feeds the swarming suns. As giant worlds, sent spinning into space, Hold in their centre still the parent flame ; So man, within that undiscovered place — His centre— stores the light from which he came. His senses cheat him and his vision lies. Swifter and keener than his soul's desire, The flame that mothers him eludes his eyes. Pulsing beneath all bodies, ere begun ; Flashing and thrilling close behind the screen, A sacred substance, blinding as the sun. Yearns for man's recognition in the seen.
The ancients supposed that the soul consisted of four elements, fire, air, earth, and water ; and that these, when united, took the form of fire and became flame. This heavenly composition was scattered like seed among men and animals, where it became mingled in various propor- tions with earth, and its purity more or less alloyed and impaired.
It was believed that after death the impurities of matter were purged away by immersing the soul in water, ventilating it in the currents of the wind, or refin- ing it by fire. Among the Chinese, this infinite One was regarded as a fixed point of dazzling luminosity, around which circled in the supremest glory of motion the souls of those who had successfully passed through the ordeals of earth and had adequately purified their corporeal grossness. The letters 1 H S forming the centre of fig. From Flame as the symbol of Spirit, to the Sun, the Centre and Sustainer of the material Universe, the Primal Source and Origin in whose light and warmth creation lives and moves and has its being, is less than a step.
In the Sun emblems here reproduced the solar features are not clumsily executed, but prove upon close scrutiny to be supplementary symbols. Three small circles of perfection form the Face of fig. The Heart of fig. The S of Spiritus is attached to fig. Into the face of fig. The centre of fig. This letter Y is sometimes found in the form of a separate symbol and is of vast antiquity. Giles, Religions of Ancient China.
The rays constituted 'On the spokes and the Perfect One was regarded as both centre and circumference. Underneath fig. The letter B forms the centre of the Sun-wheel herewith, and forms an expressive hieroglyph of the belief that the universe " is created from and by Brahma as the web from the spider dind as the sparks from fire. Barnett, " He is sometimes typified macrocosm ically by the purusha in the Sun. In one hand He carries a palm or olive branch, and in the other the sword of the Spirit ; in both cases He is portrayed crowned, and in fig. Knowing Him, man escapes Death ; there is no other way to walk.
A Great Lord is the Spirit, mover of the understanding, ruler of this pure approach, Light unfading. He knows what may be known, but there is none to know Him. Men call Him the Primal, the Great Spirit. I know Him the ageless, ancient, All-soul. That same is the Fire, that is the Sun, that the Wind, that the Moon ; that same is the Bright, that Brahma, that the Waters, that the Creator, that is the Un- fading, that is the lovely Light of Savita ; thence has streamed forth the ancient intelligence.
This Oriental theory of the Oversoul has been familiarised to English readers by Emerson, and it has also been con- densed with felicity by Alexander Pope in the familiar lines : " All are but parts of one stupendous whole. Whose body nature is, and God the soul. Of Brahm, the oversoul and origin of Fire, man was as- sumed to be a spark, and hence arose the apparent paradox : " This my self within my heart is tinier than a rice-corn, or a barley-corn, or a mustard-seed, or a canary-seed, or the pulp of a canary-seed.
This my self within my heart is greater than sky, greater than heaven, greater than these words. This my self within my heart, this is Brahma, to Him shall I win on going hence. Bamett, p. I am inclined to think that this flame, fire, rose, circular cloud, or whatever it may be see centre of fig.
Attached to the B of fig. The S figures again in the Millenniary emblem below, and the B of fig. Associated with the Suns on page are the numerals 33, and in figs. There were reckoned to be 33 Mysteries, " the secrets of which," says Dr Churchward, " have up to the present time not been discovered. He who shall attain to this perfection must be one who is without fear and without desire, save towards God.
Jenner, xxvii. And knowing that nothing is gained without toil, or won without suffering, he acts ever on the principle that to labour is to pray, to ask is to receive, to knock is to have the door open, and so strives accordingly. In the circle of Perfection herewith are the letters M A surmounted by a mark of contraction, and these same letters reappear in fig.
The Persian Mithra corresponds in many respects to ' Pp, With his " thousand ears and his ten thousand eyes," Mithra was ever awake, and everlastingly on the watch to protect the world from the malignant hosts of Darkness. Mithra as a warrior was not only the God of warriors and the Protector of all brave deeds and chivalrous adventures, but, like Osiris and other Culture Gods, he was the fecundator of all nature, the lord of wide pastures, and the giver of herds.
It was Mithra who poured forth the waters and was the causer of growing plants. Not only was he the bestower of material benefits, but he was also likewise the giver of peace of heart and the maker of concord among all who worshipped him. Mr Mead states : " The secret of regeneration, of being born anew, or spiritually, or from above — in brief, the divinising of man — was the last word of the Mithra rites ; all else is introductory or ancillary.
TertuUian complained that the devil by guile had perverted the truth and " emulously mimics even the precise particulars of the divine sacraments by the mysteries of idols. He, too, baptizes some — of course his own believers and faithful ; he promises the remission of sins by a bath. If I still remember rightly, Mithra there signs his soldiers on their foreheads, celebrates also the offering of bread, introduces an image of the resurrection, and purchases for himself a crown at the sword's point. It is not so generally known that December 2 5th, the Christmas Day of Christendom, was necessarily thus fixed for the reason that this date was the birthday of Mithra, and that the obdurate heathen flatly refused to relinquish their cherished festival.
It was not until a. At the beginning of the fifth century S. They call this 25th December the birthday of the Invincible One Mithra ; but who is so invincible as the Lord? When perched at the summit of a pillar, as in the figure herewith, the emblem was, I am told, known as the " Cock of Abraxas. It was asserted that there were as many heavens as there were days in the year, and ' Rotnance of Symbolism, S. Merodach was regarded as a solar deity, as the mediator between gods and men, and as the God who raised the dead to life. He is found portrayed as the Sun god seated on a star-spangled globe.
