The ratio of the number of boys and girls in a college is 7 : 8. If the precentage increase in the number of boys and girls contain 10 per cent water. The incomes of A and B are in the ratio 3 : 2 and their 8. A, B and C are partners. A receives of the profit and B and expenditures are in the ratio 5 : 3. C share the remaining profit equally. Find the c , d , capitals invested by A, B and C. Find a fractions which shall bear the same ratio to that e None of these 27 3 5 9. Shri Ramlal distributed his savings among his wife, two sons does to.

If the amount received by each son is Rs. An exployer reduces the number of his employees in the 48,, what was the total amount distributed by Shri Ramlal? State a Rs. What will come in place of both the question marks? Find the share of a boy. A, B and C enter into partnership.

A advances one-fourth of c 10 2 d 10 the capital for one-fourth of the time. B contributes one-fifth of the capital for half of the time. C contributes the remaining e 20 capital for the whole time. How should they divide a profit of The total number of students study- a , , b , , ing in the school is If 15 boys and 15 girls take admis- c , , d , , sion in the school, what will be the new ratio of the boys and e None of these 6. When did B join if the profits at the end of the a 6 : 7 b 8 : 9 c 7 : 8 year were divided in the ratio 2 : 1? There are two numbers such that the sum of twice the first d 9 months e None of these number and thrice the second number is and the sum of 7.

A and B rent a pasture for 10 months. A puts in cows for thrice the first number and twice the second number is How many cows can B put in for the remaining 2 Which is the larger number? Shrimat inherits gold coins and divides them Out of the total coins received by each of them, Bharat ratio of milk to water in the new mixture would be: sells 30 coins, Parat donates his 30 coins and Marat loses 25 a 2 : 1 b 7 : 3 c 8 : 3 coins.

Now the ratio of gold coins with them is 46 : 4 : 34 d 4 : 3 e None of these respectively. How many coins did Parat receive from his Three containers have their volumes in the ratio 3 : 4 : 5. They are full of mixture of milk and water. The mixtures contain a b c milk and water in the ratio of 4 : 1 , 3 : 1 and 5 : 2 respectively. The cost of 14 kgs of fourth container. What is container is the total cost of 24 kgs of sugar, 21 kgs of tea and 25 litres of a 4 : 1 b : 48 c : 53 milk?

Populations of two villages X and Y are in the ratio of 5 : 7 a 2 : 1 b 5 : 1 c 7 : 15 respectively. If the population of village Y increases by d 9 : 14 e None of these and the population of village X remains unchanged the The compound ratio of 2 : 3 , 6, 11 and 2 is: respective ratio of their populations becomes 25 : What a 1 : 2 b 2 : 1 c 11 : 24 is the population of village X? The sides of a triangle are in the ratio : : and its 2 3 4 Number of students studying in colleges A and B are in the perimeter is cm.

The length of the longest side is: ratio of 3 : 4 respectively. If 50 more students join college. A a 52 cm b 48 cm c 32 cm and there is no change in the number of students in College d 26 cm e None of these B, the respective ratio becomes 5 : 6. What is the number of The ratio of three numbers A, B and C is 6: If A, B and students in College B? At the end of 6. What is the difference between Zs share and Xs d e None of these share in the profit? The ratio of two numbers is 4 : 7.

If each of these numbers What is the a 2 : 1 b 1 : 2 c 1 : 1 average of these two numbers? What will be Nalinis A sum of Rs. Salary of Mr. Y, and the salary of Q 's share R 's share S's share 3 Mr. An industrial loom weaves 0. Approximately, how many seconds will it take for 9. If of a cistern is filled in 1 minute, how much more time will the loom to weave 25 metres of cloth? A flagstaff If x men, working x hours per day, can do x units of work in A man completes 8 of a job in 10 days.

At this rate, how y3 y2 x3 many more days will it take him to finish the job? A rope makes 70 rounds of a circumference of a cylinder 4. In how whose radius of the base is 14 cm. How many times can it go many days will 27 men complete the same work? A fort had provision of food for men for 45 days. After 10 If 5 engines consume 6 metric tonnes of coal when each is days, 25 men left the fort. The number of days for which the running 9 hours a day, how many metric tonnes of coal will remaining food will last, is be needed for 8 engines, each running 10 hours a day, it 1 1 being given that 3 engines of the former type consume as a 29 b 37 c 42 much as 4 engines of the latter type?

In how many days will 30 persons, working 6 hours a day, complete the work? Some persons can do a piece of work in 12 days. Two times 7. If 7 spiders make 7 webs in 7 days, then 1 spider will make the number of such persons will do half of that work in: 1 web in how many days? A garrison of men had provisions for 27 days. After d 49 e None of these 3 days a reinforcement of men arrived. For how many 8. If 18 pumps can raise tonnes of water in 10 days, work- more days will the remaining food last now? A garrison had provision for a certain number of days.

After started at 9 a. Approximately 10 days, of the men desert and it is found that the provi- at what time will the work be finished? How long was a a. A, B and C together earn Rs. The A contractor undertakes to do a piece of work in 40 days. He daily earning of C is: engages men at the beginning and more after 35 a Rs. If he had d Rs. In how a 3 b 5 c 6 many days will 10 women complete it? A contractor employed 30 men to do a piece of work in 38 d 50 e None of these days. After 25 days, he employed 5 men more and the work If 6 men and 8 boys can do a piece of work in 10 days while was finished one day earlier.

How many days he would have 26 men and 48 boys can do the same in 2 days, the time taken been behind, if he had not employed additional men? Twenty women can do a work in sixteen days. Sixteen men d 1 e None of these can complete the same work in fifteen days. What is the ratio 2 between the capacity of a man and a woman? If a man works equals to 2 boys, If all the 10 men and twice the work in 50 days, working 9 hours a day?

Then, 2 8 men and 6 boys can do three times the amount of this d 7 e None of these 3 work in Seven men can complete a work in 12 days. They started the a 18 days b 21 days c 24 days work and after 5 days, two men left. In how many days will d 30 days e None of these the work be completed by the remaining men? If the cost of x metres of wire is d rupees, then what is the a 5 b 6 c 7 cost of y metres of wire at the same rate?

After they have worked a Rs. How many days will they d take to complete the remaining work? A does a work in 10 days and B does the same work in 15 Three men, four women and six children can complete a work days. In how many days they together will do the same in seven days. A woman does double the work a man does work? How many women a 5 days b 6 days c 8 days alone can complete this work in 7 days?

A machine P can print one lakh books in 8 hours, machine Q c 12 d Cannot be determined can print the same number of books in 10 hours while ma- e None of these chine R can print them in 12 hours. All the machines are. A and B together can do a piece of work in 12 days and B 8. A can do a work in 18 days, B in 9 days and C in 6 days. After A has A and B start working together and after 2 days C joins worked on it for 5 days and B for 7 days, C finishes it in them. What is the total number of days taken to finish the 13 days.

In how many days will C alone be able to finish work? A worker is paid Rs 56 for 35 hour in a week. Up to 40 hours, 2. Pipes A and B can fill a tank in 5 and 6 hours, respectively. The tank is half full. All the normal. How many hours did he work to get Rs 88? After how much a 48 hours b 50 hours c 58 hours time, the tank will be full? A and B can do the a piece of work in 6 days.

