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From the Who2 database of 4,567 musicians, actors, historical figures, and other celebrities:

Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 31 March State of Himachal Pradesh. Capital : Shimla. Arts and crafts Languages Music Traditional dances.

Chamba Kangra Una. Kinnaur Shimla Sirmaur Solan. Agriculture Animal husbandry Industry Social services Transport. Lakes Rivers Climate Protected areas Highest point. Picture gallery Image gallery at Wikimedia Commons. A wry observer of everyday life in Dublin, Maeve sadly passed away in Born in Dublin in , figurative painter Francis Bacon is considered one of the most important artists of the 20 th century.

Register Now to save and share your pins. Insider Tips. Famous People from Dublin. By Visit Dublin. U2 This famous foursome hardly needs an introduction; Bono and the boys have been making music since they formed in Dublin in He was a member of the Westminster Medical Society , an organisation dedicated to clinical and scientific demonstrations. Snow gained prestige and recognition all the while being able to experiment and pursue many of his scientific ideas.

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He was especially interested in patients with respiratory diseases and tested his hypothesis through animal studies. In , he wrote, On Asphyxiation, and on the Resuscitation of Still-Born Children , which is an article that discusses his discoveries on the physiology of neonatal respiration, oxygen consumption and the effects of body temperature change.

At the same time, he worked on various papers that reported his clinical experience with anaesthesia, noting reactions, procedures and experiments. Though he thoroughly worked with ether as an anaesthetic, he never attempted to patent it; instead he continued to work and publish written works on his observations and research.

Within two years after ether was introduced, Snow was the most accomplished anaesthetist in Britain. John Snow studied chloroform as much as he studied ether, which was introduced in by James Young Simpson , a Scottish obstetrician. He realised that chloroform was much more potent and required more attention and precision when administering it.

Snow first realised this with Hannah Greener, a year-old patient who died on 28 January after a surgical procedure that required the cutting of her toenail. She was administered chloroform by covering her face with a cloth dipped in the substance. However, she quickly lost pulse and died. After investigating her death and a couple of deaths that followed, he realized that chloroform had to be administered carefully and published his findings in a letter to The Lancet. His experience with obstetric patients was extensive and used different substances including ether, amylene and chloroform to treat his patients.

However, chloroform was the easiest drug to administer.

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He treated 77 obstetric patients with chloroform. He would apply the chloroform at the second stage of labour and controlled the amount without completely putting the patients to sleep.

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Once the patient was delivering the baby, they would only feel the first half of the contraction and be on the border of unconsciousness, but not fully there. Regarding administration of the anaesthetic, Snow believed that it would be safer if another person that was not the surgeon applied it. The use of chloroform as an anaesthetic for childbirth was seen as unethical by many physicians and even the Church of England.

However, on 7 April , Queen Victoria asked John Snow to administer chloroform during the delivery of her eighth child. He then repeated the procedure for the delivery of her daughter three years later. Medical and religious acceptance of obstetrical anaesthesia came after in the 19th century. Snow was a skeptic of the then-dominant miasma theory that stated that diseases such as cholera and bubonic plague were caused by pollution or a noxious form of "bad air".

The germ theory of disease had not yet been developed, so Snow did not understand the mechanism by which the disease was transmitted. His observation of the evidence led him to discount the theory of foul air. He first publicised his theory in an essay, On the Mode of Communication of Cholera , [21] followed by a more detailed treatise in incorporating the results of his investigation of the role of the water supply in the Soho epidemic of By talking to local residents with the help of Reverend Henry Whitehead , he identified the source of the outbreak as the public water pump on Broad Street now Broadwick Street.

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Although Snow's chemical and microscope examination of a water sample from the Broad Street pump did not conclusively prove its danger, his studies of the pattern of the disease were convincing enough to persuade the local council to disable the well pump by removing its handle force rod. This action has been commonly credited as ending the outbreak, but Snow observed that the epidemic may have already been in rapid decline:.

There is no doubt that the mortality was much diminished, as I said before, by the flight of the population, which commenced soon after the outbreak; but the attacks had so far diminished before the use of the water was stopped, that it is impossible to decide whether the well still contained the cholera poison in an active state, or whether, from some cause, the water had become free from it.

Snow later used a dot map to illustrate the cluster of cholera cases around the pump. He also used statistics to illustrate the connection between the quality of the water source and cholera cases. He showed that the Southwark and Vauxhall Waterworks Company was taking water from sewage-polluted sections of the Thames and delivering the water to homes, leading to an increased incidence of cholera.

Snow's study was a major event in the history of public health and geography. It is regarded as the founding event of the science of epidemiology.

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On proceeding to the spot, I found that nearly all the deaths had taken place within a short distance of the [Broad Street] pump. There were only ten deaths in houses situated decidedly nearer to another street-pump. In five of these cases the families of the deceased persons informed me that they always sent to the pump in Broad Street, as they preferred the water to that of the pumps which were nearer.

In three other cases, the deceased were children who went to school near the pump in Broad Street With regard to the deaths occurring in the locality belonging to the pump, there were 61 instances in which I was informed that the deceased persons used to drink the pump water from Broad Street, either constantly or occasionally The result of the inquiry, then, is, that there has been no particular outbreak or prevalence of cholera in this part of London except among the persons who were in the habit of drinking the water of the above-mentioned pump well.

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I had an interview with the Board of Guardians of St James's parish, on the evening of the 7th inst [7 September], and represented the above circumstances to them. In consequence of what I said, the handle of the pump was removed on the following day. Researchers later discovered that this public well had been dug only 3 feet 0.

The cloth nappy of a baby, who had contracted cholera from another source, had been washed into this cesspit.

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Its opening was originally under a nearby house, which had been rebuilt farther away after a fire. The city had widened the street and the cesspit was lost. It was common at the time to have a cesspit under most homes. Most families tried to have their raw sewage collected and dumped in the Thames to prevent their cesspit from filling faster than the sewage could decompose into the soil.

Thomas Shapter had conducted similar studies and used a point-based map for the study of cholera in Exeter , seven years before John Snow, although this did not identify the water supply problem that was later held responsible. After the cholera epidemic had subsided, government officials replaced the Broad Street pump handle.


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They had responded only to the urgent threat posed to the population, and afterward they rejected Snow's theory. To accept his proposal would have meant indirectly accepting the fecal-oral route of disease transmission, which was too unpleasant for most of the public to contemplate. It wasn't until that William Farr , one of Snow's chief opponents, realized the validity of his diagnosis when investigating another outbreak of cholera at Bromley by Bow and issued immediate orders that unboiled water was not to be drunk.