He is fabled to have marched at the head of an army of men and women inspired by divine fury, and to have achieved his bloodless conquests by teaching mankind the use of the vine, the cultivation of the earth and the making of honey. Pinches, p. UionyEus Bacchus;. From a Painting at Pompeii. The name Dionysos has survived in the form Dennis to the present day, and the time-honoured tenet that Man is a spark of the primeval Light is traceable in many other proper names, such as Llew, Luke, Lucius, Lucy, and similar variants of Lux ; in Clarence, Clara, etc.
We meet with it in its radical simplicity in the name of the Swedish King On or Aun, and again in the later forms Hacon, Hakon, or Haakon. I have already pp. The name of the highest peak in the Andes, Aconcagua, suggests that this mountain, like many others, was dedicated to and named after the great Sun. It would thus appear probable that Balak, the King of Moab, styled himself or was thus styled after Great Baal, and that the places named Bellac in France and Belleek in Ireland were originally — like the famous Baalbec — shrines dedicated to Great Baal, i.
It is probable that there really lived some time about years ago a great personality whose beneficent and prosperous career impressed itself permanently upon the memory of the world ; but it is quite certain that legend has since been busy with his reputation, and that the Solomon of literature and legend is, to a large extent, a mythical and ideal hero. Tradition has it that when the great King was summoned from his earthly career he was re-established in the Sun, whence he controlled a vast empire of Fairies, Peris, Jinns, and hosts of radiant guise, who were his obedient vassals and implicitly obeyed his fiat.
Mysticism has assumed that the Bridegroom of The Song of Solomon is the spiritual Sun of Righteousness risen Christlike with healing in His wings, and there is little doubt that The Song of Solomon is indeed a mythical and dramatic love duet between the mystic Sun and Moon. The belief that Solomon was an inveterate sensualist appears to have originated from the literalisation and misconception of the time-honoured poetic fancy that the Sun was the great fecundator and All-Lover whose eye shone impartially upon the just and unjust.
The poets frequently describe the Sun as an " amorist," a " hot-eyed amorist," as being " free and general," as shining with " hot eye " upon even the basest weed that grows, and so forth ; ' Soils Anglo-Saxon, Icelandic, and Latin, for Sun. He is acclaimed as " a precious ointment," as being " comely as Jerusalem," yet " terrible as an army with banners. His knocking time ; the soul's dumb watch When spirits their fair kindred catch. And hurl'd his glistening beams through gloomy air. Behold, he cometh leaping upon the mountains, skipping upon the hills.
My beloved is like a roe or a young hart. Behold he standeth behind our wall, he looketh forth at the windows, shewing himself through the lattice. By the ancients the Sun was generally depicted as a charioteer driving a team of four horses. This immortal chariot of the Sun is in all probability the subject of the passage : " King Solomon made himself a chariot of the wood of Lebanon. He made the pillars thereof of silver, the bottom thereof of gold, the covering of it of purple, the midst thereof being paved with love.
The wood of Lebanon was a simile for incorruptibility,' silver typified knowledge, gold was the symbol of wisdom, and purple — a combination of red and blue — presumably denoted a con- junction of the red of Love and the blue of Truth. The assertion that Solomon " made himself" a chariot, expresses the vital essence of mysticism, i. It was a cardinal doctrine that the humblest individual might in time develop his spark of Personality into a spiritual Sun, and by his own efforts, charioteer-like, drive his soul into the innermost Halls of Heaven.
The writer of Psalm Iviii. Smith, art. According to this account St Francis was sleeping one night in a hut, and was " absent in the body from his sons. Commentators have imagined this to mean that the heroine was suddenly and forcibly abducted by an admirer. What will ye see in the Shulamite? And he saw him no more. The Hindoos portray the cha. We will be glad and rejoice in thee, we will remember thy love more than wine. The upright love tionyaui Biccbat cDibroned. Biint de Tiiat,. Behold thou art fair, my beloved, yea, pleasant : also our bed is green.
The beams of our house are cedar, and our rafters of fir. But the colour Green M. The Egyptians placed greenstone, amulets in their tombs as representative of eternal youth and as a type of that which is everlasting, evergreen, fresh, young, and immortal. During the fifteenth century there seems to have existed in Europe a masonic grade known as the Golden Column. The Star cross of Light surmounting fig. HoRus, which was the earlier name of Osiris in one or another of his various forms, was described in the sacred writings as " Lord of the Pillars," " the Light of the World," the " Lord of Life and Light," the " Bruiser of the Serpent," the " Conqueror of the Dragon," the " Over- comer of the powers of Darkness and Drought.
HoRus " arose from the dead and established himself for ever. Among his titles was " Prince of the Emerald Stone," and his emblem was the eagle hawk. This evergreen Solar God was said to have rent the veil of the Tabernacle of the flesh , and among the Druids he was known under the name Hesus. Other variations of Solomon are Suleiman and Soolemaun, which become significant in view of the fact that the city of On is written in the Old Testament in two ways, Aun and An, both of which are rendered into English by the word On. In Egypt the letter O originally represented "the emaning mouth of a fish which gives birth to water as the life of the world.
The three triangles or rays upon the summit of fig. They represent " the name of the Great Giver of Light " and were used with this significance among the primordial Egyptians, Mexicans, and ofF-shoot races. The precise meaning of each particular pillar has varied slightly among different races and at different epochs, but the ideas underlying them are fundamentally uniform. Jachin and BoaZy the twin pillars in the porch of King Solomon's Temple, mean Strength and Beauty, and when three pillars are represented, as in figs. Briquet as " nails," and in the minds of the designers these probably symbolised the promise of Isaiah, " I will fasten him as a nail in a sure place ; and he shall be for a glorious throne to his father's house.
And they shall hang upon him all the glory of his father's house. Out of Him came forth the corner, out of Him the nail. The study of emblems proves that the mystics of the Middle Ages entertained similar notions of this identity, and that in their eyes the glorious Solomon, leaping over the mountains of Bether, was none other than Jesus Christ.