A alone can do 9 8 it in 10 days. What time will B require to do it alone? A cistern is filled up in 5 hours and it takes 6 hours when 17 17 there is a leak in its bottom. If the cistern is full, in what time 3. Ramesh is twice as good a workman as Sunil and finishes a shall the leak empty it? In how many hours a 6 h b 5 h c 30 h they together could finish the same piece of work? Pipe A and B running together can fill a cistern in 6 minutes. A cistern has two taps which fill it in 12 min and 15 min, respectively: respectively and an exhaust tap. When all three taps are a 15 min, 20 min b 15 min, 10 min opened together, it takes 20 min to fill the empty cistern.

I can do a piece of work in 8 days, which can be done by you d 10 min e 7 min in 10 days. How long will it take to do it if we work together? A mother and a daughter working together can complete a a 4 4 days b 5 days c 5 1 days certain work in 4 days. But if the mother worked alone she 9 9 2 could complete the work in 6 days. Both of them worked for 7 8 d 4 days e 4 days one day and then the mother had to leave. How long will the 9 9 daughter take to complete remaining work? Two pipes can fill a tank in 10 hours and 12 hours respectively, a 7 days b 8 days c 6 days while the third can empty it in 20 hours.

If all the pipes are d 9 days e 10 days opened together, the tank will be filled in : 6. If 15 women or 10 men can complete a project in 55 days, in 1 a 7 hours b 10 hours c 8 hours how many days will 5 women and 4 men working together 2 complete the same project? A and B weave a carpet in 10 days and 15 days, respectively.

They begin to work together but B leaves after 2 days. In Working at the rate of 10 hours a day, the number of men what time will A complete the remaining work? A can do a piece of work in 25 days B in 20 days. They work A cistern has two taps which fill it in 12 minutes and 15 together for 5 days and then A goes away.

In how many minutes respectively. There is also a waste pipe in the cistern. When all the pipes are opened, the empty cistern is full in 20 a 17 days b 11 days c 10 days minutes. How long will the waste pipe take to empty a full d 12 days e None of these cistern? A pipe can fill a cistern in 6 hours. Due to a leak in its bottom, a 12 minutes b 10 minutes c 8 minutes it is filled in 7 hours.

When the cistern is full, in how much time d 16 minutes e 20 minutes will it be emptied by the leak? Two taps can fill a tank in 20 minutes and 30 minutes d 45 hours e 48 hours respectively. There is an outlet tap at exactly half level of Two men and 7 children complete a certain piece of work in that rectangular tank which can pump out 50 litres of water 4 days, while 4 men and 4 children complete the same work per minute.

If the outlet tap is open, then it takes 24 minutes in only 3 days. The number of days required by 1 man to to fill an empty tank. What is the volume of the tank? A can do a work in 9 days. Two taps can separately fill a cistern in 10 minutes and 15 then in how many days can B do the same work alone?

## Government and the Food Industry: Economic and Political Effects of Conflict and Co-Operation

The waste pipe can empty d 3 e None of these the full cistern in : A can do a piece of work in 10 days, while B alone can do it a 7 minutes b 13 minutes c 9 minutes in 15 days. They work together for 5 days and the rest of the d 23 minutes e 25 minutes work is done by C in 2 days. If they get Rs for the whole Two pipes P and Q would fill a cistern in 24 and 32 minutes, work, how should they divide the money? Both pipes are kept open.

Three pipes A, B and C can fill a tank in 6 minuets, 8 minutes and 12 minutes, respectively. The pipe C is closed 6 minutes c After 14 minutes d After 16 minutes before the tank is filled. In what time will the tank be full? One tap can fill a cistern in 2 hours and another can empty d Data inadequate e None of these the cistern in 3 hours. How long will they take to fill the B cistern if both the taps are open? A, with help of B, a 7 hours b 6 hours c 5 hours can finish the same work in how many hours? A cistern has a leak which would empty it in 8 hours. A tap is 3 turned on which admits 6 litres a minute into the cistern and 1 it is now emptied in 12 hours.

The cistern can hold 1 d 5 e 47 a litres b litres c litres 2 2 There are two taps to fill a tank while a third to empty it. If 15 men or 24 women or 36 boys can do a piece of work in minutes and 12 minutes, respectively. If all the three taps be 12 days, working 8 hours a day, how many men must be opened, the tank is filled in 15 minutes.

If the first two taps associated with 12 women and 6 boys to do another piece of are closed, in what time can the third tap empty the 1 tank when it is full? For how much kg. Approximately, at what price per kg should he a b c sell the remaining quantity to make 25 per cent overall profit? What profit per cent is made by selling an article at a certain d 8 e 17 price, if by selling at two-third of that price there would be a 3. What is the cost price? At what price should it be sold so What is the cost price of the wrist watch?

What is the On one he gained His gain or loss per cent them at eight times that price per hundred. A milkman buys some milk contained in 10 vessels of equal What did the second table 1 cost him? Find the cost price. Each of the two cars is sold at the same price. A reduction of 40 per cent in the price of bananas would second. What is the combined loss or gain? What is the reduced price per dozen? A man purchased an article at th of the list price and sold Profit earned by an organisation is distributed among officers 4 at half more than the list price.

What was his gain per cent? I lose 9 per cent selling pencils at the rate of 15 a rupee. How earned? How much per cent is the list A shopkeeper labelled the price of his articles so as to earn price more than the cost price? Time Date A man takes 6 hrs 30 min in walking to a certain place and 1. The average speed of a car is 1 times the average speed of riding back. He would have gained 2 hrs 10 min by riding 5 a bus. A tractor covers km in 23 hours. How much both ways. How long would he take to walk both ways? A Train which travels at the uniform rate of 10 m a second d km e None of these leaves Madras for Arconum at 7 a.

At what distance from 2. If the bike was to cover the same distance in at 7. A, B and C can walk at the rates of 3, 4 and 5 km an hour 3. What is the respectively. When B catches A, B sends him back with a speed of the boat in still water? When will C get the message? Two men start together to walk a certain distance, one at 4. The ratio between the speed of a train and a car is 16 : 15 respectively. Also, a bus covered a distance of km in 8 h. The former 3 The speed of the bus is three-fourth the speed of the train. Find the distance. A motor car does a journey in 10 hours, the first half at 21 5.

Find the in 8h. What is the respective ratio of distances a km b km c km covered by Car A and Car B? A person going from Pondicherry to Ootacamond travels d 7 : 11 e None of these km by steamer, km by rail and 60 km by horse transit. Find the rate of the train. How many seconds will a train 60 m in length, travelling at 7. The wheel of an engine 4 metres in circumference makes 7 the rate of 42 km an hour, rate to pass another train 84 m seven revolutions in 4 seconds. Find the speed of the train long, proceeding in the same direction at the rate of 30 km an in km per hour.

A train 75 metres long overtook a person who was walking A man rows to a place at a distance seconds. Find the 2 Subsequently it overtook a specond person, and passed total time taken by him. At what rate was the second person d 11 hr e None of these 4 travelling? A train takes 5 seconds to pass an electric pole. If the length a 1 b 1. A boat moves upstream at the rate of 1 km in 10 minutes and down-stream at the rate of 1 km in 6 minutes.

The speed of a A train is running at the rate of 40 kmph. A man is also going d 2 e None of these in the same direction parallel to the train at the speed of 25 A can row a certain distance down a stream in 6 hours and kmph. If the train crosses the man in 48 seconds, the length return the same distance in 9 hours. A train speeds past a pole in 15 seconds and speeds past a in still water.

The current of a stream runs at the rate of 4 km an hour. A and 4 kmph respectively and passes them completely in 9 boat goes 6 km back to the starting point in 2 hours. The and 10 seconds respectively. What in 6 hours. A boat travels upstream from B to A and downstream from A car travels a distance of km in 9.

