A digitally adjusted power supply for systems-on-chip based on CMOS integrated fuel cells. A differential difference amplifier with automatic gain selection as readout interface for cmos stress sensors in orthodontic brackets. Design measures for performance compensation of analog circuits during reduction of technology structures. Bradford and A. Koops and D. An integrated stent-graft for non-invasive 4-dimensional aneurysm sac pressure monitoring after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.
Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate a concept for non-invasive measurement of the pressure in the aneurysm sac following endovascular aortic aneurysm repair EVAR using a prototypic stent-graft with an integrated foldable network of pressure sensors covering the surface of the implant and capable of wireless digital data transmission.
Material and Methods: Based on a commercially available aortic stent-graft we initially constructed a prototype with 4 silicon-based pressure sensors arranged on the surface of the implant fitting into a standard 24 F delivery sheath. Digital data conversion is performed by a microcontroller integrated into the sensor array.
The receiver puts out standardized data via a Universal Serial Bus USB port, which can be used for 4-dimensional visualization of the pressure distribution. Based on this prototype we designed a dedicated application specific integrated circuit ASIC capable of single pressure sensors in order to provide coverage of the whole surface of a future implant. Due to the full integration of all microelectronic devices on the implant no further procedural steps are necessary during the intervention or later on.
Results: The in vitro tests in a vessel model demonstrated a reliable 4-dimensional acquisition of a pressure profile on the surface of the implant and the precise wireless energy and digital data transmission over a distance of 50 cm. Ongoing in vivo experiments in a swine model are currently being performed to confirm these results. Conclusion: The non-invasive acquisition of a pressure profile in the aneurysm sac after EVAR by integrating the detectors on the outer surface of the stent-graft allows detecting a regional pressure elevation due to early endoleak, and it is a practical and efficient option for continuous and direct pressure monitoring which reduces the necessity of follow-up imaging to rule out an endoleak.
An implementation into a product and testing in a clinical study seems feasible. Abstract: Es wird ein implantierbares System zur Ansteuerung von Handprothesen beschrieben. An implantable system for control of hand prostheses is described. The system acquires muscle signals and transmits them to a base station which is part of the prosthesis. Both the power supply and the data transfer is wirelessly carried out. The system is optimized for high power efficiency to allow comfortable mobile applications.
Abstract: In this work, a System in Package SiP for biomedical signal acquisition with a variable number of channels is presented and the advantages of SiP in terms of flexibility and scalability are discussed. A prototype with 3 channels, a microcontroller and a wireless transceiver was realized on a 2. Das Ziel des Projektes MyoPlant ist daher die Entwicklung eines bionischen Handprothesensystems mit mehreren Freiheitsgraden auf der Basis eines myogen gesteuerten intelligenten Implantates. Dietl and A. Gail and K. Abstract: Recent advances in low power integrated circuits are opening up a whole new realm of possibilities in the field of medical implants.
One such possibility is to have implants which require neither wires nor batteries. Such an implant could be put in place and monitored using external equipment for the life of the patient, and it would never require later surgical operations to replace the batteries. The implant could be powered by the RF field generated by an external reader, and it would transmit its data back to the external reader using that same RF field.
This paper will discuss the development of a medical implant which is designed to measure the blood pressure level profile from inside an abdominal aortic aneurysm sac. This implant is designed to collect pressure sample readings from an array of pressure sensors, and to transmit those pressure sample values to an external reading device.
The converter has high flexibility of operation in terms of adaptable resolution, conversion rate and input signal statistics. This feature allows to adaptively react to changes of the situation and to put the device in each case into the optimum configuration. The ADC has been realized in a 0. A comprehensive power model of the converter is presented that reflects precisely the power consumption determined from experiments. The model is very useful for optimizing the converter configuration in the node of a wireless sensor network for specific situations.
A feasible real-life application is demonstrated. Abstract: Impact-ionization at low and high electric field as well as the temperature dependence has to be modeled well in order to improve the predictive capability of TCAD tools. The high field behavior is of particular interest for ESD protection devices with low breakdown voltages which are used to protect ICs made with modern technologies.