The figures herewith may represent the Ruler of Nova Solyma and the Prince of Peace, or it is possible that fig. Solomon and Solomonic Literature. The Mexicans portrayed Horus with an open mouth and pointing finger, representing him as preaching or as a " Sayer of Sayings in the Temple. The words of the wise are as goads, and as nails fastened by the masters of assemblies, which are given from one shepherd. Among the ancients " Wisdom " implied Love and Knowledge blended in per- fect and equal proportions.
It was used to personify the Celestial Influence which at a later period was described as the " Holy Spirit. Kind to man, steadfast, sure, free from care, having all power, overseeing all things, and going through all understanding, pure, and most subtil spirits. For wisdom is more moving than any motion : she passeth and goeth through all things by reason of her pureness. For she is the breath of the power of God, and a pure influence flowing from the glory of the Almighty : therefore can no defiled thing fall into her.
For she is the brightness of the everlasting light, the unspotted mirror of the power of God, and the image of His goodness. And being but one, she can do all things ; and remaining in herself, she maketh all things new : and in all ages entering into holy souls, she maketh them friends of God, and prophets. For God loveth none but him that dwelleth with wisdom. For she is more beautiful than the sun, and above all the orders of stars : being compared with the light, she is found before it.
For after this cometh night : but vice shall not prevail against wisdom. For her thoughts are more than the sea and her counsels profounder than the Great Deep. Like- Pilate who asked : " What is Truth. These functions were accompanied by spectacular and dramatic effects — the forerunners of the classic Mysteries and the comparatively modern Miracle Plays.
In the worship of Isis it was customary for a priestess to impersonate the Moon-goddess and for a priest to play the part of Osiris, her Sun-god Bridegroom. The ceremony thus assumed the form of a dramatic dialogue — and occasional chorus — between Isis and Osiris. It is probable that pageants of this mystic marriage between the Sun and Moon were once a widespread custom ; they were certainly customary in Crete, where periodically the King and Queen, wearing the masks of a bull and cow respectively, acted the solemn rite.
A comparison with The Song of Solomon makes it appear probable that the latter is not an anthology of Jewish Wedding Songs, but the libretto, almost unedited, of a Sun and Moon Mystery Play. Frazer, p.
the criticism of henry fielding routledge revivals Manual
Because of the savour of thy good ointments, thy name is as ointment poured forth ; therefore do the virgins love thee, i. I am sick of love, ii. Draw me, we will run thee, i. From an Invocation to Osiris. Hail, thou sweet-scented one! There is unguent for the hair at thy coming. Sweet - scented odours are upon thy hair, with unguents that proceed from him- self, p. I am inflamed with loving thee! Be- hold, I weep for thee alone ; come to me who runneth because of my desire to behold thee, p.
The voice of my beloved! Come thou in peace, O our Lord whom we behold ; our prince, p. Come to the one who loveth thee, O thou who art beautiful. Come to thy sister ; come to thy wife, p. Until the day break, and the shadows flee away, ii. Thou illuminest at the day- break and thou restest at evening ; this being thy daily work. He bringeth thee to the mountains, p. My beloved had withdrawn himself, and was gone : my soul failed when he spake : I sought him, but I could not find him ; I called him, but he gave me no answer, v.
The smell of thy garments is like the smell of Lebanon, iv. Awake, O north wind ; and come thou south ; blow upon my garden, that the spices thereof may flow out, iv. Thou art terrible as an army with banners, vi. The rain is over and gone j the flowers appear on the earth, ii. His head is as the most fine gold. His legs are as pillars of marble set upon sockets of fine gold. Thy teeth are as a flock of sheep which go up from the washing, v.
Come to me, thou uniter of Heaven to Earth, who causeth his shadow daily in the land, messenger of Heaven to Earth! P- I am seeking after love j behold me existing in the city! I grieve for thy love towards me — thou hast departed, P- Behold thou my heart which grieveth for thee.
Behold me seeking for thee ; I am searching for thee to behold thee! I am prevented from beholding thee ; I am prevented from be- holding thee, O An! An -the Sungod , p. The odour of thy limbs is like odours of Punt, p. Breezes blow for thee with perfume, O husband, elder, lord, beloved! Hail, thou Great and terrible one! Remove thou storms of rain, and give thou sunshine to the land with fecundity, p. Thy hair is like turquoise over his body. Thy teeth are to thee as fine lapis lazuli, p.
As their latest editor suggests, it is probable that in the earliest times they were committed to memory and handed down by means of oral tradition from generation to generation. Sanctified by age and doubly sanctified by sacred associations, it seems probable that an Osirian temple-chant fell into the hands of some Syrian scribe, by whom it was religiously edited, christened The Song of Solomon, and as such preserved.
Although the dramatis persona of The Song of Solomon consists simply of the Bride, the Bridegroom, and a chorus of priestesses, there is, it will be noticed, a sort of epilogue relating to a mysterious "little sister. What shall we do for our sister on the day that she shall be spoken for?
Knepth and Nut. The Egyptian, like all ancient mystics, conceived his deities not as solitary, but as having each his or her dual, affinity, and counterpart. In Hindoo story the divine Cow exclaims to her consort the divine Bull : " For what am I but a double and a copy and an echo of a Being which is Thou? Osiris the son is therefore essentially identical with Knepth, and Isis the daughter or little sister is the duality of the Great Mother Nut.
The apparent paradox, " Ra is the soul of Osiris, and Osiris the soul of Ra," may be the better understood in comparison with the Christian tenet that Christ is not only "the Son," but is also the likeness of the Father, and a Personality in whom " dwells all the fulness of the Godhead bodily. She is a shepherdess ; he a shepherd. He is terrible as an army with banners ; she looketh forth terrible as an army with banners. She is black ; his locks are black as the raven. He feedeth among lilies ; she is a lily among thorns. He is fair ; she all fair, and the fairest among women.
Both have a garden, both are most exquisitely perfumed, and both are associated with a chariot. Those features of "the Shulamite," which apparently conflict with one another, may be summed up as follows : She is smitten, wounded, and despised, yet the daughter of a prince, and beautifully shod.