If the speed of the boat in still water is speed of 40 kmh1 and partly at kmh1. A train metres in length passes a pole in 4 seconds and It takes him 1 hour to row to a place direction in 15 seconds. What is the speed of the second and back. How far is the place? A mixture of certain quantity of milk with 16 litres of water is 9. A container contained 80 kg of milk.

From this container, worth 90 P per litre. This much milk is there in the mixture? How much milk is a 60 b 70 c 80 now contained by the container? How many kg of salt at 42 P per kg must a man mix with 25 kg of salf at 24 P per kg so that he may, on selling the mixture at d Gold is 19 times as heavy as water and copper 9 times. In a 15 b 20 c 25 what ratio should these metals be mixed so that the mixture d 30 e None of these may be 15 times as beavy as water? There are 65 students in a class. Find the number of boys and girls in that class. A can contains a mixture of two liquids A and B in proportion 6.

In what ratio should milk and water be mixed so that after 7 : 5. How 3 many litres of liquid A was contained by the can initially? In a mixture of 60 litres, the ratio of milk to water is 2 : 1. A vessel of 80 litre is filled with milk and water. In three vessels each of 10 litres capacity, mixture of milk Find the ratio in which rice at Rs.

The ratios of milk and water are 2 : 1, 3 : 1 rice at Rs. If all the three kg. In what ratio must tea at Rs. Milk and water are mixed in a vessel A in the proportion 5 : 2, kg? In what proportion a 3 : 1 b 3 : 2 c 4 : 3 should quantities be taken from the two vessels so as to d 5 : 3 e None of these form a mixture in which milk and water will be in the In what ratio must water be mixed with milk costing Rs. A butler stores wine from a butt of sherry which In what ratio must a grocer mix two varieties of tea worth Rs. The butt was then How much of the butt did he steal?

The d e None of these 7 quantity of whisky replaced is: Two vessels A and B contain spirit and water mixed in the ratio 5 : 2 and 7 : 6 respectively. Find the ratio in which these A jar contains a mixture of two liquids A and B in the ratio mixture be mixed to obtain a new mixture in vessel C contain- 4 : 1.

When 10 litres of the mixture is taken out and 10 ing spirit and water in the ratio 8 : 5? How many litres of liquid A was contained in the jar? Two vessels A and B contain milk and water mixed in the d 20 l e None of these ratio 8 : 5 and 5 : 2 respectively. The ratio in which these two A can contains a mixture of two liquids A and B in the ratio In what ratio must a grocer mix two varieties of pulses cost- 7 : 5. When 9 litres of mixture are drawn off and the can in ing Rs. How many mixture worth Rs. What total amount would Mithilesh get at the end of three same period?

What was the rate of interest What would be the compound a 4 b 8 interest accrued on the same amount at the same rate in the c 5 d Cannot be determined same period? How much e None of these compound interest he will get on same amount and same What would be the approximate cent per annum. At a certain rate of simple interest, a certain sum doubles year with an increase of 0.

She itself in 10 years. How much loan did a 10 b 20 c 25 she take? The difference between the interest received from two What will be the compound interest accrued on an amount If the total simple interest compounded half-yearly? Find the rate of interest per annum. The simple interest on a certain sum of money for 4 years at Arun and Ramu are friends. Find the amount with interest after 2 years.

How much did Arun receive? A sum of money at compound interest amounts in two years Find the sum lent. A sum is invested at compound interest payable annually. A merchant commences with a certain capital and gains The compound interest earned by Suresh on a certain annually at the rate of 25 p. At the end of 3 years he has amount at the end of two years at the rate of 8 p.

What was his original capital? What was the total amount that Suresh got back at a b c the end of two years in the form of principal plus interest d e earned? What sum of money at compound interest will amount to What would be the compound interest accrued on a amount The average age of a man and his son is 16 years. The ratio 9. Ten yrs ago, A was half of B in age. If the ratio of their of their ages is 15 : 1 respectively.

What is the sons age? The average age of a lady and her daughter is The ratio d 50 e None of these of their ages is 14 : 5 respectively. What is the daughters age? The sum of the ages of a mother and her daughter is 50 yrs. What are the present ages of the mother and the e None of these daughter? Present age of Sudha and Neeta are in the ratio of 6 : 7 a 35, 5 b 40, 10 c 30, 20 respectively.

Five years ago their ages were in the ratio of d 25, 15 e None of these 5 : 6 respectively. What is Sudhas present age? The ratio of the fathers age to the sons age is 4 : 1. The a 30 years b 35 years product of their ages is What will be the ratio of their c 40 years d Cannot be determined ages after 5 years? Average age of 36 children of the class is 15 years. What is the d 17 : 3 e None of these The ratio of Ritas age to the age of her mother is 3 : The average age of all the 48 children together?

What will be the ratio of d Two years ago the ratio of the ages of Swati and Khyati was a 1 : 2 b 1 : 3 c 3 : 7 5 : 7 respectively. Two years hence the ratio of their ages will d 2 : 5 e None of these be 7 : 9 respectively. What is the present age of Khyati? What is his present age? The age of a man is 4 times that of his son. What is the a 30 yrs b 40 yrs c 50 yrs present age of the man?

The age of a man is three times the sum of the ages of his d 42 yrs e None of these two sons. Five years hence, his age will be double of the 7. After 5 yrs, the age of a father will be thrice the age of his sum of the ages of his sons. The father's present age is son, whereas five years ago, he was 7 times as old as his son a 40 years b 45 years c 50 years was. What are their present ages? The ratio between the present ages of P and Q is 3 : 4 d 60 yrs e None of these respectively. Four years hence Q will be 5 years older than P. What is Ps present age? After 10 yrs, the mother will be two times older than the daughter.

What is the present age of Sita? Present ages of Rama and Shyama are in the ratio of 4 : 5 The sum of the ages of 5 children born at the intervals of 3 respectively. Five years hence the ratio of their ages be- years each is 50 years. What is the age of the youngest comes 5 : 6 respectively. What is Ramas present age? In a family, a couple has a son and daughter. The age of the father is three times that of his daughter and the age of the If 6 years are subtracted from the present age of Gagan and son is half of his mother. The wife is nine years younger to the remainder is divided by 18, then the present age of his her husband and the brother is seven years older than his grandson Anup is obtained.

If Anup is 2 years younger to sister. What is the age of the mother? Madan whose age is 5 years, then what is Gagans present a 40 years b 45 years c 50 years age? Rams present age is three times his sons present age and d 96 years e years two-fifth of his fathers present age. The average of the The ratio between the school ages of Neelam and Shaan is present ages of all of them is 46 years. What is the differ- 5 : 6 respectively. If the ratio between the one-third age of ence between the Rams sons present age and Rams fathers present age?

Neelam and half of Shaans age is 5 : 9, then what is the school age of Shaan? Abhays age after six years will be three-seventh of his c Cannot be determined fathers age. Ten years ago, the ratio of their ages was 1 : 5. A is two years older than his son. In two years, his age will The present ages of three persons are in proportions be twice the age of his son. The present age of the son is: 4 : 7 : 9. Eight years ago, the sum of their ages was Eighteen years ago, a father was three times as old as his Tanyas grandfather was 8 times older to her 16 years ago.

Now the father is only twice as old as his son. Then the He would be 3 times of her age 8 years from now. Eight years sum of the present ages of the son and the father is: ago, what was the ratio of Tanyas age to that of her grand- a 54 b 72 c father? One year ago, Preeti was four times as old as her daughter d 11 : 53 e None of these Sonal. Six years hence, Preetis age will exceed her daughters Q is as much younger than R as he is older than T. If the sum age by 9 years. The ratio of the present ages of Preeti and of the ages of R and T is 50 years, what is definitely the her daughter is : difference between R and Qs age?