In this paper, the model for estimating the impact-ionization proposed by Valdinoci  with the parameters of Reggiani  has been examined with diodes of various breakdown voltages. It was found that the experimental breakdown voltages of the diodes are underestimated using that model. The cause was traced back to the overestimation of the electron impact-ionization coefficient at high electric fields.
By adjusting the model parameters to the experiments of Van Overstraeten  and Grant , who measured the impact-ionization coefficient in silicon for fields up to 7. With the new parameter set, a much better agreement to the measured breakdown voltages is obtained. As a check for the temperature dependence of the impact-ionization, the diodes were further investigated under ns transmission line pulses TLP. The measured high-current I-V characteristic is well reproduced by simulations using the new model, as opposed to the well-established model based on Chynoweth's law.
Both the failure level and the damage location are well predicted by the simulation. Abstract: A 3 channel ECG system with wireless data transmission is presented. Design considerations and ASIC partitioning is addressed in this work. In addition, measurement results are presented proving that a SiP can compete with a System on Chip. Abstract: This paper is about setting up of an opamp array test structure for investigating the degradation of differential amplifier circuit performance and variation of its individual transistor parameters in a stress test.
In an analog circuit implemented using transistors with ultra-thin gate dielectric oxide, the increased gate leakage current results in the increased chances of transistor dielectric breakdown and effects significantly the circuit performance. Transmission gates and other logic circuitry transistors with oxide thickness 6.
An array of 16 differential amplifiers with transmission gates are implemented for stress test measurements. Hafkemeyer and Wolfgang H.
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Abstract: The behavior and the failure mechanism of a monolithic bidirectional ESD protection device under a system-level ESD pulse are investigated. The device is realized by two diffused vertical back-to-back connected diodes. When the bottom p-n junction is stressed with an kV system-level pulse, the device exhibited the typical signature of second thermal breakdown. Surprisingly, no ESD damage could initially be observed by measuring the poststress leakage current, even when the ESD level was further increased to 30 kV.
A degrading IV behavior was later found to be associated with the second thermal breakdown. Based on simulations, local crystal defects are proposed to explain the observed degradation of the IV behavior. It is shown that, in this case, leakage-current measurements alone fail to detect such ESD damage. Failure analysis of the device confirms the existence of the crystal damage. Abstract: In order to investigate eventual benefits of a SiP approach over a SoC for biomedical signal acquisition, a system, consisting of three channels for amplifying and digitizing the acquired signals as well as a microcontroller, was partitioned into three single chan-nel dies, such that interconnects are reduced and digital signals are separated from ana-log signals.
The substrate was designed to be as small as possible, while being easy to mount. Two channel dies were stacked as well as the 3rd channel die and the decimator die, resulting in a substrate size of 2. In addition, the SiP inte-grates 36 SMD components to support the required functionality, leaving just a battery, antenna and power supply circuitry as external components. To design the system, IC5. Afterwards, all components were placed, die stacks and wire-bonds were created, and manually routed. Finally the whole system was checked for performance and design rules.
Furthermore, the back-annotation feature of the RF transmission lines from layout to the schematic greatly helped in the procedure of matching the differential RF port of the transceiver die to the antenna. Considering that this was our first SiP project, the methodology and tools pro-vided enough support to get functional hardware with a design effort of approx. Pros and cons of different architectures are compared using parameters like area, power consumption and potential for future technologies. Abstract: A small system for non-volatile data storage was designed, fabricated in nm and characterized.
Die realisierten Mikrochips erlauben eine hochqualitative Signalaufnahme mit sehr niedriger Leistungsaufnahme auf kleinstem Volumen. Abstract: This work describes the analysis, design and realisation of biomedical amplifiers and analog front-end building blocks implemented in CMOS technology.
In this context, a 1. The amplifier and front-end concepts were used in the design of biomedical system-on-chip solutions that include calibration and DC-offset supression techniques. Domdey, K. Hafkemeyer, D. Reliability analysis of gate dielectrics by applying array test structures and automated test systems.