Bain, p. Behind her veil lurk the eyes of a dove. She describes herself as "black," yet is likened to a lily, to a rose, to the morning, to the moon, to the sun, to an impregnable fortress, and to an army terrible with banners. Mead has edited under the title The Wedding Song of Wisdom. It is believed to have been originally composed in Syriac, but there is more probability that like the so-called Song of Solomon it reached Syria by means of oral tradition and referred in the first instance to Isis.
Whether or not this is so, from internal evidence it is indubitable that " the maiden " of The Wedding Song of Wisdom is identical with King Solomon's bride. Stately her Look and delightsome, With radiant beauty forth-shining. Like unto spring-flowers are her Garments, From them streameth scent of sweet odour. On the Crown of her Head the King throneth. With Living Food feeding those 'neath Him. Truth on her Head doth repose, She sendeth forth Joy from her Feet. I opened to my beloved. She hath hewed out her Seven pillars, she hath sent forth her maidens. This heavenly Maiden was said to have been co-existent with God, and as His Master- Workwoman to have descended to earth glorying in the work of creation.
But by some dolorous mischance the maiden Sophia became entangled in the very matter she had helped to bring into being. Finding herself unable to regain her heavenly estate, and having no rest either above or below the earth, she cried out in lamentation to her Great Mother, who, pitying her daughter's distress, invoked the aid of the Creator.
It is related that Ishtar, the daughter of Sin, the God of Light, stooped from her heavenly estate and descended into the land of darkness where "they behold not the light, but dust is their bread and mud their food. Open thy gate! Open thy gate that I may enter in! At each gate she is accord- ingly stripped of a garment, and in due course is ushered into the presence of Allatu nude and without power. Where- upon the raging Allatu struck Ishtar with all manner of blights and diseases ; " but," continues the legend, " Ishtar was not left for ever in the clutches of Allatu.
King, p. Jastrow, jr. Unto you, O men, I call ; and my voice is to the sons of man. Like most ancient literature. The Song of Solomon and many other books now contained within our Bible circulated originally by word of mouth. The sacred Popul Vuh of the Mayas, the Rig-Veda of the Hindoos, the Zenda-Vesta of the Persians, and the popular Kalevala of the Finns, are collec- tions of legends and traditions, most of which were handed down from mouth to mouth, circulating thus for untold centuries before they were formalised and committed to writing.
It is startling to find that some of the classic myths that one associates with Greece and Rome have their counterparts — modified merely to the diflFerence of custom and environment — among savage and undeveloped races such as the Maoris and Zulus, peoples who, so far as is known, have never possessed any system of writing. Vishnu or the Sun, the later Krishna or Hindoo Apollo. Mr Bain preludes his translation. The story runs that once upon a time on the slopes of Himalaya there lived a young King of the Spirits of the Air named Kamalamitra, " for he was a portion of the Sun.
The tale then unfolds their misadventures, concluding with a final reunion and apotheosis. There is a Babylonic legend that King Sargon the First was set adrift on the Euphrates in a rush basket. The Song of Solomon is not only a bridge link- ing theology to folk-lore, but it contains several finger-posts pointing definitely to the story known nowadays as Cinder- ella. The elements of this prehistoric and universal fairy- tale are present in the legend of Ishtar's descent into the under-world.
Ishtar, deprived of her beautiful robes, plays the r61e of Cinderella ; Allatu is the cruel stepmother, and Uddushu-Namir plays the prince. In Egypt Isis, burdened, long-sufFering, and lamenting, played Cinderella, and Osiris was " the beautiful prince of godlike face.
Cox, p. The task of separating grain imposed upon Psyche and performed for her by ants is identically the task imposed, according to one version, upon Cendrillot. Cupid, sun- like and SoLOMON-like, " slips through the smallest crack of the window," and awakens Psyche with the light touch of a golden arrow. Her " mother's children " the proud sisters were angry with her, compelling her to perform unworthy tasks, yet eventually her beloved prince brings her to " the banqueting- house " the ball , and the banner of Love waves over her.
This is Dr. Among my best friends on the faculty was Miss Martha Beckwith, who held at Vassar the chair of Folklore, a rare if not unique position. In her researches she had lived with the Hawaiians of the older stock, Negroes in Jamaica highlands and reservation Indians. I want you to see it. A car just went by with a big poster, too. Genuine hula, think of it! Off they went to the theatre on Main Street. At the door the usher asked for tickets. They marched down to a central seat. What is the use? Martha arose and addressed the audience. It has nothing about it that in any way represents the true hula, except the skirt, and even that is artificial.
You are being taken in. The theatre was in an uproar. Speak your mind. Tell us about the hula! She told them what the true hula was, until the petrified manager came to life and started off the hula once more. Quebec, , vol. Quebec, Washington, D. Thrum, ed. AA 24 : Folk-Games of Jamaica , with music recorded in the field by Helen H. PFFVC , no. Poughkeepsie, Fiske, pp. New Haven: Yale University Press, Christmas Mummings in Jamaica , with music recorded in the field or from phonograph records by Helen H. The Hussay Festival in Jamaica , with music recorded by E. Harold Geer.
Jamaica Anansi Stories , with music recorded by Helen H. MAFS , vol. New York, With Laura C. Jamaica Proverbs. Review of Norwegian Fairy Tales , by H. Gade and J. JAF 38 : Review of At the Gateways of the Day by P. Colum, Hawaiian Legends by W. Thrum, Hawaiian. Historical Legends by W. Second Series, by Laura S.
Notes on Jamaican Ethnobotany. New York: Columbia University Press, With Laura S. Review of Santal Folk Tales , by P. JAF 41 : Jamaica Folk-Lore , with music recorded in the field by Helen H. The pagination is not continuous. Honolulu: Hawaiian Board Book Rooms, Folklore in America, Its Scope and Method. Gifford and G. JAF 44 : — Review of American Humor , by Constance Rourke. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Bulletin Honolulu, Myths and Ceremonies of the Mandan and Hidatsa. Note signed and footnotes unsigned to Hawaiian Folk Tales. Third Series, by Mary Wiggin Pukui. Review of Die geheime Gesellschaft der Arioi , by W.