The sum of the ages of a father and his son is 45 years. Five The present age of the father and the son are in the ratio of years ago, the product of their ages is Find the present After 12 years the ratio of their ages will be What is age of father. Marks : 20 No. Find log 5 3 5. Simplify : d 2 e None of these. What is the value of What is the value of [log10 5log10 ]2 What is the value of log 0. What is the value of d 2 e None of these. Perimeter of a rectangle is 40 cms and the length and the a 0 b 1 c 2 breadth are in the ratio of 3 : 2 respectively.

What is the d 4 e None of these area of rectangle in square square cm? A club has members. Two-thirds of them are men and a 72 b 98 c 84 the rest are women. All members are married except for 9 d 96 e None of these women members. How many married women are there in the club? In a class there are 18 boys who are over cm tall. Ganeshis monthly income is twice Jassis monthly income. If Sukhvinders annual in- the class, then what is the number of girls in the class?

A railway half-ticket costs half the full fare. But the reser- e None of these vation charge on the half-ticket is the same as that on full 6. In a class of 30 students and 2 teachers, each student got ticket. What is the reserva- of students. How many sweets were there? Krishna has some hens and some goats. If the total number What is the total fare paid by 3 per- sons travelling by bus and 4 persons travelling by train be- c 36 d Cannot be determined tween the two places?

Which is the larger num- Two bus tickets from city A to B and three tickets from ber? What are the fares for cities B and C from A? The difference between a two-digit number and the number I have a few sweets to be distributed. If I keep 2, 3 or 4 in a obtained by interchanging the two digits of the number is pack, I am left with one sweet.

If I keep 5 in a pack, I am left with none. What is the minimum number of sweets I have 9. What is the difference between the two digits of the to pack and distribute? A player holds 13 cards of four suits, of which seven are black and six are red. There are twice as many diamonds as e None of these spades and twice as many hearts as diamonds.

How many If the clubs does he hold? The total a b number of family members is c d Cannot be determined a 3 b 7 c 10 d 12 e None of these e None of these. Give answer b if x y II. If all the fractions , , , , , and are arranged a b c d e 5 8 11 9 7 7 12 2 14 9 4 3 in the descending order of their values, which one will be 9 3 6 4 7 the third? Out of the fractions , , , and which is the 31 17 23 11 25 1 4 5 largest?

The value of which of the following fractions is less than 3 4 6 8 7 twenty per cent? Out of the fractions , , , and , which is the sec- 7 9 11 13 15 5 2 2 1 2 ond highest fraction? Out of the fractions , , , and what is the sum of the a b c d 5 9 7 3 8 7 9 11 15 largest and smallest fractions? If the fractions , , , and are arranged in ascend- a 2 b 1 c 1 d 2 5 8 25 5 16 7 5 7 9 e None of these ing order of their values, which one will be the second?

Out of the fractions , , , and what is the differ- 5 25 16 5 8 9 11 7 4 5 ence between the largest and smallest fractions? Out of the fractions , , , and which is the 2 1 3 4 11 23 29 7 13 a b c d third lowest fraction? Out of the fractions , , , and which is the third 4 2 9 6 5 12 13 7 15 14 If the fractions , , , and are arranged in ascend- highest? Out of the fractions , , and which is the sec- 7 9 15 Which of the following set of fractions has the fractions in ond highest fraction?

Find out the missing figures denoted by stars in the If the fractions , , , , , and are arranged in following equations, the fractions being given in their lowest 3 7 6 8 11 7 5 terms: ascending order of their values, which fraction will be the fifth? Which set of fractions is in descending order? Expres the followng recurring decimals into vulgar decimals. Which of the following responses has the fractions in as- Express the following as vulgar fractions. If the fractions , , , and are arranged in descend- 9 7 8 13 11 Find If the fractions , , , and are arranged in ascend- 11 9 6 5 3 a 8.

What is 27 1. Which of the following has the fractions in ascending or- a Which one is the largest among the following? Which of the following has the fractions in descending Which one of the following is correct? Marks : 25 No. If two marbles are drawn at random, what is the probability 6. If four caps are picked at random, what is the probability that both are red? If three marbles are picked at random, what is the probability 7. If three caps are picked at random, what is the probability that at least one is blue? If three marbles are picked at random, what is the probability 8. If one cap is picked at random, what is the probability that it that either all are green or all are red?

A basket contains three blue and four red balls. If three balls 9. If two caps are picked at random, what is the probability that are drawn at random from the basket, what is the probability at least one is red? An urn contains 3 red and 4 green marbles. If two caps are picked at random, what is the probability that d e None of these both are blue? GRID 6. Two packs of cards are thoroughly mixed and shuffled and There are 4 boys and 4 girls. They sit in a row randomly. What is What is the chance that all the girls do not sit together?

What ways randomly. What is the chance that the vowels occupy is the percentage probability that he will fail in Mathematics? When three coins are tossed together, the probability that 1 all coins have the same face up, is d e None of these 37 1 1 1 A committee of 4 is to be formed from among 4 girls and a b c 3 6 8 5 boys. What is the probability that the committee will have number of boys less than number of girls? Three students are picked at random from a school having a total of students.

The probability that these three 1 d e None of these students will have identical date and month of their birth, is 7 A box contains 4 black balls, 3 red balls and 5 green balls. What is the a b c 2 probability that both the balls are of the same colour? Ten identical particles are moving randomly inside a closed d e None of these box. What is the probability that at any given point of time 11 all the ten particles will be lying in the same half of the box? In a box carrying one dozen of oranges, one-third have become bad. If 3 oranges are taken out from the box at random, what 1 1 2 is the probability that at least one orange out of the three a b c 2 5 9 oranges picked up is good?

What is the probability that 55 their product is odd? A box contains 5 green, 4 yellow and 3 white marbles. Each of the 3 persons is to be given some identical items 13 41 13 such that product of the numbers of items received by each a b c 44 44 55 of the three persons is equal to In how many maximum different ways can this distribution be done? Out of 15 students studying in a class, 7 are from Maharashtra, I started IF again this week, , because i have been having a harder time losing a few lbs and also just feeling sluggish and feeling always hungry or constantly snacking, since I just got my Masters, looking for jobs and spend a lot of time at home, also recently quit smoking 3 months ago.

So these past 3 days of me doing IF, also walking a lot, I have dropped 3 lbs, and I feel so much better, a lot more alert, my skin cleared up, which was something I experienced last summer, my skin had never looked so good , my stomach feels so much nicer when I wake up, I feel calmer and happier! I also think that trick is to lower the amount of carbs you are consuming, make sure you eat lots of greens, and get enough potassium, also maybe if you have hard time sleeping, eat your last meal closer to bedtime and make sure its filling.

I have actually been sleeping more after doing that. Anyia, Those are great results! I love this, as you are so young and off to such a great start in life, and no doubt, will inspire and help others as you go. Spring is a great time of year to get back on track! Best to you! I am a 47yo female. It made a huge difference once I was no longer carb-fueled. Women probably had more access to the nuts, berries, plants, roots, marrow, broths, etc.