Abstract: In this paper, we present an approach to analyse the degradation behaviour of the gate dielectric of thousands of MOS transistors simultaneously. Our approach is based on array test structures and automated test systems. They permit to stress up to 4k DUTs under same conditions. Several array test structures with different perimeters as well as areas integrated on one chip are available.
Low-cost automated test systems allow for gate voltage stress experiments on a large scale with numerous array test structures in parallel. Experimental results are shown. Domdey and K. Hafkemeyer and W. Abstract: In this work, a 2nd order IIR filter structure realized with minimum hardware effort is presented. By reusing the multiplier and the adder, 2nd order filtering is executed in five clock cycles. The filter coefficients are written to five registers, which programs the filter operation to low, high or band pass behavior.
Using a nm process, this filter consumes 0. Wagner and W. Galjan and D. In addition to the inconvenience of performing these angiograph scans, plus the risk of misinterpretation of the image data, this method for detecting leakage does not allow for direct, real-time measurements of the intrasac aneurysm pressure levels. By using RFID technology, micromachined pressure sensors, and ultra low power integrated circuitry, a method for taking direct pressure level readings from inside the aneurysm sac is being developed to overcome these shortcomings.
This paper will describe the development of a new pressure sensing medical implant which will record and wirelessly transmit real time pressure readings from inside the aneurysm sac. This proof of concept system is evaluated based on its wireless read distance vs. ADC sample rate vs. Kristian M.
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Abstract: An array test structure for gate oxide integrity and charge pumping measurements is presented. The test structure has been designed in a nm mixed-mode CMOS technology offering two gate oxide thicknesses. A triple well option has been used for the devices under test DUT and the transmission gates to reduce leakage currents and to enable the possibility to measure the bulk currents of single DUTs in charge pumping experiments in correlation to interface states. Abstract: The complete circuitry of a wireless sensor node for biomedical signal acquisition has been implemented as a System-in-Package SiP.
The realized node has a compact size of a 2. The first trial system consists of two sensor end-nodes and a base station. The application achieved good performance in terms of compression ratios and average bit rates, i. The sensor board is used to measure light intensity, temperature, air pressure, and humidity while operating with very low power consumption.
Wjatscheslaw Galjan, Kristian M. Hafkemeyer, Jakob M. Tomasik, Fabian Wagner, Wolfgang H. Krautschneider and Dietmar Schroeder. Abstract: To cover a wide range of biomedical applications, the presented instrumentational amplifier INA for acquisition of biomedical signals is adjustable regarding power consumption and noise.
To achieve a high common mode rejection ratio CMRR of more than 80 dB, a digitally controlled calibration circuitry has been integrated. The novel concept of calibrating the CMRR in the high resistive feedback loop of an opamp and the DC electrode potential suppression does not require any external components. Hafkemeyer and Jakob M. Tomasik and Fabian Wagner and Wolfgang H. An integrated power supply system for low power 3. CMOS integrated stress mapping chips with 32 N-type or P-type piezoresistive field effect transistors.
IEEE Int. The ADC designed in a 0. C2C ladder based architectures are very attractive for implementation because of its small area, high speed and low power consumption. However a major drawback associated with this DAC is the presence of high parasitic bottom plate capacitances. A concept called the floating voltage shield FVS is introduced to reduce the effect of these parasitic capacitances and maximize the effective use of the C2C DAC features. The converter consists of the hybrid DAC, a two stage preamplifier followed by a dynamic latch, switch array and digital circuitry for switching and control.
Use of extremely simple and yet robust analog architectures for the comparator make the ADC operation less prone to process variation errors. Balasubramaniam and W. Galjan and W. Abstract: An array test structure for highly parallelized measurements of ultra-thin MOS gate oxide failures caused by degradation is presented. The test structure allows for voltage stress tests of several thousand NMOS devices under test DUTs in parallel to provide a large and significant statistical base regarding soft as well as hard breakdown and stress induced degradation of transistor parameters.