AA 35 : — Mandan and Hidatsa Tales. Third Series. Cannell and Proverbial Lore in Nebraska , by E. JAF 47 :. Review of Dakota Texts , by E. AA 37 : — Green and Mary K. New material added. JAF 50 : 1— The numerous. Thompson scheme are probably also by Beckwith although unsigned. Review of Suriname Folk-Lore , by M. Herskovits and F. JAF 50 : — Mandan-Hidatsa Myths and Ceremonies.
Spicer and British Calendar Customs. Scotland , vol. JAF 51 : —. Mountain Folk Festival, Berea College. Hawaiian Mythology. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, JAF 55 : — California Folklore Quarterly 2 : — JAF 56 : — JAF 60 : — Review of Sumerian Mythology , by S. JAF 62 : — Translated and edited with commentary. Chicago:University of Chicago Press, Bayard, and Tristram P. JAF 66 : 43— Museum, Honolulu. THIS guide to the native mythology of Hawaii has grown out of a childhood and youth spent within sound of the hula drum at the foot of the domelike House of the Sun on the windy island of Maui.
There, wandering along its rocky coast and sandy beaches, exploring its windward gorges, riding above the cliffs by moonlight when the surf was high or into the deep forests at midday, we were aware always of a life just out of reach of us latecomers but lived intensely by the kindly, generous race who had chanced so many centuries ago upon its shores.
Not before did the actual shaping of the work begin. The study covers, as any old Hawaiian will discover, less than half the story, but it may serve to start specific answers to the problems here raised and to distinguish the molding forces which have entered into the recasting of such traditional story-telling as has survived the first hundred years of foreign contact. To the general student of mythology the number and length of proper names in an unfamiliar tongue may seem confusing.
Hawaiian proper names are rarely made up of a single word but rather form a series of words recalling some incident or referring to some characteristic significant of the person or place designated. Since recognition of its composition is essential to its proper accent, in cases where this is known with a good degree of probability through na-. With the analysis of the name in mind, the pronunciation offers little difficulty. There are no silent letters. Theoretically at least, each vowel represents a distinct sound; each consonant is voiced as a distinct syllable ending in a vowel sound.
Besides the five vowel sounds, pronounced as in Italian, only seven consonants were recognized in the reduction of the language to writing by the early American missionaries and these do not differ from the same signs in English; the shifting of l to r, k to t , p to f , and w to v characteristic of various Polynesian dialects and recognized in the oral speech of old Hawaiians is hence ignored in the written form.
The effect upon Hawaiian speech of this melodious heaping up of sound without articulation is altogether pleasing and lends itself easily to the chanting of long poetical recitations such as Hawaiians of the old days delighted in, as in the shorter and more varied poetry of dance and celebration. My thanks are here rendered to the trustees, director, and staff of the Bishop Museum in Honolulu for their aid and co-operation; to the president, trustees, and faculty of Vassar College for their interest in and recognition of the work of the Folklore Foundation under which, since , this work has been carried on; and to Professors Franz Boas and William Witherle Lawrence of Columbia University, whose encouragement and advice have been so often and so generously given.
There are also many names to be recalled with grateful remembrance of those who have contributed directly toward the making of this book: Joseph Emerson, Stephen Desha, Mary Pukui and her mother Mrs. HOW traditional narrative art develops orally among a nature-worshiping people like the Polynesians can be best illustrated by surveying the whole body of such art among a single isolated group like the Hawaiian with reference to the historical background reflected in the stories and to similar traditions among allied groups in the South Seas.
Something of the slant of thought upon which society is regulated must be realized as it is brought out in particular instances. For this purpose a division of the subject into stories of gods and ghosts, of ancestors as they appear in the genealogies of chiefs, and of fiction in the form of legend and romance has been here adopted, although one form often overlaps another.
Hawaiians use the term kaao for a fictional story or one in which fancy plays an important part, that of moolelo for a narrative about a historical figure, one which is supposed to follow historical events. Stories of the gods are moolelo. They are distinguished from secular narrative not by name, but by the manner of telling. Sacred stories are told only by day and the listeners must not move in front of the speaker; to do so would be highly disrespectful to the gods. Folktale in the form of anecdote, local legend, or family story is also classed under moolelo.
It is by far the most popular form of story-telling surviving today and offers a rich field for further investigation, but since no systematic collecting has been done in this most difficult of forms for the foreign transcriber, it is represented here only incidentally when a type tale has become standardized in folklore.
Nor can the distinction between kaao as fiction and moolelo as fact be pressed too closely. It is rather in the intention than in the fact. Many a so-called moolelo which a foreigner would reject as fantastic nevertheless corresponds with the Hawaiian view of the relation between nature and man. A kaao, although often mak-. The Hawaiians worshiped nature gods and these gods entered to a greater or less extent into all the affairs of daily life, played a dominant part in legendary history, and furnished a rich imaginative background for the development of fictional narrative.
Hence the whole range of story-telling is included in the term mythology. Among Hawaiians the word for god akua is of indeterminate usage. Thus any object of nature may be a god; so may a dead body or a living person or a made image, if worshiped as a god. Every form of nature has its class god, who may become aumakua or guardian god of a family into which an offspring of the god is born, provided the family worship such an offspring with prayer and offerings.
The name kupua is given to such a child of a god when it is born into the family as a human being. The power of a kupua is limited to the district to which he belongs. In story he may be recognized by a transformation body in the form of animal or plant or other natural object belonging to him through his divine origin, and by more than natural powers through control over forms of nature which serve him because of family descent.