Makes sense to me, although I think women did make long trips to known locations of food. Keep in mind that Grokina and Grok had limited means of carrying food home. You can hang a dead eland on a pole and two guys can carry it. What if you find some nice berries on the way to a melon patch. It makes sense that you eat them some. But if you are tracking an animal, you keep moving, maybe all day, or for several days. They brought along foods like pemmican, jerky, and anything else that could be stored and easily munched. Some would eat the liver raw, others might start a fire to cook the heart, kidneys, and sweetbreads.

Organ meat, being the most nutritious, was the boon of hunters. You can see in wild animals that hunt today that the organs are still the most prized and first eaten. Living with food insecurity as a child, I saw my own mother often fast so that I could eat. It is really hard to say how it would have been back in the Paleo era, but I would imagine that women would not only have foraged for berries, nuts, roots and small animals closer to camp… they may have also done it packing an infant on their back and dragging a toddler along behind.

My sister bow hunts for deer. She always gets her first shot and drops a buck where he stands. She can carry it out of the woods after she field dresses it. She is amazing. She has an IQ of She uses herbs for healing. She knows where to forage for them even in the city. She would have packed her child on her back as she hunted and protected them with her life.

At age 50 she can out lift and out work most men half her age. She looks 20 years younger. I also find it hard to say what would have been, but I believe there were woman with her same independant spirit. What this difference points to is that in times of starvation, Females generally have a reduced ability to conceive.

It makes perfect sense, since a pregnancy will leave the mother very weak if she cannot get enough food. Could miscarry or not have enough energy for delivery, or not be able to breast feed after, all these things killing the women and children of women whose bodies allowed pregnancy during starvation. Well, this is something I do know something about! It has to do with the very different costs of reproduction for men and women. A fullterm pregnancy costs around 78, calories, and milk production costs Lactating for four years the average for hunter-gatherer societies and chimpanzees , plus the pregnancy, costs around 1 million calories.

Add to this the costs of the supplemental foods gathered and prepared by the mother, and the costs of carrying the infant. Forager women do most of the provisioning of their children. All this adds up to a very powerful selective pressure toward women being highly efficient at extracting calories and storing them as body fat, possibly explaining why women carry just under twice as much fat as men of the same ethnicity, height, and weight.

As to activity, women in foraging societies engage in sustained, calorically-expensive activities. They dig up tubers, pound nuts, scrape meat off bones and connective tissue on hides. A forager woman may walk several miles, several days a week, carrying a four-year old on one hip, a baby in the belly, and a kaross with 30lb or more of underground storage organs, plus digging sticks and a skin of water. This is very different from the kind of energy expended by men, whose hunting or honeying expeditions may occur only a couple of times a month, and that require walking followed by explosive bursts of energy.

Grok often came home empty-handed, and sated his hunger with the tubers roasted by his mate or his mother, perhaps with a relish of berries and lizards pounded together, or a dish of stew of tender leaves and rabbit, maybe with some wild grass seeds to thicken it up. Early male anthropologists were very into the hunting aspect, especially of big game. I was not aware that breastfeeding burned that many calories. Now I know why my body ended up eating my muscles. I ended up about 20 lbs below my healthy weight. I cannot imagine having to do that without a grocery store nearby. I gotta say, this kinda freaks me out.

I do one meal a day dinner which, for me is very satisfying because I enjoy eating large quantities and this allows me to do that without fretting that I am taking in too many calories. Am I hungry during the day? Sometimes I am. But I hold out for my nightly feast. I am extremely active and lean but muscular. I have not had my period for about 3 years, but this was the case long before I started IF, when I was diligently eating every few hours.

Could I be doing serious damage? Are you eating enough calories? Hi Michele. I would ask about calories and your weight status, too. It sounds like you are possibly running in an energy deficit— one of the most prevalent causes of amenorrhea. Lots of exercise, low body fat, low caloric intake, possibly fasting, and possibly low carbohydrate intake are all culprits. As well as high stress. Menstruating is not necessary for health, but it IS necessary for fertility, as well as for having a healthy sex drive.

Additionally, I would bet that you possibly have low estrogen levels, which is a concern for bone strength and the formation of osteopenia. Low estrogen, and low levels of pituitary hormones LH and FSH are the key markers for hypothalamic amenorrhea, if you do decide to get tested. I am small but muscular. I honestly have no idea even ballpark how many calories I am taking in but I am always quite full when I finish eating.

I am also on birth control but had been on it for several years before my period stopped. I also just got off crutches for a stress fracture in my hip which makes me think you could be right regarding my bone strength. What should I be doing? I know a ton of other women like me, so making a blanket statement like this about what is healthy for women just seems absurd in the face of reality….

Really Michelle who cares about your being a fitness model? It can be. Not menstruating in itself is okay for health, but it DOES mean that your hormones are out of their desired balance. It also might mean that your adrenals are working overtime, which is why you are both losing weight and feeling really good. The best well known health risk of amenorrhea comes from having low estrogen levels, which leads to osteoporosis. Also, with amenorrhea, the uterine lining continues to thicken, such that endometriosis and endometrial cancer can become real concerns over the long term.

Hormonal imbalance can also lead to insomnia, anxiety, and mental health problems down the road— but that depends on how much they are dysregulated and for how long. It varies by individual, so I am not trying to encourage you to act one way or another. Just laying out for you what some of the common amenorrheic complications are. Hi ladies, I had just recently had my blood tests done for the same reason, no period since August last year. Stefani, is there any other way how to raise my estrogen?

Should I stop with IF? Thank you. Usually it seems to be the chronic caloric deficit rather than level of body fat that is the problem. Leigh Peele also says she sees it more in people who do lots of intense full-body workouts vs split routines. What you do now is impacting your future. I just wanted to add my two cents to the menstration conversation. I had lost my period on and off and than completely for close to a year. More holistic, looking at all parts of the body and mind as interconnected who did blood work and a saliva test and confirmed I was dreadfully low in testosterone, really high in estrogen no periods, no where for the estrogen to go.

Cortisol was shot and I was suffering from severe adrenal fatigue. In my case my body was pulling from everywhere, eventually my testosterone… Trying to find help in dealing with day to day stresses. Bottom line, irregular periods are a sign in my opinion that your body is not functioning at optimum health.

Address the causes, not just the issue with BC … P. S cycle is now regular every 30 days! Do you continue to IF? She could be menopausal pre- or not. This is a part of nature. Our hormones change because they are supposed to. Also, there is a correlation between eating meat and dairy and lack of bone density. Look it up. Hope you feel better soon. But, here is the thing, I have fat to burn.

The body will then burn protein, yikes, that is true starvation. Is that going to prevent her from being fully fat-adapted? Any other ideas? You never know, right? Then you might know whether or not the fasting works for her. Perhaps she is one of the women who responds poorly to fasting, and instead of losing weight actually ends up with a body that responds by storing weight.

I am a 46 year old woman. Lost my cycle Dec and have been on a weight lose plateau for just as long. I decided to IF BulletProof style all last week and dropped 7. I also got my cycle back. Go figure. With a compromised gut I am unable to produce enzymes to digest food and make nutrients available for absorbtion so I need to eat 4 meals a day. Eating very low carb and fasting made me an insomniac for the first time in my life and caused gobs of hair to fall out.

I think the prior symptoms have to do with increased cortisol. I started Primal with a low carb and occasional fasting regiment and it was not pretty. I upped my carbs and stopped fasting, and immediately things got better. Waking up at 3 a. WAY too sensitive to light and noise as if I were hung-over! No more morning hang-overs, no aches and pain, actually started some weight loss again! So, like so many of these health things— you have to SELF-educate not necessarily self-medicate — but absolutely educate! Oh, the 3 a. Your body runs out of energy, and so your poor tired adrenals whack you with some adrenaline, which wakes you up.