The array has been fabricated in a standard nm CMOS technology. As mixed mode technologies provide both thin and thick oxide MOS transistors, different gate oxide thicknesses have been chosen for DUTs and digital control logic which gives the possibility to stress the DUTs with high gate voltages.
An integrated power supply system for low-power 3. ISSCC Tomasik, Dietmar Schroeder and Wolfgang H. Abstract: A portable battery powered 3-channel ECG-system is presented. This system can be operated up to 10 days by two standard AA batteries. Combining high performance analog parts for signal acquisition and a powerful DSP on a single chip opens up innovative possibilities in reduction of system size and power consumption. Tomasik and Dietmar Schroeder and Wolfgang H. Tomasik, Kristian M. Abstract: In this work we present a programmable 1.
The experimental results show the feasibility of using higher voltage topologies in conjunction with multi-threshold multi-Vth process options for low voltage designs. The programming range extends from a low-noise to a low-power mode. In addition, a constant-gm stage has been added to the rail-to-rail input. In low-noise mode the OpAmp has a low input thermal noise voltage of 5.
Tomasik and Kristian M. The new version has an increased flexibility of operation in terms of adaptable resolution, conversion rate and input signal statistics. This feature allows to adaptively react to changes of the situation and to put the converter in each case into the optimum configuration.
A possible application is demonstrated. Abstract: A single poly non-volatile memory module for analog circuit calibration fabricated in a standard nm CMOS process is presented. This module performs the read, program and verify operations for non-volatile storage applications. This circuitry can be used, e. The module can be embedded in analog or mixed signal chips based on nm CMOS technology.
Abstract: A configurable multi mode dual slope ADC for acquisition of biomedical signals has been implemented in a 1. Configurability of the ADC in terms of speed, resolution and accuracy make this ADC adaptable for multiple applications. The ADC has eight configurations with a highest resolution of 13 bits at The reconfigurability is achieved by use of an integrated resistor array which is set externally. At a supply voltage of 1. Lait Abu-Saleh, Jakob M. Tomasik, Wjatscheslaw Galjan, Wolfgang H. Abstract: Two methods are presented to reduce the effect of electrode artifacts and increase the quality of Electroencephalogram EEG signals.
A cross-correlation method is used to reduce electrode artifacts and an autocorrelation method applies weights to the EEG input signals according to the noise content of these signals. The EEG data acquisition is achieved using a multisensor-recording technique. The methods were tested and verified using a mobile EEG signal acquisition system with a biomedical signal acquisition System on Chip SoC.
The results show an improvement in signal quality in comparison to the conventional acquisition of EEG signals.
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Tomasik and Wjatscheslaw Galjan and Wolfgang H. An effective work flow has been developed for the SoC-to-SiP transition and functional block separation. Block redesign for reduced interconnects has been realized. Finally, by an optimized floorplanning and die stacking for the SiP blocks an overall area reduction by a factor of 2 compared to the SoC has been achieved. Abstract: We have investigated hysteresis in pentacene-based field-effect transistors with SiO2 as gate dielectric. A clear hysteresis behavior in tranfer and output characteristics is reported.
Measurements show that the observed hysteresis is due to hole trapping in the pentacene film. An initialization routine to be performed prior to measurements is proposed to enable reproducible and reliable measurements on pentacene transistors. Ucurum and H. Goebel and F. Yildirim and W. Bauhofer and and W. In Tagungsband "7. September This paper describes the advantage of having experts of various faculties both in computer science and electrical engineering in a single research field. Ronald M. Meixner and Holger H. The model requires only five additional parameters, which can be extracted from the output characteristics of the device.
The model equations have been verified by device simulations, and the simulation results have been compared with measurements of P3HT OFETs. A different temperature behavior in accumulation is observed. The samples with aluminum oxide show an entirely positive temperature dependence, whereas the samples with silicon oxide have a crossover of the temperature dependent curves. This difference of the two sample types is attributed to the charge distribution according to the material of the breakdown spot, silicon for the case of silicon oxide, and aluminum for aluminum oxide.