As a human being he is preternaturally strong and beautiful or ugly and terrible. The name comes from the word kupu as applied to a plant that sprouts from a parent stock, as in the word kupuna for an ancestor. So the word ohana, used to designate a family group, refers to the shoots oha which grow up about a rootstock. The terms akua, aumakua, and kupua are as a matter of fact interchangeable, their use depending upon the attitude of the worshiper. An akua may become an aumakua of a particular family.
A person may be represented in story as a kupua during his life and an aumakua if worshiped after death. A ghost lapu is called an akua lapu to designate those tricky spirits who frighten persons at night. Much that seems to us wildest fancy in Hawaiian story is to him a sober statement of fact as he interprets it through the interrelations of gods with nature and with man. Another philosophic concept comes out in his way of accommodating himself as an individual to the physical universe in which he finds himself placed.
He arrives at an organized conception of form through the pairing of opposites, one depending upon the other to complete the whole. So ideas of night and day, light and darkness, male and female, land and water, rising and setting of the sun , small and large, little and big, hard and light of force , upright and prostrate of position , upward and downward, toward and away from the speaker appear paired in repeated reiteration as a stylistic element in composition of chants, and function also in everyday language, where one of a pair lies implicit whenever its opposite is used in reference to the speaker.
It determines the order of emergence in the so-called chant of creation, where from lower forms of life emerge offspring on a higher scale and water forms of life are paired with land forms until the period of the gods po is passed and the birth of the great gods and of mankind ushers in the era of light ao. It appears in the recitation by rote of genealogies in which husbands and wives are paired through literally hundreds of generations. It is notable that in similar genealogies such as the Hebrew, in which, as introduced by the missionaries, Hawaiians showed extraordinary interest, males alone are recorded.
Gods are represented in Hawaiian story as chiefs dwelling in far lands or in the heavens and coming as visitors or immigrants to some special locality in the group sacred to their worship. Of the great gods worshiped throughout Polynesia, Ku, Kane, Lono, and Kanaloa were named to the early missionaries. They are invoked together in chant, as in the lines:. A distant place lying in quietness. For Ku, for Lono, for Kane and Kanaloa. They are recognized by the appearance of whatever natural phenomena have been associated with their worship by tradition or ritual custom, as color, scent, cloud or rainbow forms, storm signs, and the notes of birds.
Each had a place in family worship. Subordinate gods attached to the families of the great gods were invoked by those who hoped to gain through them special skills or success in some particular form of activity. Even thieves had their patron god. Some of the names of these departmental gods as recorded in Hawaii are to be found attached to South Sea deities; others are of native origin. The elaborate cycle of story centering about the family of the fire goddess Pele of the volcano bears every mark of such local development.
The original character of these great gods is hard to determine. Buck thinks they were of human origin, chiefs whose superior ability in life or the mystery which surrounded them on earth led to their deification after their death or disappearance. I believe that they were at first conceived as nature deities of universal significance, like Pele, and their identification with a particular human being, perhaps as an incarnation of the god, came later.
So Captain Cook was worshiped as Lono because the people thought the god, or possibly the chief who impersonated the god, had returned to them in the form of this impressive stranger. Worshipers of a god were sometimes identified with the god after their death. It also happened that a man acquired the name of an ancestor during life as a sobriquet.
A certain Hawaiian chief was called Wakea because he had a child by his own daughter, a departure from custom like that narrated in the myth of the first parent. An episode told in the life of Lono the god seems to have become mixed up with the quarrel of the chief Lono-i-ka-makahiki with his wife Kaikilani. Thus confusion arises through the habit of doubling names and we are unable to say in particular instances whether the god or his namesake, or which namesake in the historical sequence, is alluded to.
But divinity is thought of in Polynesia as lying dormant in the idea and manifesting itself in form only when it becomes. The particular form such a god took depended upon some dream or incident which suggested that a god had thus manifested himself to them. Hawaiian mythology recognizes a prehuman period before mankind was born when spirits alone peopled first the sea and then the land, which was born of the gods and thrust up out of the sea. In Hawaii, myths about this prehuman period are rare. No story is told of the long incubation of thought which finally becomes active and generates the material universe and mankind; the creation story in Hawaii begins at the active stage and conforms as closely as possible to the biblical account.
No story is told of the rending apart of earth and heaven, after the birth of the gods. No family of gods is represented, no struggle of the son against the primeval father, no story of the ascent to the heaven of the gods after esoteric wisdom, no myth of Tiki and the first woman, or one so obscured as to remain doubtful.
Even Wakea and Papa, whose figures play a dominating part in Hawaiian myth and story, are represented as parents upon the genealogical line, not as the Sky and Earth deities their names imply. Thus the imagination, which in Polynesian groups in the South Seas plays with cosmic forces, in Hawaii is limited to human action on earth, magnified by incarnations out of a divine ancestry. Cosmic myths are either absent or told in terms of human society. The comparison of Hawaiian stories with versions from the southern Pacific offers an important link in tracing routes of intercourse during the period of migration of related Polynesian groups.
When the peopling of Hawaii took place cannot be clearly demonstrated. It was probably some centuries after the Christian era and perhaps first by way of Micronesia, from whence the earliest Polynesian voyagers may have spread out fanwise over the eastern Pacific. The firstcomers. They may have followed flights of migrating birds or observed currents which brought strange pieces of wreckage to their shores. There is no archaeological evidence to show that any people of a different culture had lived here before them.
Later migrations certainly took off from Tahiti, as is distinctly recorded in old chants and legends and further proved by linguistic identities and corresponding forms of culture between the two areas. All were branches lala from the parent stock. The plot of many Hawaiian romances and hero tales turns upon such a claim to relationship with a chief in Tahiti through whom the child of the humbler parent lays claim to divine lineage.
Hawaii was a large and fertile land. After the hardships and struggles of early colonization the social order became stabilized, long voyages ceased, chiefs settled down to a life of leisure, and aristocratic arts and amusements flourished. Even in the humblest family, story-telling furnished entertainment for long evenings. In the courts of chiefs it was a popular amusement on the occasion of a journey or a visit.