I was just too lazy to explain it all. I would agree. I spend a lot of time researching and talking with women who are not overweight and have PCOS. So far as I can tell from talking this over with women, the best solution is to eat a paleo, low-insulin, anti-inflammatory diet while simultaneously keeping psychological and metabolic stressors to a minimum. Hey Stefani, I first read about this on your blog and was surprised when I saw it here today! Being tested for candida too. Any guidance would be appreciated! And your blog is so informative!

Yup, me too. My cycle regulated during that time though and I felt great. This is lowering insulin and keeping my cycle normal and the weight continues to drop! And no more hair falling out :. I thought I was doing alternate-day-fasting, but as your series progressed, I realized I was doing it incorrectly.

Basically, I skipped breakfast and lunch every other day or ever 2 days, for several hour fasts each week. I did it for about a month and lost 5 pounds. I am one of your rare readers who did not experience weight loss when I went Primal alone. I still needed to restrict calories, apparently. I also had a few situations where I overate when I got the chance to eat, which also made me feel really bad. All in all, a successful experiment but I probably will not fast this way again. If I skip breakfast I sometimes find myself over eating at lunch and I then find myself craving something sweet..

But if I eat 3 meals a day for too many days in a row, my weight either maintains, or climbs pounds…so I have to switch it up. Very frustrating, because I can not lose on Primal, but it does help me maintain. First, yes! I had been using compete. My enormous apologies in that regard. I take intellectual honesty more seriously than perhaps anything else, so it means the world to me to apologize to you and convey to you that that was a mistake. And trust me, those low-ball numbers did nothing for my message, either.

It would have made my message more powerful to cover the true vast expanse of your readership. I wanted to demonstrate to whoever read the blogpost just how popular and somewhat gender-skewed fasting literature has become. The surest way to do so was to point to your work and to your readership. Which I love, which I love so dearly, and for which I am so grateful. Third, I cannot say enough how much of a happy but not surprised relief to find us on the same side.

My work at my blog in no way has rabble rousing as its primary end. In all cases, my goal is health. Real, true, holistic health, for everybody. I write specifically for women because I believe there are needs that women have— over and above the simple fact of having ovaries— that are not necessarily flushed out as well as they could be by the general paleo world as it has unfolded so far. This includes reproductive fitness and how to achieve hormonal balance as well as the nuanced difficulties of female fat loss, and also, importantly, the unique relationship that women have with food and with their bodies.

Sometimes I speak plainly on the science, but sometimes the science requires a louder voice than usual to be heard or to make a difference in the world. All that said, I agree, too, that fasting has enormous benefits for cancer and other diseases of civilization, and I do encourage people to undertake fasting as they see fit.

It is only, as we both agree, that knowledge and awareness are nothing but power. And just to clarify — a lot of people say they feel more energetic while fasting — I do too. And the body steals the building bLocks of progesterone and estrogen to do it. Not good! Lex, the cortisol thing is not so much a problem when you are fat-adapted. I beg to differ.

I did a very low carb diet — about 30 to 40 carbs or less a day while not eating any sugar for months — for a while not a tad. Also, when I started sprinting and weight lifting while eating this way I had insomnia. I could not figure out why I woke up after 3 or 4 hours until I understood I must have low cortisol. The body relies on that when blood sugar levels go low. I went for decades where my cortisol was high at night and low in morning and all the way up until the mid-afternoon. And, yes, I went to an actual medical professional and had actual tests done which actually proved that was what was happening..

Which, too much protein screws up your hormone levels and not having enough potassium from your non-starchy vegetable sources will screw them up, too — making it where you crave carbs and cannot sleep. Or, they may have been the wrong carbs. There is a LOT to be taken into consideration. It means that if a woman eats the portions recommended for a man, she is less likely to lose weight. And, women are more likely to need vegetables and less likely to need giant amounts of protein.

Even an individual person can fluctuate on their needs. Maybe one day you need lots of vegetables and no other protein and another day you need 6 oz. These things happen. How did that go? Thank you, Lex, Mark. There is another issue for women at stake in this compared to men, in my opinion. While this feels great and I myself really enjoy using it, it is in fact a real evolutionary adaptation built in to prevent starvation. The female body but not the male body increases hippocampal activity in response to fasting conditions.

For this reason other effects include insomnia and potential anxiety, depending on the degree of the starved state detected. Not necessarily a good thing for us in the modern world. Best Stefani. Thanks for responding, Stefani. I think this is such an important thing to get the word out about. In these comments and in the forums you see all these women saying, but I feel amazing! How long will it take for your thyroid to get so jacked up you start losing tons of hair. I am wondering when you are speaking of these reactions to IF for women how long are the fasting states?

Kudos to you Mark. The best teachers I know, are open minded, continue to learn and know… the more they know, the more there is to know. Great article. For the sake of candor, I have fasted regularly since adolescence. I am 53 post menopausal and so healthy, it frightens me at times! The only times I ever missed a period was due to pregnancy. I have two children, 22 and almost 20; they were unplanned.

They were full term and the labor for first was 1. Upon entering menopause, even eating primal and exercising I gained a lot of weight, as I did with my pregnancies. I have just completed a 21 day water fast and have never felt better. I now weigh about on my way back to or so. I must say that I disagree with Stefani although I appreciate the efforts. As modern humans, male and female, I am convinced that we are adapted for fasting. We simply did not have food all the time. The only way across species the we have determined of prolonging life and maintaining health is through calorie restriction.

Fasting appears to turn on the Sirtunin genes which prolongs life in males and females. This notion of excessive individuality is an indulgence. Of course we are different. Yet I submit that we are more alike that different. As groups of hunter-gatherers we probably ate pretty much the same according to the particular environment. I would not suggest any degree of fasting while pregnant or nursing. Otherwise there were times we all fasted. Perhaps the hyper-attention was yet another gift bestowed by Nature on females to allow them to feed their children. Karen, sure, women in a particular group of hunter-gatherers would all eat much the same food.

Children male and female whose genetic makeup was less efficient for that particular diet would be more likely to die around weaning. Girls would take longer to reach puberty, have fewer children, and their children would be less healthy. This effect of individual variability can be seen in non-human primates.

Not all chimpanzee females thrive on the diet they all — with minor variations -eat. Not all have the same level of reproductive success. Male chimpanzees are not all equally big and strong; some are runty. An indulgence? I am wondering, when you say you fasted regularly since adolescence, what that means? I mean.. That sort of thing. Please tell us more. Or, do you have some sort of blog related to such experiences? Since becoming fat adapted I am less hungry in general.

I eat WHEN and that usually ends up being a heckuva scramble and coffee or tea mid-day, a couple of snacks handful of nuts, berries, or meat, or even a paleo-ized baked good I whipped up for the kids- gotta taste test ya know! We recently went through a move, and during that time I was succumbing to convenience of carbs. I ate more and more often, slept less, and felt crappy. I was relieved to gety kitchen in order and resume my regular eating routine.

I was able to do a 24 hour fast once a week when I was in my weight-losing phase. I attempted fast-5 style fasting and it totally made me crazy, obsessive, unhappy and hungry. I actually feel that it has helped my postpartum body recoup faster than it did with my son. Much like KM wrote, I usually feel better on fasting days then on days where I am eating regularly.

I also used to suffer from hypoglycemia and fasting was absolutely not an option, as my body would shut down under emergency mode, and I would be physically unable to move for almost an hour while someone shoved crackers and juice in my mouth to get me back on my feet. Mark, I found this article very interesting and informative. I was that close to my pre-pregnancy weight when the allergies hit. I do well on primal—feel better, more energy, etc.