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Thus, in the first case, a p-n junction is formed while a Schottky contact is created in the latter case. Atlas simulations and TEM analysis are presented that confirm this hypothesis. Jakschik and B. Tippelt and S. Kudelka and W. Van Helleputte, J. Tomasik, W. Galjan, A.
Mora-Sanchez, D. Krautschneider, R. Abstract: In this paper, a system-on-chip SoC that combines multiple biomedical signal acquisition ECG, EEG, Ep, and respiration-related signals with on-chip digital processing is presented. The embedded flexibility of the SoC facilitates its use in a multitude of applications.
Time-sharing of the operational transconductance amplifier within the analog-to-digital converters is employed in order to lower the power consumption and to save area. Built-in self-test BIST and autocalibration capabilities are included to enhance its reliability. The low noise analog front-end AFE is fully programmable to achieve the best power-noise trade-off for the application at hand.
A prototype has been manufactured in 0. Van Helleputte and J. Galjan and A. Mora-Sanchez and D. Krautschneider and R. Wagner and Ch. Jakobi and J. Tomasik and K. Abstract: abstract: This paper presents the design of a test environment for a small number of signal acquisition ASICs. To keep the test time and cost as low as possible, an FPGA is used to translate the control commands, that are sent by a PC, to the chips. As the FPGA is flexible in programming and the sockets are removable, a very flexible test environment was developed.
Yildrim, R. Schliewe, W. Bauhofer, R. Meixner, H. Goebel, W. Yildrim and R. Schliewe and W. Bauhofer and R. Meixner and H. Goebel and W. Simultaneous large-scale reliability analysis of ultra-thin MOS gate dielectrics using an automated test system. Abstract: This article presents an automated test system targeting the large-scale analysis of ultra-thin MOS gate dielectric degradation. The system allows for stress tests at elevated temperatures as well as supply voltages and long-term tests of thousands of MOS devices simultaneously.
The aim is to build-up large and hence significant statistics about the degradation process as a function of time. Krautschneider and and D. Weber, A. Birner, W. Abstract: A very efficient method to reduce gate induced drain leakage GIDL as the dominant leakage path in the tail part of DRAM data retention time distribution is presented. Different to other reports, GIDL is addressed by trap passivation instead of lowering of electric fields. It was found that the position of the F-implant within the process flow plays a key role to enable trap reduction and retention tail improvement. Detailed activation energy analysis on individual memory cells confirms the validity of the retention tail model and the selective reduction of GIDL traps by F-implantation.
Weber and A. Birner and W. Automated system for simultaneous large-scale stress test of ultra-thin gate dielectrics to analyse reliability. Hafkemeyer, Wjatscheslaw Galjan, Jakob M. Tomasik, Dietmar Schroeder, Wolfgang H. The SoC is adaptable for multiple specific applications and is intended to be utilized in a low-power or a low-noise biomedical domain. Hafkemeyer and Wjatscheslaw Galjan and Jakob M. In a numerically high efficient way semi-classical three dimensional and two dimensional lateral transport in quantized sub bands is calculated. The simulator accurately calculates output characteristics and gives insight into all relevant microscopic details of electron and hole transport by accurately calculating the distribution function solving the Boltzmann transport equation.
By coupling the device simulator with atomistic molecular dynamics calculation of atom-reconfiguration in the SiO2 layer is achieved. Liebig and W. Krautschneider and K. Hafkemeyer and and A. Schmitt-Landsiedel, T. Noll Munich, Germany, Experimental results for a 0. Meier auf der Heide and C. Bronskowski and J. Tomasik and D. A modified constant field charge pumping method for sensitive profiling of near-junction charges.
In this paper we develop an adapted methodology to extract local charge densities based on the constant field charge pumping method. Our method overcomes the problem of non elf-consistency of conventional constant field charge pumping by determination of the spatial coordinate after every injection step. Tempel and R. Hagenbeck and M. Abstract: A methodology for the systematic design of a programmable operational amplifier opamp is described. The theoretical model is developed with the help of the transfer characteristics of the opamp determining the degrees of freedom.