Genealogies and local legends were carefully preserved. Traditional hero tales and romances were spun out long into the night by means of song and dialogue, one detail following another according to a fixed pattern, or an episode being introduced from another legend to prolong the tale. A contemporary incident might be adroitly narrated in terms of some legendary episode; an old tale localized or moved forward into the cycle told of a contemporary chief; a story of gods made over into one of human exploit.
But a tale once composed retained its general form, even much of its detail. Since the habit of memorizing does not easily die out, a comparatively large body of such traditional story has been preserved, for the most part from oral recitation. Hawaiians today readily distinguish stories invented on a foreign pattern, of which, after the coming of the whites,.
Very soon after their arrival, the reduction of the language to writing was followed by the setting up of the first printing press west of the Rockies. The missionaries specialized in biblical knowledge, but free versions of foreign tales from Persian epic, The Arabian Nights, Shakespeare, Walter Scott, and lesser romancers of the day fill the pages of Hawaiian newspapers after the sixties.
Wild romances were composed upon the foreign model with a setting of passion and mystery borrowed from other than native sources. The popular romance of Leinaala is said to have been inspired by the love passages in the Song of Solomon, and the magic employed is distinctly other than Hawaiian or even Polynesian. Happily, however, some Hawaiian editors believed that the old stories handed down from their forefathers through oral recitation had equal claim to the interest of their readers.
A call was sent out for such transcriptions and, from the period of the sixties, many such legends were committed to writing and printed as continued stories in the weekly journals. A single tale might run on for years, as happened in the case of one whose translation I had attempted, only to find that the transcriber had died without bringing the story to a conclusion. Luckily the mother of my interpreter was able to furnish the gist of the ending from her familiarity with the legend as told in the section of the country from which she came.
Through the picture given in these recitals the background of old Hawaiian culture may be actually realized. It is that of a people divided into strict classes as chiefs, priests, commoners, and slaves, holding prerogatives according to inherited rank down to their minutest subdivisions, and of land similarly subdivided, parceled out by each district chief to his followers during his own lifetime and returned to his successor for redistribution after his death.
Each such ruling chief represented a family group ohana claiming a divine ancestor of whom he was the oldest male of pure blood in direct descent, or lacking such, the female of highest rank, and through whom he inherited the land rights for his district,. From time to time this orderly system of inherited descent was broken by the usurpation of a popular leader, inferior in blood but ambitious for land and power and encouraged by a discontented faction within the following or by a powerful relative from a neighboring district.
Many of the legends turn upon such a conflict with the old order, in which an adventurer of a younger branch leads a popular revolt. The complete success of the first Kamehameha and his final domination over the group was due not only to unusual strength of character but also to his readiness in adopting foreign ways of warfare and in following the advice of white men salvaged from the crews of looted foreign vessels, by which qualities he proved himself a capable dictator. The express commands of the dying chief, loyal to the old gods under whom he had won victory, were nevertheless powerless to prevent the final overthrow of the old religious system upon which had depended the stability of the social order.
General demoralization had followed the economic changes which took place as a result of the conquest. Land was redistributed to the victors, old families were dispossessed and their holdings given to warring adventurers. Moreover, for forty years the presence of white strangers and contact with other countries had weakened respect for the old system by which law had been regulated upon religious tapus. Young Hawaiians visiting America on whaling ships around the Horn asked for teachers for their people.
Almost immediately upon the death of the old chief in the rejection of the eating tapus between men and women took place. In the first missionaries sent out from Boston by the American Board of Missions were allowed to land and to take up their mission of teaching a new faith and imposing the standards of a foreign civilization. Within a few years after this event the whole nation followed their chiefs in repudiating the national worship and adopting the Christian religion. Social and political changes took western pat-. The uniting of the nation under a single ruler moi as in European countries was followed by the setting up of a constitutional form of government after the American model, the dividing up of lands for individual ownership, and the abolition of the class system.
Chiefs and slaves were alike under the new law of Christian democracy. Destructive war ceased, however political intrigue might continue. Foreign contacts of this period must certainly have influenced story-telling, especially those traditional narratives which are comparable with Bible incidents like the creation, flood, and fall of man, or episodes also which would have seemed indecent to the foreign listener.
Borrowings from southern groups must have occurred, too, after interrelations were again established with neighbors of their own blood. Hawaiians joined whaling expeditions in very early days, and had intercourse with China and the Northwest Coast. Mexican cowboys were introduced into Hawaii to help in the development of cattle ranches and may have contributed some episodes from their own stock of racy story-telling.
Modern interpolations certainly occurred and are to be recognized in tales collected direct from more than one native narrator and recorded in Hawaiian text. It is likely too that the long novelistic passages which occur in romances published for Hawaiian readers, as well as the handling of dialogue and incident to create a picture of life, are imitated from English models. It is highly probable that the almost complete absence of cosmic imagination already noticed is due to suppression under the influence of the hard-headed incredulity of the literal-minded English and Americans who became their mentors.
But those tales which Hawaiians themselves accept as genuine are easily to be distinguished from the spurious. The strangeness of the concepts to our own culture and their consistency with Polynesian thought prove a minimum of foreign influence. Many episodes or whole histories correspond with southern types.
Only in certain cases is this correspondence so close as to prove a late borrowing. In every case, however recently remodeled, the story is firmly based on native tradition and remains true in detail to native Hawaiian culture. Despite the breakdown of classes, Hawaiians of chief stock take pride today in preserving family genealogies, possibly at times distorted by a desire to aggrandize their claim to rank.
Blue blood is still to be recognized in some fine old Hawaiians who do honor, in the dignity of their lives, to their inherited tradition. Many old Hawaiian chiefs during the first hundred years of foreign contact remained on their holdings in the back country conducting their lives much according to the old pattern, retelling their family tales or those belonging to their own locality, repeating their family chants and genealogies, treasuring their family gods or setting up new gods for immediate protection against want or sorcery. In everything relating to the past the family bond remained sacred.