Kind of stabilized—whether I do primal or not now. In the past, that was enough to keep me fit and trim. Not now…. Not sure what all is working against me: sedentary job, pre-menopause, thyroid, previous prednisone weight gain and whatever really causes that—effect on thyroid, etc. Off the IF topic, but I wanted to reply… Theresa, I have found that adding a little bit of high-energy movement every the day helps a lot. I have been adding just a little more movement to each day, lately.

Swimming a half hour a couple times a week. Hula-hooping for 10 minutes a few times a week. Jumping rope every once in a while for 5 minutes. It is still an effort for me to remember to do it, but the fun factor convinces me. Maybe you like music and could get up and really dance out to a good song? As a woman on the other side of 50, I consider myself doing the IF when I put off breakfast until I find it too over-welming to think about fasting for extended periods of time which for me would be anything over 12 hours.

I also have a teenage daughter that I am trying to model good eating habits for. That being said, I have tried IF…fasting until around AM and have had no problems with it at all. I have fasted with no problems. One of my issues is getting cold when fasting. Only happens once I hit the 12 hour mark. I think eating sugar as part of my last meal ie fruit, honey, maple syrup and sugar is what is doing it. I am 28 fem and I started a 24 hour intermittent fast eat at dinner time around 3 weeks ago. I have had no problems with it. Occasionally I feel hungry, if I drink some water it tends to go away.

If I do get actually hungry, I will eat during the day. And on my nature hikes on the weekend, I break my fast with bacon and eggs before going, to make sure I have fuel for the exercise. I think IF is great though my family hates me doing it and it has helped me lose weight. WHEN always applies! Weird that your family hates on you for doing it, mine does too. I have been intermittent fasting since October My pattern is typically a hour fast and then two large meals with the occasional snack. I have been a low-carber for more than a decade so I am definitely fat-adapted.

In the same time period as I have been fasting I also have been in the final leg of recovering from adrenal fatigue. My doctor is aware of my low-carb and fasting status and is fine with it. In fact my most recent salivary cortisol was the best it has been in nearly four years.

Fasting was never something I forced my body to do, it happened naturally and has been a great way to effortlessly maintain my weight and enjoy great food! Oh and I also get very comprehensive lab work done every six months or so. Had to chuckle when I read this. No fasting for me — too stressful on my system. I personally have experienced good weight loss results with IF every once in a while after a weekend of indulgence or too much straying off the blueprint, but the successes were generally very modest ones. My husband, however, has great results with IF. No strength, no muscle recovery in between sets — I much prefer to be fed.

I have so much better results! I never did well working out fasted either. My workouts were lame when fasted. I recently said I could not work out fasted. I can do them but I tend to want to eat everything in the fridge for a couple hours after each meal for several days afterwards and that is just torture so I stopped fasting.

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The only thing I had to do differently was lower the intensity of the cardio I do for the 2nd half of my workout. Oh my gosh this works awesome for me. I eat dinner anywhere from pm the night before.

Wake up and have black tea and head to the gym. This allows me to have possibly hour fasts and the workouts at the end help me get the HGH benefit. I would have never believed that fasting can come naturally without forcing yourself to NOT eat. I skipped eating for one whole day. Getting over carbs was also interesting.

I ate oatmeal with flaxseed for breakfast for over 3 years, so switching to eggs and bacon was wierd. I felt like I was cheating on a diet or something. Into weight training, parkour, and general athletics. I tend to, like Mark, use IF as a tool. Probably once or twice a month. I tend to scale down my workouts but honestly I have plenty of energy. I think she would agree that skipping bad meals is a pretty good call. Thanks for this insightful post Mark!

I believe that is considered a fast? Would like to lose 10 pounds, hope this short fasting will help, besides doing more exercise. My temps still are always well below I find the latter is dependent on hormones. But nowadays it really is pretty much effortless. I usually start the day with a coffee and cream yum , then eat when hungry, about lunch time. Then cook for the family.

I feel liberated from calories routine and guilt, and the kilos are slowly coming away. My PCOS symptoms are gone along with a whole host of other things. My sleep is a bit ordinary at the moment, but I have been a bit addicted to my iPad at the moment, so am going to switch to knitting by the fire in the evenings to improve that. If I know my day is going to be hectic, I will have eggs for breakfast, to fuel the day. But if the day turns out pear shaped, then like Mark, I simply wait until I can eat. No sugar crashes, no hunger. Some days though I need to eat, so I do.

It did not go well for me. I was constantly hungry even though being low carb high fat. I gained a bit a weight or stalled completely. With three young children I have plenty of stressors. Now, that said, when circumstances call for it, I can go much longer between meals if I have to. Being fat-adapted has been great for me that way. Thanks for the post, Mark. After starting mostly eating in a mostly 11 am to pm window, I am getting fabulous results. Fat melting off and twice as much energy. I think IF is essential for guys after becoming fat adapted, which is also essential.

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But it is wonderful to see some thought about how women differ. Too little of that in medical research. I have to agree that complete fasting has never worked well for me. I have dropped double digit body fat percentage by doing this and nothing else had even caused a budge in months. Yes, that is a great way to practice IF for many people. Others i know prefer to eat lots at night and eat little or nothing in the morning hours.

Both work. I am glad to hear this! I can naturally IF as long as I allow myself to eat heavy at night. I have trouble shaking the notion that you have to eat your biggest meal in the morning. Maybe my natural window of eating is 1pm to 9pm. Reading these posts just makes it even more clear there are differences even amoung individuals. We are each so different in how our bodies handles IF. I tend to go a day without food — or IF after a big food day as a result of a large family gathering or Sunday football or whatever- basically a cheat day.

Honestly, I am not hungry the next day and IF just makes sense for me. It also gets me right back on track with my diet and weight. Sometimes IF helps you re-adjust your stomach capacity and get it to a more reasonable volume. Eat when your hungry. Enter IF. I start the day with coconut oil and have a good protein lunch around noon. I could lose pounds yet but everything stopped at menopause. I never experienced any side effects. I usually let go of exercise completely during fasting because my sugar level drops too low. I had no idea what a fast would do to my already taxed body.

The Catholic church does abrogate children, pregnant moms, nursing moms, and the elderly from participating in a fast. I think it is important to know what will happen or has the potential to happen to a woman who chooses to fast. We are not the same. After quite a bit of experimenting, I find that what works best for me, a female, is a light breakfast, a light lunch, and having my main meal unfashionably early in the evening, say p. As an update, after happening across this earlier post, I now almost 6 yrs later do IF pretty much daily from an early dinner until close to noon the following day.

It seems to be what my body prefers. It does work best for me when I am totally random. I am fat-adapted and always do my workouts first thing in the morning in a fasted state. Most of all though I just try to pay attention and eat when I am actually hungry. I will say that it is is much easier in the winter time, when I generally am less active and sleeping more. In the summer time I barely fast maybe 14 hours a couple times a week since I am a lot more active.

The best scenario for me is just a shortened eating window — maybe from am until pm or so. Ditto the question. I am a 46 year old woman, 8 years of perimenopause. What works for me one month is no guarantee it will work the next month. I have done the IF. In fact I would prefer to skip breakfast altogether, but when I do my body puts weight on. I have to shake it up. Go some days with IF and other days force myself to eat breakfast, even though I am not hungry.

I can eat mushrooms for days in a row then sudden start gaining weight and have to drop them from my eating plan. Frankly, I am convinced it all has to do with hormones and how erratic they are in this time of my life, but it sure makes it hard to feel healthy when there is so much inconsistency with weight.