Bronskowski and D. Architecture of a pipelined datapath coarse-grain reconfigurable coprocessor array. Abstract: In this paper, we present the architecture of a coarsegrain reconfigurable cell designed for pipelined arithmetic computing applications. We apply the concept of separation between control-path and computation-path logic in the so-called reconfigurable coprocessor array architecture. Variations of the cells are implemented on CMOS 0. Hanoun and H. Manteuffel and F. Mayer-Lindenberg and W. IEEE Intern. Abstract: Abstract- This work proposes the usage of staggered initialization schemes in digital sequential circuits as complementary technique to reduce the simultaneous switching activity, pursuing the minimization of switching noise levels.
Simultaneous switching noise SSN generation has been evaluated in digital sequential circuits during initialization and a general synthesis methodology has been proposed in order to implement the staggered initialization schemes at system level. The evaluation of this methodology was made with counter arrays using 0. In addition, timing considerations, clock suppression during initialization cycles, and the type of cell chosen to implement the staggered distribution are discussed.
Main results include noise reduction levels, by suppression of power supply fluctuations, up to Abstract: We show for the first time that control of the crystalline phases of HfO2 by tetravalent Si and trivalent Y,Gd dopants enables significant improvements in the capacitance equivalent thickness CET and leakage current in capacitors targeting deep trench DT DRAM applications. By applying these findings, we present a MIM capacitor meeting the requirements of the 40 nm node. A CET. The system supports stress tests at elevated temperature and supply voltage as well as longterm tests.
It aims at the creation of large and thus significant statistics about the degradation process as a function of time. Hafkemeyer and T. Knudsen and W.
Abstract: A test-structure for statistical measurements of MOSFET failures caused by the time dependent eielectric breakdown with an external microcontroller is presented. The concept is technology independent and can be used to adjust and verify existing breakdown models. The CPU-III supports many vital features for controlling including multi-threading, two-stage execution pipelining and an enhanced coprocessor interface which also supports multi-threading and coprocessor pipelining. High slew rate configurabel class AB fully differential operational transconductance amplifier for switched capacitor circuit applications.
November ", ProRisc Veldhoven The amplifier has been designed to operate at 3.
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Post-layout simulation results show that the OTA is suitable for the design of low-power and high-slew rate SC circuit applications, offering better performance in those aspects with respect to classical OTA architectures. An ultra low-noise CMOS operational amplifier with programmable noise-power trade-off. Enz, M. Declercq, Y. Leblebici Montreux, Switzerland, Abstract: A programmable operational amplifier OpAmp concerning noise and power consumption is described.
Key design issues for achieving programmability of a preselected OpAmp architecture are discussed. The OpAmp remains stable over the whole range of programmability. The proposed concept is based on the utilisation of a single OTA within the modulator structure which is shared in time in order to perform concurrently sampling and integration. Thus, power consumption as well as on-chip area can be saved since only one OTA is used. The paper also discusses the impact of nonidealities e. A prototype of the 3rd-order modulator based on a 0. Van Helleputte, A. Mora-Sanchez, W. Galjan, J. Tomasik, D.
The low noise analog front end is fully programmable to achieve the best power-noise trade-off for the application at hand. Van Helleputte and A. Mora-Sanchez and W. Galjan and J. Especially biomedical applications with implantable devices are critical for these system parameters. As biomedical signals have almost an analog character, digitalizing and after that applying filtering algorithms is the usual procedure for signal acquisition systems. For this application field two different strategies of digital computation units have been pursued. The first architecture, it was implemented and manufactured in 0.
To comply with very strong power consumption limitations the digital unit is able to reduce the clock frequency for every system block and also its own. This scaling of computation power and of the resolution of ADC-chains allows to use this SoC for different biological signals.
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The idea for the second implementation is to allow parallelized computation and to divide the whole system in small clusters. Therefore an architecture was developed, which allows to connect together through a parallel bus a maximum of 8 CPUs. For testing purpose an ASIC was implemented consisting mainly of two identical bit micro-CPUs, which are connected together through a parallel bus.