The old pride of rank did not easily lose its hold upon the imagination. About the places where the old gods walked, where the forefathers dwelt, lingered still their active influence for good or evil; wahi pana storied places they are called. Even today a mere child of the district will point them out. Local entertainers may always be found ready to tell the legend, embellished by a chant at emotional moments to break the monotony of recital. On the edge of the royal fishponds below Kalihi, in a house built for King Kalakaua, lives David Malo Kupihea, holding among his kindred, who have settled close about him, a position corresponding in humble fashion to the old patriarchal dignity of the past.
Beyond the soft fringe of overhanging cassias shimmer the surfaces of the ponds outlined in enduring stone, and there are dusty exhalations from neighboring dump-heaps to which the once royal area has been consigned as the creeping population of the city seeks to build up firm land upon the bordering marshes. There Kupihea rules alike over fishponds and dump-heaps.
Descended from a long line of sorcery priests of Molokai in the high-chief class, educated in the best English-speaking schools of Honolulu side by side with the children of the newcomers, inheriting from his fathers the office of guardian of the royal fishponds, he keeps his love for the old learning taught by the elders of his own blood, and takes an even emo-.
According to Kupihea the great gods came at different times to Hawaii. Ku and Hina, male and female, were the earliest gods of his people. Kane and Kanaloa came to Hawaii about the time of Maui. Lono seems to have come last and his role to have been principally confined to the celebration of games.
At one time he was driven out, according to Kupihea, but he returned later. They were the gods who ruled the ancient people before Kane. That is the tradition of our people. Kane and Kanaloa [arrived there], but not Lono.
Some claim that Lono came to Maui. KU and Hina, male or husband kane and female or wife wahine , are invoked as great ancestral gods of heaven and earth who have general control over the fruitfulness of earth and the generations of mankind. Prayer is addressed to Ku toward the east, to Hina toward the west. Together the two include the whole earth and the heavens from east to west; in a symbol also they include the generations of mankind, both those who are to come and those already born. Some kahunas teach a prayer for sickness addressing Ku and Hina, others address Kahikina-o-ka-la The rising of the sun and Komohana-o-ka-la Entering in of the sun.
Still others call upon the spirits of descendants and ancestors, praying toward the east to Hina-kua -back as mother of those who are to come, and toward the west to Hina-alo -front for those already born. The prayer to Ku and Hina of those who pluck herbs for medicine emphasizes family relationship as the claim to protection.
All are children from a single stock, which is Ku. Ku [or Hina], listen! I have come to gather for [naming the sick person] this [naming the plant] which was rooted in Kahiki, spread its rootlets in Kahiki, produced stalk in Kahiki, branched in Kahiki, leafed in Kahiki, budded in Kahiki, blossomed in Kahiki, bore fruit in Kahiki. Life is from you, O God, until he [or she] crawls feebly and totters in extreme old age, until the blossoming time at the end.
Amama, it is freed. Ku is therefore the expression of the male generating power of the first parent by means of which the race is made fertile and reproduces from a single stock. Hina is the expression of. AA — Through the woman must all pass into life in this world. The two, Ku and Hina, are hence invoked as inclusive of the whole ancestral line, past and to come. Ku is said to preside over all male spirits gods , Hina over the female.
They are national gods, for the whole people lay claim to their protection as children descended from a single stock in the ancient homeland of Kahiki. The idea of Ku and Hina as an expression of common parentage has had an influence upon fiction, where hero or heroine is likely to be represented as child of Ku and Hina, implying a claim to high birth much like that of the prince and princess of our own fairy tales.
It enters into folk conceptions. A slab-shaped or pointed stone pohaku which stands upright is called male, pohaku-o-Kane; a flat papa or rounded stone is called female, papa-o-Hina or pohaku-o-Hina, and the two are believed to produce stone children. So the upright breadfruit ulu tree is male and is called ulu-ku; the low, spreading tree whose branches lean over is ulu-ha-papa and is regarded as female.
These distinctions arise from analogy, in the shape of the breadfruit blossom and of the rock forms, with the sexual organs, an analogy from which Hawaiian symbolism largely derives and the male expression of which is doubtless to be recognized in the conception of the creator god, Kane. The universal character of Ku as a god worshiped to produce good crops, good fishing, long life, and family and national prosperity for a whole people is illustrated in a prayer quoted by J. Emerson as one commonly used to secure a prosperous year:. O Ku, O Li!
Soften your land that it may bring forth. Bring forth where? Bring forth in the sea [naming the fishing ground], squid, ulua fish. Encourage your land to bring forth. Bring forth, on land, potatoes, taro, gourds, coconuts, bananas, calabashes. Bring forth what? Bring forth men, women, children, pigs, fowl, food, land.
Bring forth chiefs, commoners, pleasant living; bring about good will, ward off ill will. Here again, in the antithesis between sea and land, is another illustration like that between male and female of the practical nature of prayer, which sought to omit no fraction of the field covered lest some virtue be lost. The habit of antithesis thus became a stylistic element in all Hawaiian poetic thought. Imagination played with such mythical conceptions of earth and heaven as Papa and Wakea Awakea, literally midday.
Night po was the period of the gods, day ao was that of mankind. Direction was indicated as toward the mountain or the sea, movement as away from or toward the speaker, upward or downward in relation to him; and an innumerable set of trivial pairings like large and small, heavy and soft, gave to the characteristically balanced structure of chant an antithetical turn. The contrast between upland and lowland, products of the forest and products of the sea, and the economic needs dependent upon each, shows itself as a strong emotional factor in all Hawaiian composition. It was recognized economically in the distribution of land, each family receiving a strip at the shore and a patch in the uplands.
It was recognized in the division of the calendar into days, months, and seasons, when those at the shore watched for indications of the ripening season in the uplands and those living inland marked the time for fishing and surfing at the shore. It modified the habits of whole families of colonizers, some of whom made their settled homes in the uplands and in the forested mountain gorges.
It determined the worship of functional gods of forest or sea, upon whom depended success in some special craft.