Thanks Mark and I hope to see more! You may find some other women going through the change with advice or at least sympathy for you! Hey Brick! I tried AD fasting for four weeks. At first it seemed really promising. I lost six pounds in the first week and a half. But I was tired and spacey on the fast days, and when my weight stayed the same for the rest of the month, I returned to normal eating.

Four of the six pounds returned almost immediately, which makes me think some of my weight loss was water. I found this creepy. Adopting IF made no difference, and quite possibly improved the situation. My periods are perfectly regular. I also never have weight issues while eating my optimal primal diet and doing IF and have absolutely no issues with energy. But this might just be optimal for me since I always feel great. Occasionally I have noticed feeling a little panicky after not having eaten for too long.

- Fasting As Hormetic Stressor and the Influence of Biological Sex.
- Awakening to the Obvious?
- 9 Reasons You're Not Losing Weight!
- 9 More Reasons You’re Not Losing Weight.
- ckofgiz.tk Ebooks and Manuals.

This is likely due to my body trying to regulate blood sugar with cortisol. The occasions in which this has happened I have eaten and recovered within minutes. I think I may have gone too long without food for my particular body and needs. Another way to mute this panicky feeling besides eating is with intense exercise. Intense exercise can blunt hunger and many of its side effects.

Looks to me like she feels as though her body is asking for nourishment, not more stress. I tried IF for a while, going with a 10 hour eating window. My experience was what Stefani describes. I felt alert and energized. BUT, then I would crash after days and feel my adrenal fatigue symptoms return. My breakfast varies, quite often it is just bacon, blueberries and a handful of walnuts. If i eat a meal composed of a lot of fat plus good carbs, i am satisfied for a long time and can easily skip meals. Primal since April I drop a lot of weight early in my Primal journey.

I leveled off after about 6 months. I found that over the summer last year, IF was doable even though I was changing lots of things in my life. I had to eat more over the winter. Weight however, maintained. Now that summer has returned, my appetite is going away again. So far, no more significant weight loss. I am a 37 year old breast feeding mom of two. IF has been incredibly variable in terms of comfort and efficacy. Most of the time, I would have coffee with cream or butter in the morning and then a late breakfast or early lunch. My husband does very well fasting.

I think the ultimate point is that we need to learn to listen to our bodies, fast when appropriate, and not fast when we are under stress. Of course, that is on average, not absolute! I am a 35 year old woman and have been fasting once a month as a part of my religious practice for over 20 years. Hence, fasting was not a foreign concept. I am new 3 months to the primal lifestyle and have added IF into my routine once or twice a week. I have four children, and am no longer worried about fertility, so that is not a part of the equation for me.

I have had a very positive experience with IF. I feel great during and after. Perhaps this comes from my years of fasting with a religious intention. I have also noticed a huge difference in fasting, now that I am a fat burner. I used to get headaches and obsess about food early in my fasting.

- Table of contents!
- Intermittent Fasting for Women: What We Know Now;
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- Should Women Fast??

I have not had any headaches during or after and I only get hungry at about hour I tried fasting 24 hours once a week last summer for about 2 months, convinced it would be healthy for me. I was 38 yrs old and at a healthy weight at pounds and had been fat adapted for at least 5 years. I felt fine while fasting, plenty energetic, clear headed, up until about the 20th to 22nd hours, when I got low energy and unmotivated. I will never fast again! I suspected there must be gender differences and am happy to have this issue addressed. I am guessing you fasted too long, that is all.

It is not necessary to not eat for that long. Simply skip a meal or two when you are not hungry and that will do the trick. I have similar experiences at about hour 21, so I break my fast then. I am 33 and at a similar weight. Since I am moderately tall and fairly active, I just accept that IF can be part of my life but extended fasting seems beyond what is good for me. I find it too bad as I expect I would experience some much needed improvements in gut inflammation if I extended my fast. And I am fat adapted.

I know guys how have had great results with IF but it has honestly done nothing for me. A long term fast however is a different story. I am a 44 year old female and started IF about 5 weeks ago. I do 3 — 24 hour fasts per week. I have suffered with peri oral dermatitis chronically for the last two years and had tried everything to get rid of it. I had more or less given up any hope of getting rid of it and was reluctantly learning to live with it. I hope that this may help someone else suffering with some sort of skin condition.

I feel extremely clear headed and have steady energy when I do this. Besides the weight loss, it seems like my moods are way more stable, and periods are like clockwork with barely any pms. Could just be improved diet in generally, I have no way to know for sure. Blood work healthy for a non-chemo woman. This round, nr 4, I ate normal pretty Primal , because I thought they wanted to operate first and bad health news concerning my mom made me forget , and OMG, I am totally floored.

My husband says the difference is amazing. I love to eat, fasting does not make me happy or feel good, but this is so remarkable I share it where I can. Hopefully round 5 and 6 will be better, then I really proved something! I am a 34 year old female, and IF everyday. I cycle macros, and have carb refeeds. I love it. I am the leanest I have every been. If my caloric intake drops too low, it will affect my period, regardless of IF. Great reply Kate! In every sense but moneywise , do some laundry, gardening, grocery shopping or whatever needs to be done, then do my workout, then I put the kettle on and I eat my first meal at around Later I eat dinner with my partner when he gets home from work, and then I eat my last meal maybe around pm while watching a movie or serie episode.

But still this gets me a little worried since we very recently started trying for a baby. Do I need to be worried and shall I start forcing food down my throat again in the mornings sure hope not? But what happens if I do get pregnant? Seriously, though although I was being kinda serious! This is also true after the baby is born. Although my weird sensitivities to food went away after our babies were born, my hunger did not and even increased! For me, a year of breast feeding plus eating primal took all the weight off. Thanks a lot for the reply.

Right, but IFing does not perform the same function as vomiting food that was put in the stomach. Women can vomit for a variety of different reasons. So IFing in my case is certainly not the equivalent of losing food I ate, due to hypo-thyroid. I have known other women who were having morning sickness, vomiting, and thyroid was the issue. Incidentally not eating at usual meal times and eating when hungry makes the most sense under healthy circumstances, when pregnant. However, I have had great success with IF in my weight loss endeavors, and I wanted to share that, at least, with you and your readers.

I had lost the weight and was feeling great — but my biggest challenge was and is keeping that weight off. In this instance I am not so different from a great many people reading your blog, I bet. I found IF and have worked it into my lifestyle — and it has allowed me to keep the weight off for over a year. I fast twice per week.

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My husband and I cook 5 nights a week and eat out twice a week. The next day, as long as my body allows me to because I listen to my body first and foremost , I fast. It has worked out beautifully, as I alluded to, for both my mental and physical health. As a woman who is BP fasting, I can now have my cake and ,ahem, eat it too. Check out the bulletproofexec. Thanks Mark for this post, it was very humble of you and just shows how sincere you are in your quest to help people.

I started IF because I still have a significant amount of fat to lose, but my deeply entrenched habit of compulsive, mindless snacking stalled out my weight loss. Forcing myself to go hungry is just a stupid punishment, and counterproductive. So the cheat days which raised a lot of eyebrows turned out to be a useful tool.

Calories do matter in my case, and IF has given me an easy way to restrict calories without having to count them which just triggers a lot of old anger and self-loathing for me. Weight loss has been slow but steady since I started IF. I have been doing IF for a few months now and I have found it to be excellent. I was already primal for a few months and I had made the switch to fat burning beast, and it was very easy. I have had no problems, and great results with fat loss.