Both threads, running on the both CPUs, execute independent tasks but share the same coprocessor that typically supplies some complex application specific operations. The coprocessor interface strongly supports configurable pipelining, which enforces the stepwise controlling of computations on the coprocessor. Because the design of applicationspecific computation units can be reduced to a design of only one coprocessor, this system is flexible and scalable to different applications.
These two models were merged together by Hung et al. An extensive research on this topic has been started by the publication of Gierkink et al. To exploit the switched bias effect in an analog circuit we developed an experimental opamp in CMOS 0. For this purpose we altered a regular opamp design already designed to be very low-noise. Measurements showed that the noise power could be reduced by a factor of 1. Several degradation mechanisms could be identified by thorough electrical and physical characterization. The findings will serve as a future guide to build thermally stable MIM capacitors.
Detailed activation energy analysis on individual memory cells confirms the validity of the retention tail model and the selective reduction of GIDL traps by fluorine implantation. Method of activation energy analysis and application to individual cells of Mb DRAM in nm technology.
Abstract: In DRAM every memory cell experiences an individual mixture of leakage currents which consume part of the stored charge and lead to a wide distribution of data retention time tRet. This distribution consists of an intrinsic main and an extrinsic tail branch. The formalism of activation energies Ea provides information about the mechanisms involved.
Heidelberg, Anfang Theodor C. Laboratory English seems to be a language of its own — at times quite incomprehensible to outsiders. Those who intend to work in laboratories abroad are well advised to consider a language preparatory course. There is a wealth of technical laboratory terms to be learned by the non-native- speaker in the lab, if only for the reason of survival: safety precautions and proper behavior in case of emergencies require instant response and efficient communication. We hope this dictionary may serve you as a useful tool in your research, in writing publications, and for translations.
XII Acknowledgements. Dietrich Schulz Acad. Dan Choon, cand. University of Heidelberg converted the raw data into an appealing layout. Munich , Laura Michel, cand. Munich , and Samuel Bandara, B. Erika Siebert-Cole, M. Thanks to my cousin Cliff Cole, of Sacramento, California, for his steadily positive moral support. My gratitude is wholeheartedly expressed to family and friends who helped and provided encouragement throughout this 5th dictionary project.
Heidelberg, early in Theodor C. Alarmstufe all-purpose, general-purpose, utility Atemschutz non-prescription drug breathing protection, verschreibungspflichtiges A. Schutzumschlag mit wenigen Gebrauchsspuren an Einband, Schutzumschlag oder Seiten. Seller Inventory MV.
More information about this seller Contact this seller 2. Published by Huber Hans About this Item: Huber Hans , Perfect Paperback. Condition: New. More information about this seller Contact this seller 3. More information about this seller Contact this seller 4. Language: English. Brand new Book. For centuries the analysis of the heart rhythm has belonged to the foundations of medical art.
We know that doctors in ancient Tibet used the interpretation of the heart rate to draw prognostic conclusions-somehow a modern rationale-that deserves further attention. The rapid advancement of science is providing more and more information about the details, but the subatomic resolution of structures hides the risk and the complex procedures are fragmented into static impressions. The same has happened to the ECG. The revolutionary development, acknowledged by the Nobel Prize for Einthoven, ledfromtheanalysisofthedynamicheartratetothestaticanalysisofthe heartstream curve.
It is only with the ECG Holter recording over longer periods that the cardiologists rediscovered the old dynamic. With the continuous recording of the heart rate and its periodicity, it became accessible to a new dimension, a dim- sion that requires technically well-de? With the ECG Holter the issue is no longer just to detect an arrhythmia, but also to determine dynamic circumstance in which the critical event occurred.
In fact, we investigate the trigger, the event, and the context, and we have to integrate all of that information within the clinical picture, from the pathology right through to the symptom-indeed a multi-dimensional task. Seller Inventory SPR More information about this seller Contact this seller 5. More information about this seller Contact this seller 6. Language: German. Brand New Book. Seller Inventory LIB More information about this seller Contact this seller 7. From: glenthebookseller Montgomery, IL, U.
About this Item: Springer. Condition: Very Good.